Abstract

Solar-reflective roofs remain cooler than absorptive roofs and thus conserve electricity otherwise needed for air conditioning. A currently controversial aspect of solar-reflective cool roofing is the extent to which an initially high solar reflectance decreases with time. We present experimental data on the spectral absorption of deposits that accumulate on roofs, and we attribute most of the absorption to carbon soot originally produced by combustion. The deposits absorb more at short wavelengths (e.g., in the blue) than in the red and infrared, imparting a slightly yellow tinge to formerly white surfaces. The initial rate of reflectance reduction by soot accumulation is consistent with known emission rates that are due to combustion. The long-term reflectance change appears to be determined by the ability of the soot to adhere to the roof, resisting washout by rain.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

M. Z. Jacobson, “Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols,” Nature 409, 695–697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, “Geometrical renormalization approach to calculating optical properties of fractal carbonaceous soot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1112–1120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Andreae, “The dark side of aerosols,” Nature 409, 671–672 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

M. P. Ioannidou, I. I. Bakatsoula, D. P. Chrissoulidis, “Light scattering and absorption by soot in the presence of sulfate aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4205–4213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, M. Y. Choi, G. W. Mulholland, L. A. Gritzo, “Measurement of soot optical properties in the near-infrared spectrum,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43, 3299–3303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Ackerman, O. B. Toon, D. E. Stevens, A. J. Heymsfield, V. Ramanathan, E. J. Welton, “Reduction of tropical cloudiness by soot,” Science 288, 1042–1047 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

P. Pesava, R. Aksu, S. Toprak, H. Horvath, S. Seidl, “Dry deposition of particles to building surfaces and soiling,” Sci. Total Environ. 235, 25–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

S. Bretz, H. Akbari, “Long-term performance of high-albedo roof coatings,” Energy Build. 25, 159–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Berdahl, S. Bretz, “Preliminary survey of the solar reflectance of cool roofing materials,” Energy Build. 25, 149–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, L. L. Erskine, A. J. Hunt, “Polarized light scattering by aerosols in the marine boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5168–5184 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

H. Horvath, P. Pesava, S. Toprak, R. Aksu, “Technique for measuring the deposition velocity of particulate matter to building surfaces,” Sci. Total Environ. 189–190, 255–258 (1996).

1995 (1)

M. Y. Choi, G. W. Mulholland, A. Hamins, T. Kashiwagi, “Comparisons of the soot volume fraction using gravimetric and light extinction techniques,” Combust. Flame 102, 161–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

J. D. Lindberg, R. E. Douglass, D. M. Garvey, “Carbon and the optical properties of atmospheric dust,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6077–6081 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Horvath, “Atmospheric light absorption—a review,” Atmos. Environ. 27A, 293–317 (1993).

J. E. Penner, H. Eddleman, T. Novakov, “Towards the development of a global inventory for black carbon emissions,” Atmos. Environ. 27A, 1277–1295 (1993).

1992 (1)

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

P. Chylek, V. Ramaswamy, R. J. Cheng, “Effect of graphitic carbon on the albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 3076–3083 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

P. Chylek, V. Ramaswamy, V. Srivastava, “Albedo of soot-contaminated snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10837–10843 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

H. Rosen, T. Novakov, B. A. Bodhaine, “Soot in the Arctic,” Atmos. Environ. 15, 1371–1374 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. Janzen, “The refractive index of colloidal carbon,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69, 436–447 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Ackerman, A. S.

A. S. Ackerman, O. B. Toon, D. E. Stevens, A. J. Heymsfield, V. Ramanathan, E. J. Welton, “Reduction of tropical cloudiness by soot,” Science 288, 1042–1047 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akbari, H.

S. Bretz, H. Akbari, “Long-term performance of high-albedo roof coatings,” Energy Build. 25, 159–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aksu, R.

P. Pesava, R. Aksu, S. Toprak, H. Horvath, S. Seidl, “Dry deposition of particles to building surfaces and soiling,” Sci. Total Environ. 235, 25–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Horvath, P. Pesava, S. Toprak, R. Aksu, “Technique for measuring the deposition velocity of particulate matter to building surfaces,” Sci. Total Environ. 189–190, 255–258 (1996).

Andreae, M. O.

M. O. Andreae, “The dark side of aerosols,” Nature 409, 671–672 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atchley, J. A.

K. E. Wilkes, T. W. Petrie, J. A. Atchley, P. W. Childs, “Roof heating and cooling loads in various climates for the range of solar reflectances and infrared emittances observed for weathered coatings,” in Proceedings of the 2000 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings (American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington D.C., 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 3.361–3.372.

Bakatsoula, I. I.

Berdahl, P.

P. Berdahl, S. Bretz, “Preliminary survey of the solar reflectance of cool roofing materials,” Energy Build. 25, 149–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bodhaine, B. A.

