Abstract

We present what we believe to be a novel miniaturized sensor configuration based on fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous measurement of curvature and temperature in smart structures and composite materials. Because of the particular geometry of the sensing head, it is possible not only to measure the radius of curvature but also to determine the plane of curvature. We arrange three Bragg gratings in the vertices of the smallest equilateral triangle that can be defined by the cross sections of the fibers. The set is then inserted into a glue-filled capillary stainless-steel tube to provide both suitable protection for the Bragg sensors and rotational symmetry to the sensing head. This tube also ensures isolation from axial strain, allowing for the additional determination of temperature. The proposed sensing head is particularly well suited for applications in smart structures because it can be embedded along any layer of a composite material (including the neutral line) without special concern for the relative orientation of the Bragg gratings and the composite layers. We can also use this sensing configuration to implement more-sophisticated sensors dedicated, for example, to the measurement of multiaxial acceleration or flow and temperature.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. B. Havsgård, K. Pran, S. Knudsen, P. O. Baalerud, G. Wang, S. T. Vohra, M. A. Davis, A. Dandridge, A. E. Jensen, “Composite plate drop test using a 16 channel fibre Bragg grating strain sensor system,” in European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. Jones, eds., Proc. SPIE3483, 195–199 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Friebele, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, A. A. Fosha, J. Florio, R. P. Donti, R. G. Blosser, “Distributed strain sensing with fibre Bragg grating arrays embedded in CRTMTM composites,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1783–1784 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. L. Fuhr, D. R. Huston, P. J. Kajenski, T. P. Ambrose, “Performance and health monitoring of the Stafford medical building using embedded sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 63–68 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “A structurally integrated Bragg grating laser sensing system for a carbon fibre prestressed concrete highway bridge,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 20–30 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. Davis, A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, R. L. Idriss, M. Kodinduma, “Dynamic strain monitoring of an in-use interstate bridge using fiber Bragg grating sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures and Highways,” N. Stubbs, ed., Proc. SPIE3043, 87–95 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. R. Hjelme, L. Bjerkan, S. Neegard, J. S. Rambech, J. V. Aarsnes, “Application of Bragg grating sensors in the characterization of scaled marine vehicle models,” Appl. Opt. 36, 328–336 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Trutzel, D. Betz, M. Holz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H.-F. Siegling, R. Sangkohl, W. Martin, H.-C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert, H. Ahrendt, “Investigation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for applications in the aviation industry,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, H. Hotate, B. Kim, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 624–627 (1999).
  8. S. Magne, S. Rougeault, M. Vilela, P. Ferdinand, “State-of-strain evaluation with fiber Bragg grating rosettes: application to discrimination between strain and temperature effects in fiber sensors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9437–9447 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Ed. B. Culshaw, Smart Structures and Materials (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1996), Chap. 6, pp. 157–184.
  10. Ed. E. Udd, Fibre Optic Smart Structures (Wiley, New York, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 319–360.
  11. M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Thermally-compensated bending gauge using surface-mounted fibre gratings,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 9, 281–289 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Bathia, T. D’Alberto, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996).
  13. M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120–121 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. G. Okhotnikov, F. M. Araújo, J. R. Salcedo, “Wavelength switching in pump diode modulated mode locked and Q-switched Er fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2910–2912 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, J. L. Santos, F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bend measurements with D-type fibre Bragg gratings,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 5–8 (2000).

2000

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “A structurally integrated Bragg grating laser sensing system for a carbon fibre prestressed concrete highway bridge,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 20–30 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Thermally-compensated bending gauge using surface-mounted fibre gratings,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 9, 281–289 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Friebele, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, A. A. Fosha, J. Florio, R. P. Donti, R. G. Blosser, “Distributed strain sensing with fibre Bragg grating arrays embedded in CRTMTM composites,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1783–1784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Okhotnikov, F. M. Araújo, J. R. Salcedo, “Wavelength switching in pump diode modulated mode locked and Q-switched Er fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2910–2912 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. L. Fuhr, D. R. Huston, P. J. Kajenski, T. P. Ambrose, “Performance and health monitoring of the Stafford medical building using embedded sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 63–68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aarsnes, J. V.