H. Rosen, T. Novakov, B. A. Bodhaine, “Soot in the Arctic,” Atmos. Environ. 15, 1371–1374 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chap. 14.

Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bretz, S.

P. Berdahl, S. Bretz, “Preliminary survey of the solar reflectance of cool roofing materials,” Energy Build. 25, 149–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bretz, H. Akbari, “Long-term performance of high-albedo roof coatings,” Energy Build. 25, 159–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Campos, T.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cash, C. G.

C. G. Cash, “Estimating the durability of roofing systems,” in Durability 2000: Accelerated and Outdoor Weathering Testing, STP 1385, W. D. Ketola, J. D. Evans, eds. (American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 2000), pp. 165–169.

Cass, G. R.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cess, R. D.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, R. J.

P. Chylek, V. Ramaswamy, R. J. Cheng, “Effect of graphitic carbon on the albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 3076–3083 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Childs, P. W.

K. E. Wilkes, T. W. Petrie, J. A. Atchley, P. W. Childs, “Roof heating and cooling loads in various climates for the range of solar reflectances and infrared emittances observed for weathered coatings,” in Proceedings of the 2000 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings (American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington D.C., 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 3.361–3.372.

Choi, M. Y.

J. Zhu, M. Y. Choi, G. W. Mulholland, L. A. Gritzo, “Measurement of soot optical properties in the near-infrared spectrum,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43, 3299–3303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Choi, G. W. Mulholland, A. Hamins, T. Kashiwagi, “Comparisons of the soot volume fraction using gravimetric and light extinction techniques,” Combust. Flame 102, 161–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chrissoulidis, D. P.

Chylek, P.

P. Chylek, V. Ramaswamy, R. J. Cheng, “Effect of graphitic carbon on the albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 3076–3083 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. Chylek, V. Ramaswamy, V. Srivastava, “Albedo of soot-contaminated snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10837–10843 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, J. A.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crutzen, P. J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Gouw, J. A.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Laat, A. T. J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickerson, R. R.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douglass, R. E.

Eddleman, H.

J. E. Penner, H. Eddleman, T. Novakov, “Towards the development of a global inventory for black carbon emissions,” Atmos. Environ. 27A, 1277–1295 (1993).

Erskine, L. L.

Fischer, H.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garvey, D. M.

Gritzo, L. A.

J. Zhu, M. Y. Choi, G. W. Mulholland, L. A. Gritzo, “Measurement of soot optical properties in the near-infrared spectrum,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43, 3299–3303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gundel, L.

Hales, J. M.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamins, A.

M. Y. Choi, G. W. Mulholland, A. Hamins, T. Kashiwagi, “Comparisons of the soot volume fraction using gravimetric and light extinction techniques,” Combust. Flame 102, 161–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hansel, A.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, A. D.

Hansen, J. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heymsfield, A. J.

A. S. Ackerman, O. B. Toon, D. E. Stevens, A. J. Heymsfield, V. Ramanathan, E. J. Welton, “Reduction of tropical cloudiness by soot,” Science 288, 1042–1047 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, D. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horvath, H.

P. Pesava, R. Aksu, S. Toprak, H. Horvath, S. Seidl, “Dry deposition of particles to building surfaces and soiling,” Sci. Total Environ. 235, 25–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Horvath, P. Pesava, S. Toprak, R. Aksu, “Technique for measuring the deposition velocity of particulate matter to building surfaces,” Sci. Total Environ. 189–190, 255–258 (1996).

H. Horvath, “Atmospheric light absorption—a review,” Atmos. Environ. 27A, 293–317 (1993).

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chap. 14.

Hunt, A. J.

Ioannidou, M. P.

Jacobson, M. Z.

M. Z. Jacobson, “Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols,” Nature 409, 695–697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janzen, J.

J. Janzen, “The refractive index of colloidal carbon,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69, 436–447 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jefferson, A.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kashiwagi, T.

M. Y. Choi, G. W. Mulholland, A. Hamins, T. Kashiwagi, “Comparisons of the soot volume fraction using gravimetric and light extinction techniques,” Combust. Flame 102, 161–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kley, D.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahaye, J.

J. Lahaye, G. Prado, “Morphology and internal structure of soot and carbon blacks,” in Particulate Carbon, Formation During Combustion, D. C. Siegla, G. W. Smith, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 33–35.
[CrossRef]

Lal, S.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawrence, M. G.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lelieveld, J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindberg, J. D.

Lobert, J. M.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markel, V. A.

Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitra, A. P.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulholland, G. W.