Ahrendt, H.

M. Trutzel, D. Betz, M. Holz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H.-F. Siegling, R. Sangkohl, W. Martin, H.-C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert, H. Ahrendt, “Investigation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for applications in the aviation industry,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, H. Hotate, B. Kim, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 624–627 (1999).

Alavie, A. T.

R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “A structurally integrated Bragg grating laser sensing system for a carbon fibre prestressed concrete highway bridge,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 20–30 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ambrose, T. P.

P. L. Fuhr, D. R. Huston, P. J. Kajenski, T. P. Ambrose, “Performance and health monitoring of the Stafford medical building using embedded sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 63–68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, F. M.

O. G. Okhotnikov, F. M. Araújo, J. R. Salcedo, “Wavelength switching in pump diode modulated mode locked and Q-switched Er fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2910–2912 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, J. L. Santos, F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bend measurements with D-type fibre Bragg gratings,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 5–8 (2000).

Archambault, J.-L.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Thermally-compensated bending gauge using surface-mounted fibre gratings,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 9, 281–289 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

E. Friebele, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, A. A. Fosha, J. Florio, R. P. Donti, R. G. Blosser, “Distributed strain sensing with fibre Bragg grating arrays embedded in CRTMTM composites,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1783–1784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baalerud, P. O.

G. B. Havsgård, K. Pran, S. Knudsen, P. O. Baalerud, G. Wang, S. T. Vohra, M. A. Davis, A. Dandridge, A. E. Jensen, “Composite plate drop test using a 16 channel fibre Bragg grating strain sensor system,” in European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. Jones, eds., Proc. SPIE3483, 195–199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bathia, V.

V. Bathia, T. D’Alberto, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996).

Bennion, I.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berkoff, T. A.

M. A. Davis, A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, R. L. Idriss, M. Kodinduma, “Dynamic strain monitoring of an in-use interstate bridge using fiber Bragg grating sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures and Highways,” N. Stubbs, ed., Proc. SPIE3043, 87–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Betz, D.

M. Trutzel, D. Betz, M. Holz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H.-F. Siegling, R. Sangkohl, W. Martin, H.-C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert, H. Ahrendt, “Investigation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for applications in the aviation industry,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, H. Hotate, B. Kim, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 624–627 (1999).

Bjerkan, L.

Blanchard, P. M.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blosser, R. G.

E. Friebele, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, A. A. Fosha, J. Florio, R. P. Donti, R. G. Blosser, “Distributed strain sensing with fibre Bragg grating arrays embedded in CRTMTM composites,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1783–1784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, J. G.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

V. Bathia, T. D’Alberto, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996).

D’Alberto, T.

V. Bathia, T. D’Alberto, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996).

Dakin, J. P.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Thermally-compensated bending gauge using surface-mounted fibre gratings,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 9, 281–289 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

G. B. Havsgård, K. Pran, S. Knudsen, P. O. Baalerud, G. Wang, S. T. Vohra, M. A. Davis, A. Dandridge, A. E. Jensen, “Composite plate drop test using a 16 channel fibre Bragg grating strain sensor system,” in European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. Jones, eds., Proc. SPIE3483, 195–199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

G. B. Havsgård, K. Pran, S. Knudsen, P. O. Baalerud, G. Wang, S. T. Vohra, M. A. Davis, A. Dandridge, A. E. Jensen, “Composite plate drop test using a 16 channel fibre Bragg grating strain sensor system,” in European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. Jones, eds., Proc. SPIE3483, 195–199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Davis, A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, R. L. Idriss, M. Kodinduma, “Dynamic strain monitoring of an in-use interstate bridge using fiber Bragg grating sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures and Highways,” N. Stubbs, ed., Proc. SPIE3043, 87–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Donti, R. P.

E. Friebele, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, A. A. Fosha, J. Florio, R. P. Donti, R. G. Blosser, “Distributed strain sensing with fibre Bragg grating arrays embedded in CRTMTM composites,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1783–1784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, J. L. Santos, F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bend measurements with D-type fibre Bragg gratings,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 5–8 (2000).