J. Zhu, M. Y. Choi, G. W. Mulholland, L. A. Gritzo, “Measurement of soot optical properties in the near-infrared spectrum,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43, 3299–3303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Choi, G. W. Mulholland, A. Hamins, T. Kashiwagi, “Comparisons of the soot volume fraction using gravimetric and light extinction techniques,” Combust. Flame 102, 161–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Novakov, T.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Penner, H. Eddleman, T. Novakov, “Towards the development of a global inventory for black carbon emissions,” Atmos. Environ. 27A, 1277–1295 (1993).

H. Rosen, T. Novakov, B. A. Bodhaine, “Soot in the Arctic,” Atmos. Environ. 15, 1371–1374 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Rosen, A. D. Hansen, L. Gundel, T. Novakov, “Identification of the optically absorbing component in urban aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3859–3861 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oltmans, S. J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandis, S. N.

J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, New York, 1998).

Penner, J. E.

J. E. Penner, H. Eddleman, T. Novakov, “Towards the development of a global inventory for black carbon emissions,” Atmos. Environ. 27A, 1277–1295 (1993).

Pesava, P.

P. Pesava, R. Aksu, S. Toprak, H. Horvath, S. Seidl, “Dry deposition of particles to building surfaces and soiling,” Sci. Total Environ. 235, 25–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Horvath, P. Pesava, S. Toprak, R. Aksu, “Technique for measuring the deposition velocity of particulate matter to building surfaces,” Sci. Total Environ. 189–190, 255–258 (1996).

Petrie, T. W.

K. E. Wilkes, T. W. Petrie, J. A. Atchley, P. W. Childs, “Roof heating and cooling loads in various climates for the range of solar reflectances and infrared emittances observed for weathered coatings,” in Proceedings of the 2000 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings (American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington D.C., 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 3.361–3.372.

Prado, G.

J. Lahaye, G. Prado, “Morphology and internal structure of soot and carbon blacks,” in Particulate Carbon, Formation During Combustion, D. C. Siegla, G. W. Smith, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 33–35.
[CrossRef]

Prather, K. A.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinby-Hunt, M. S.

Ramanathan, V.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Ackerman, O. B. Toon, D. E. Stevens, A. J. Heymsfield, V. Ramanathan, E. J. Welton, “Reduction of tropical cloudiness by soot,” Science 288, 1042–1047 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramaswamy, V.

P. Chylek, V. Ramaswamy, R. J. Cheng, “Effect of graphitic carbon on the albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 3076–3083 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. Chylek, V. Ramaswamy, V. Srivastava, “Albedo of soot-contaminated snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10837–10843 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Reiner, T.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodhe, H.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, H.

Scheeren, H. A.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, S. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidl, S.

P. Pesava, R. Aksu, S. Toprak, H. Horvath, S. Seidl, “Dry deposition of particles to building surfaces and soiling,” Sci. Total Environ. 235, 25–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seinfeld, J. H.

J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, New York, 1998).

Shalaev, V. M.

Sikka, D.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srivastava, V.

P. Chylek, V. Ramaswamy, V. Srivastava, “Albedo of soot-contaminated snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10837–10843 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, D. E.

A. S. Ackerman, O. B. Toon, D. E. Stevens, A. J. Heymsfield, V. Ramanathan, E. J. Welton, “Reduction of tropical cloudiness by soot,” Science 288, 1042–1047 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toon, O. B.

A. S. Ackerman, O. B. Toon, D. E. Stevens, A. J. Heymsfield, V. Ramanathan, E. J. Welton, “Reduction of tropical cloudiness by soot,” Science 288, 1042–1047 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toprak, S.

P. Pesava, R. Aksu, S. Toprak, H. Horvath, S. Seidl, “Dry deposition of particles to building surfaces and soiling,” Sci. Total Environ. 235, 25–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Horvath, P. Pesava, S. Toprak, R. Aksu, “Technique for measuring the deposition velocity of particulate matter to building surfaces,” Sci. Total Environ. 189–190, 255–258 (1996).

Vargas-Hernandez, Y.

Y. Vargas-Hernandez, “Abschätzung der Einflüsse von Schadstoffen bei der Beschädigung historischer Gabäude,” Ph.D. thesis (Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 1994).

Wagner, H. G.

H. G. Wagner, “Soot formation, an overview,” in Particulate Carbon, Formation During Combustion, D. C. Siegla, G. W. Smith, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 1–29.
[CrossRef]

Welton, E. J.

A. S. Ackerman, O. B. Toon, D. E. Stevens, A. J. Heymsfield, V. Ramanathan, E. J. Welton, “Reduction of tropical cloudiness by soot,” Science 288, 1042–1047 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkes, K. E.

K. E. Wilkes, T. W. Petrie, J. A. Atchley, P. W. Childs, “Roof heating and cooling loads in various climates for the range of solar reflectances and infrared emittances observed for weathered coatings,” in Proceedings of the 2000 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings (American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington D.C., 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 3.361–3.372.