Ferdinand, P.

Ferreira, L. A.

L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, J. L. Santos, F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bend measurements with D-type fibre Bragg gratings,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 5–8 (2000).

Florio, J.

E. Friebele, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, A. A. Fosha, J. Florio, R. P. Donti, R. G. Blosser, “Distributed strain sensing with fibre Bragg grating arrays embedded in CRTMTM composites,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1783–1784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fosha, A. A.

E. Friebele, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, A. A. Fosha, J. Florio, R. P. Donti, R. G. Blosser, “Distributed strain sensing with fibre Bragg grating arrays embedded in CRTMTM composites,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1783–1784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E.

E. Friebele, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, A. A. Fosha, J. Florio, R. P. Donti, R. G. Blosser, “Distributed strain sensing with fibre Bragg grating arrays embedded in CRTMTM composites,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1783–1784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fuhr, P. L.

P. L. Fuhr, D. R. Huston, P. J. Kajenski, T. P. Ambrose, “Performance and health monitoring of the Stafford medical building using embedded sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 63–68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gander, M. J.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greenaway, A. H.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Havsgård, G. B.

G. B. Havsgård, K. Pran, S. Knudsen, P. O. Baalerud, G. Wang, S. T. Vohra, M. A. Davis, A. Dandridge, A. E. Jensen, “Composite plate drop test using a 16 channel fibre Bragg grating strain sensor system,” in European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. Jones, eds., Proc. SPIE3483, 195–199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hjelme, D. R.

Holz, M.

M. Trutzel, D. Betz, M. Holz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H.-F. Siegling, R. Sangkohl, W. Martin, H.-C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert, H. Ahrendt, “Investigation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for applications in the aviation industry,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, H. Hotate, B. Kim, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 624–627 (1999).

Huang, S.

R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “A structurally integrated Bragg grating laser sensing system for a carbon fibre prestressed concrete highway bridge,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 20–30 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huston, D. R.

P. L. Fuhr, D. R. Huston, P. J. Kajenski, T. P. Ambrose, “Performance and health monitoring of the Stafford medical building using embedded sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 63–68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Idriss, R. L.

M. A. Davis, A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, R. L. Idriss, M. Kodinduma, “Dynamic strain monitoring of an in-use interstate bridge using fiber Bragg grating sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures and Highways,” N. Stubbs, ed., Proc. SPIE3043, 87–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, A. E.

G. B. Havsgård, K. Pran, S. Knudsen, P. O. Baalerud, G. Wang, S. T. Vohra, M. A. Davis, A. Dandridge, A. E. Jensen, “Composite plate drop test using a 16 channel fibre Bragg grating strain sensor system,” in European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. Jones, eds., Proc. SPIE3483, 195–199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. T.

M. A. Davis, A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, R. L. Idriss, M. Kodinduma, “Dynamic strain monitoring of an in-use interstate bridge using fiber Bragg grating sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures and Highways,” N. Stubbs, ed., Proc. SPIE3043, 87–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kajenski, P. J.

P. L. Fuhr, D. R. Huston, P. J. Kajenski, T. P. Ambrose, “Performance and health monitoring of the Stafford medical building using embedded sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 63–68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Karr, S.

R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “A structurally integrated Bragg grating laser sensing system for a carbon fibre prestressed concrete highway bridge,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 20–30 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

M. A. Davis, A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, R. L. Idriss, M. Kodinduma, “Dynamic strain monitoring of an in-use interstate bridge using fiber Bragg grating sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures and Highways,” N. Stubbs, ed., Proc. SPIE3043, 87–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knudsen, S.

G. B. Havsgård, K. Pran, S. Knudsen, P. O. Baalerud, G. Wang, S. T. Vohra, M. A. Davis, A. Dandridge, A. E. Jensen, “Composite plate drop test using a 16 channel fibre Bragg grating strain sensor system,” in European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. Jones, eds., Proc. SPIE3483, 195–199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kodinduma, M.

M. A. Davis, A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, R. L. Idriss, M. Kodinduma, “Dynamic strain monitoring of an in-use interstate bridge using fiber Bragg grating sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures and Highways,” N. Stubbs, ed., Proc. SPIE3043, 87–95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krumpholz, O.

M. Trutzel, D. Betz, M. Holz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H.-F. Siegling, R. Sangkohl, W. Martin, H.-C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert, H. Ahrendt, “Investigation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for applications in the aviation industry,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, H. Hotate, B. Kim, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 624–627 (1999).

Maaskant, R.

R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “A structurally integrated Bragg grating laser sensing system for a carbon fibre prestressed concrete highway bridge,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 20–30 (1995).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, W. N.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Magne, S.

Martin, W.

M. Trutzel, D. Betz, M. Holz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H.-F. Siegling, R. Sangkohl, W. Martin, H.-C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert, H. Ahrendt, “Investigation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for applications in the aviation industry,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, H. Hotate, B. Kim, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 624–627 (1999).

McBride, R.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “A structurally integrated Bragg grating laser sensing system for a carbon fibre prestressed concrete highway bridge,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 20–30 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mühlmann, H.-C.

M. Trutzel, D. Betz, M. Holz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H.-F. Siegling, R. Sangkohl, W. Martin, H.-C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert, H. Ahrendt, “Investigation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for applications in the aviation industry,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, H. Hotate, B. Kim, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 624–627 (1999).

Müllert, T.

M. Trutzel, D. Betz, M. Holz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H.-F. Siegling, R. Sangkohl, W. Martin, H.-C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert, H. Ahrendt, “Investigation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for applications in the aviation industry,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, H. Hotate, B. Kim, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 624–627 (1999).

Murphy, K. A.

V. Bathia, T. D’Alberto, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996).

Neegard, S.

Ohn, M.

R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “A structurally integrated Bragg grating laser sensing system for a carbon fibre prestressed concrete highway bridge,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 20–30 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

O. G. Okhotnikov, F. M. Araújo, J. R. Salcedo, “Wavelength switching in pump diode modulated mode locked and Q-switched Er fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2910–2912 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pran, K.

G. B. Havsgård, K. Pran, S. Knudsen, P. O. Baalerud, G. Wang, S. T. Vohra, M. A. Davis, A. Dandridge, A. E. Jensen, “Composite plate drop test using a 16 channel fibre Bragg grating strain sensor system,” in European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. Jones, eds., Proc. SPIE3483, 195–199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

E. Friebele, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, A. A. Fosha, J. Florio, R. P. Donti, R. G. Blosser, “Distributed strain sensing with fibre Bragg grating arrays embedded in CRTMTM composites,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1783–1784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rambech, J. S.

Reekie, L.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Thermally-compensated bending gauge using surface-mounted fibre gratings,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 9, 281–289 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rougeault, S.

Salcedo, J. R.

O. G. Okhotnikov, F. M. Araújo, J. R. Salcedo, “Wavelength switching in pump diode modulated mode locked and Q-switched Er fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2910–2912 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sangkohl, R.

M. Trutzel, D. Betz, M. Holz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H.-F. Siegling, R. Sangkohl, W. Martin, H.-C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert, H. Ahrendt, “Investigation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for applications in the aviation industry,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, H. Hotate, B. Kim, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 624–627 (1999).

Santos, J. L.

L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, J. L. Santos, F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bend measurements with D-type fibre Bragg gratings,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 5–8 (2000).

Siegling, H.-F.

M. Trutzel, D. Betz, M. Holz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H.-F. Siegling, R. Sangkohl, W. Martin, H.-C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert, H. Ahrendt, “Investigation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for applications in the aviation industry,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, H. Hotate, B. Kim, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 624–627 (1999).

Staudigel, L.

M. Trutzel, D. Betz, M. Holz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H.-F. Siegling, R. Sangkohl, W. Martin, H.-C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert, H. Ahrendt, “Investigation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for applications in the aviation industry,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, H. Hotate, B. Kim, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 624–627 (1999).

Trutzel, M.