Williams, J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, M. Y. Choi, G. W. Mulholland, L. A. Gritzo, “Measurement of soot optical properties in the near-infrared spectrum,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43, 3299–3303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Atmos. Environ. (3)

H. Horvath, “Atmospheric light absorption—a review,” Atmos. Environ. 27A, 293–317 (1993).

J. E. Penner, H. Eddleman, T. Novakov, “Towards the development of a global inventory for black carbon emissions,” Atmos. Environ. 27A, 1277–1295 (1993).

H. Rosen, T. Novakov, B. A. Bodhaine, “Soot in the Arctic,” Atmos. Environ. 15, 1371–1374 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

M. Y. Choi, G. W. Mulholland, A. Hamins, T. Kashiwagi, “Comparisons of the soot volume fraction using gravimetric and light extinction techniques,” Combust. Flame 102, 161–169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Energy Build. (2)

S. Bretz, H. Akbari, “Long-term performance of high-albedo roof coatings,” Energy Build. 25, 159–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Berdahl, S. Bretz, “Preliminary survey of the solar reflectance of cool roofing materials,” Energy Build. 25, 149–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (1)

J. Zhu, M. Y. Choi, G. W. Mulholland, L. A. Gritzo, “Measurement of soot optical properties in the near-infrared spectrum,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43, 3299–3303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

P. Chylek, V. Ramaswamy, R. J. Cheng, “Effect of graphitic carbon on the albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 3076–3083 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

J. Janzen, “The refractive index of colloidal carbon,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69, 436–447 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

P. Chylek, V. Ramaswamy, V. Srivastava, “Albedo of soot-contaminated snow,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10837–10843 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (2)

M. Z. Jacobson, “Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols,” Nature 409, 695–697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O. Andreae, “The dark side of aerosols,” Nature 409, 671–672 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. Total Environ. (2)

H. Horvath, P. Pesava, S. Toprak, R. Aksu, “Technique for measuring the deposition velocity of particulate matter to building surfaces,” Sci. Total Environ. 189–190, 255–258 (1996).

P. Pesava, R. Aksu, S. Toprak, H. Horvath, S. Seidl, “Dry deposition of particles to building surfaces and soiling,” Sci. Total Environ. 235, 25–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Ackerman, O. B. Toon, D. E. Stevens, A. J. Heymsfield, V. Ramanathan, E. J. Welton, “Reduction of tropical cloudiness by soot,” Science 288, 1042–1047 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, J. Williams, “The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia,” Science 291, 1031–1036 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chap. 14.

J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, New York, 1998).

C. G. Cash, “Estimating the durability of roofing systems,” in Durability 2000: Accelerated and Outdoor Weathering Testing, STP 1385, W. D. Ketola, J. D. Evans, eds. (American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 2000), pp. 165–169.

American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard tables for references solar spectral irradiance at air mass 1.5: direct normal and hemispherical for a 37° tilted surface,” in Book of Standards Standard G 159–98 (American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, Pa., 2001), Vol. 14.04. Hemispherical values were used.

K. E. Wilkes, T. W. Petrie, J. A. Atchley, P. W. Childs, “Roof heating and cooling loads in various climates for the range of solar reflectances and infrared emittances observed for weathered coatings,” in Proceedings of the 2000 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings (American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington D.C., 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 3.361–3.372.

Y. Vargas-Hernandez, “Abschätzung der Einflüsse von Schadstoffen bei der Beschädigung historischer Gabäude,” Ph.D. thesis (Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 1994).

H. G. Wagner, “Soot formation, an overview,” in Particulate Carbon, Formation During Combustion, D. C. Siegla, G. W. Smith, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 1–29.
[CrossRef]

J. Lahaye, G. Prado, “Morphology and internal structure of soot and carbon blacks,” in Particulate Carbon, Formation During Combustion, D. C. Siegla, G. W. Smith, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 33–35.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top: spectral reflectance of a weathered light-gray roofing membrane, in the solar spectral range. The lower curve was obtained first, and the upper curve was obtained after cleaning. Bottom: the ratio of the two curves in the top figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top: spectral reflectance of a weathered Galvalume sample (lower curve) and that of a clean sample. Bottom: the ratio, as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective absorption coefficients for the soil on the roof membrane and steel samples, as compared with the absorption coefficient for propane soot reported in Ref. 26.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Apparent or effective absorption coefficient for soot films with fractional coverage f, on on the basis of Eq. (3).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the Solar Average and Visible Reflectance Ratios R/R 0

Equations (3)

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R/R0=exp-2 ηαd,
exp-2αeffd=f exp-2αd/f+1-f.
αeff=-2d-1 lnf exp-2αd/f+1-f.

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