M. Trutzel, D. Betz, M. Holz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H.-F. Siegling, R. Sangkohl, W. Martin, H.-C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert, H. Ahrendt, “Investigation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for applications in the aviation industry,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, H. Hotate, B. Kim, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 624–627 (1999).

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G. B. Havsgård, K. Pran, S. Knudsen, P. O. Baalerud, G. Wang, S. T. Vohra, M. A. Davis, A. Dandridge, A. E. Jensen, “Composite plate drop test using a 16 channel fibre Bragg grating strain sensor system,” in European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. Jones, eds., Proc. SPIE3483, 195–199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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G. B. Havsgård, K. Pran, S. Knudsen, P. O. Baalerud, G. Wang, S. T. Vohra, M. A. Davis, A. Dandridge, A. E. Jensen, “Composite plate drop test using a 16 channel fibre Bragg grating strain sensor system,” in European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. Jones, eds., Proc. SPIE3483, 195–199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Thermally-compensated bending gauge using surface-mounted fibre gratings,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 9, 281–289 (1994).
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[CrossRef]

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G. B. Havsgård, K. Pran, S. Knudsen, P. O. Baalerud, G. Wang, S. T. Vohra, M. A. Davis, A. Dandridge, A. E. Jensen, “Composite plate drop test using a 16 channel fibre Bragg grating strain sensor system,” in European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. D. Jones, eds., Proc. SPIE3483, 195–199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, J. L. Santos, F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bend measurements with D-type fibre Bragg gratings,” in 14th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, A. G. Mignani, ed., Proc. SPIE4185, 5–8 (2000).

M. Trutzel, D. Betz, M. Holz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H.-F. Siegling, R. Sangkohl, W. Martin, H.-C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert, H. Ahrendt, “Investigation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for applications in the aviation industry,” in 13th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, H. Hotate, B. Kim, eds., Proc. SPIE3746, 624–627 (1999).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the proposed sensing head.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical Bragg wavelength shift versus inverse radius of curvature over complete rotation of the curvature plane (ΔT = 0 °C).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup. OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; BBS, erbium-doped broadband source.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental Bragg wavelength shift versus inverse radius of curvature over complete rotation of the curvature plane (ΔT = 0 °C).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bragg wavelength shift versus inverse radius of curvature (dashed lines correspond to the calibration fittings).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Bragg wavelength shift versus orientation of plane of curvature (dashed curves correspond to the calibration fittings).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Bragg wavelength shift versus orientation of plane of curvature (dashed line corresponds to the calibration fittings).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sensor output as determined from Eqs. (5) when left, R changes and θ and T are constant; middle, θ changes and R and T are constant; and right, T changes and θ and R are constant.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calibration Parametersa

Equations (6)

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ε1=dR sinθ-120, ε2=dR sinθ, ε3=dR sinθ+120,
Δλ1=Kεd sinθ-120R+KTΔT, Δλ2=Kεd sinθR+KTΔT, Δλ3=Kεd sinθ+120R+KTΔT,
1R=2Δλ12+Δλ22+Δλ32-Δλ1Δλ2-Δλ2Δλ3-Δλ1Δλ31/23Kεd, θ=arctan2Δλ2-Δλ1-Δλ33Δλ3-Δλ1, ΔT=Δλ1+Δλ2+Δλ33KT,
Δλ1=Kεd1 sinθ-ϕ1R+KTΔT, Δλ2=Kεd2 sinθR+KTΔT, Δλ3=Kεd3 sinθ+ϕ3R+KTΔT.
1R=D3λ21-D1λ322+λ32D21-λ21D3221/2KεD3D21-D1D32, θ=arctanD1λ32-D3λ21λ21D32-λ32D21, ΔT=d2D3Δλ1+d2D1Δλ3-d1d3 sinϕ1+ϕ3Δλ2KTD3D21-D1D32,
λ21=Δλ2-Δλ1, λ32=Δλ3-Δλ2;D1=d1 sin ϕ1, D3=d3 sin ϕ3;D21=d2-d1 cos ϕ1, D32=d3 cos ϕ3-d2.

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