Abstract

A detailed investigation of frequency doubling of a transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser operating at 9.55 µm with a CdGeAs2 crystal was carried out. The temperature of the crystal was varied between 80 and 295 K to maximize the frequency-doubled energy. The temporal shape of the generated beam at 4.775 µm was monitored to calculate its peak power. High values of midwave infrared pulse energy (16.65 mJ) and peak power (92 kW) were obtained, which can be of potential use in lidar systems.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Tanaka, K. Kato, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation in CdGeAs2,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 484, 475–479 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, F. G. Storz, J. H. Wernick, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ternary AIIBIVC2v,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 419–426 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. G. Dimitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), p. 178.
  4. P. G. Schunemann, “Growth of CdGeAs2 for mid-IR to far-IR frequency conversion,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 94–95.
  5. P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Schepler, P. A. Budni, “Nonlinear frequency conversion performance of AgGaSe2, ZnGeP2, and CdGeAs2,” MRS Bull. 23, 45–49 (1998).
  6. K. L. Vodopyanov, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, J. P. Maffetone, I. Zwieback, “Optical parametric generation in CGA crystals,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 392–393.
  7. L. M. Little, G. C. Papen, “Fiber-based lidar for atmospheric water-vapor measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3417–3427 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kildal, J. C. Mikkelsen, “Efficient doubling and cw difference frequency mixing in the infrared using the chalcopyrite CdGeAs2,” Opt. Commun. 10, 306–309 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide parametric oscillator crystals,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3192–3197 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. G. Schunemann, T. M. Pollak, “Single crystal growth of large, crack-free CdGeAs2,” J. Cryst. Growth 174, 272–277 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, T. M. Pollak, A. J. Ptak, T. H. Myers, “Defect segregation in CdGeAs2,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 440–444 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, T. M. Pollak, “Efficient second harmonic generation in low-loss CdGeAs2,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 355.

2001 (2)

P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, T. M. Pollak, A. J. Ptak, T. H. Myers, “Defect segregation in CdGeAs2,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 440–444 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Little, G. C. Papen, “Fiber-based lidar for atmospheric water-vapor measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3417–3427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

E. Tanaka, K. Kato, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation in CdGeAs2,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 484, 475–479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Schepler, P. A. Budni, “Nonlinear frequency conversion performance of AgGaSe2, ZnGeP2, and CdGeAs2,” MRS Bull. 23, 45–49 (1998).

1997 (1)

P. G. Schunemann, T. M. Pollak, “Single crystal growth of large, crack-free CdGeAs2,” J. Cryst. Growth 174, 272–277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1974 (1)

H. Kildal, J. C. Mikkelsen, “Efficient doubling and cw difference frequency mixing in the infrared using the chalcopyrite CdGeAs2,” Opt. Commun. 10, 306–309 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, F. G. Storz, J. H. Wernick, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ternary AIIBIVC2v,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 419–426 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, F. G. Storz, J. H. Wernick, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ternary AIIBIVC2v,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 419–426 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Budni, P. A.

P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Schepler, P. A. Budni, “Nonlinear frequency conversion performance of AgGaSe2, ZnGeP2, and CdGeAs2,” MRS Bull. 23, 45–49 (1998).

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide parametric oscillator crystals,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3192–3197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buehler, E.

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, F. G. Storz, J. H. Wernick, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ternary AIIBIVC2v,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 419–426 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Catella, G. C.

Cooper, D. G.

DeDomenico, R.

Dimitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dimitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), p. 178.

Gurzadyan, G. G.

V. G. Dimitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), p. 178.

Kato, K.

E. Tanaka, K. Kato, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation in CdGeAs2,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 484, 475–479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kildal, H.

H. Kildal, J. C. Mikkelsen, “Efficient doubling and cw difference frequency mixing in the infrared using the chalcopyrite CdGeAs2,” Opt. Commun. 10, 306–309 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Knights, M. G.

Knippels, G. M. H.

K. L. Vodopyanov, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, J. P. Maffetone, I. Zwieback, “Optical parametric generation in CGA crystals,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 392–393.

Little, L. M.

Maffetone, J. P.

K. L. Vodopyanov, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, J. P. Maffetone, I. Zwieback, “Optical parametric generation in CGA crystals,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 392–393.

Marquardt, C. L.

Mikkelsen, J. C.

H. Kildal, J. C. Mikkelsen, “Efficient doubling and cw difference frequency mixing in the infrared using the chalcopyrite CdGeAs2,” Opt. Commun. 10, 306–309 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Myers, T. H.

P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, T. M. Pollak, A. J. Ptak, T. H. Myers, “Defect segregation in CdGeAs2,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 440–444 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

V. G. Dimitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), p. 178.

Papen, G. C.

Pollak, T. M.

P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, T. M. Pollak, A. J. Ptak, T. H. Myers, “Defect segregation in CdGeAs2,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 440–444 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Schunemann, T. M. Pollak, “Single crystal growth of large, crack-free CdGeAs2,” J. Cryst. Growth 174, 272–277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, T. M. Pollak, “Efficient second harmonic generation in low-loss CdGeAs2,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 355.

Ptak, A. J.

P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, T. M. Pollak, A. J. Ptak, T. H. Myers, “Defect segregation in CdGeAs2,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 440–444 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schepler, K. L.

P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Schepler, P. A. Budni, “Nonlinear frequency conversion performance of AgGaSe2, ZnGeP2, and CdGeAs2,” MRS Bull. 23, 45–49 (1998).

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide parametric oscillator crystals,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3192–3197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schunemann, P. G.

P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, T. M. Pollak, A. J. Ptak, T. H. Myers, “Defect segregation in CdGeAs2,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 440–444 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Schepler, P. A. Budni, “Nonlinear frequency conversion performance of AgGaSe2, ZnGeP2, and CdGeAs2,” MRS Bull. 23, 45–49 (1998).

P. G. Schunemann, T. M. Pollak, “Single crystal growth of large, crack-free CdGeAs2,” J. Cryst. Growth 174, 272–277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, T. M. Pollak, “Efficient second harmonic generation in low-loss CdGeAs2,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 355.

P. G. Schunemann, “Growth of CdGeAs2 for mid-IR to far-IR frequency conversion,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 94–95.

Setzler, S. D.

P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, T. M. Pollak, A. J. Ptak, T. H. Myers, “Defect segregation in CdGeAs2,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 440–444 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, T. M. Pollak, “Efficient second harmonic generation in low-loss CdGeAs2,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 355.

Storz, F. G.

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, F. G. Storz, J. H. Wernick, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ternary AIIBIVC2v,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 419–426 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, E.

E. Tanaka, K. Kato, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation in CdGeAs2,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 484, 475–479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van der Meer, A. F. G.

K. L. Vodopyanov, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, J. P. Maffetone, I. Zwieback, “Optical parametric generation in CGA crystals,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 392–393.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodopyanov, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, J. P. Maffetone, I. Zwieback, “Optical parametric generation in CGA crystals,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 392–393.

Wernick, J. H.

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, F. G. Storz, J. H. Wernick, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ternary AIIBIVC2v,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 419–426 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Zwieback, I.

K. L. Vodopyanov, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, J. P. Maffetone, I. Zwieback, “Optical parametric generation in CGA crystals,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 392–393.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, F. G. Storz, J. H. Wernick, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ternary AIIBIVC2v,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 419–426 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

P. G. Schunemann, T. M. Pollak, “Single crystal growth of large, crack-free CdGeAs2,” J. Cryst. Growth 174, 272–277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, T. M. Pollak, A. J. Ptak, T. H. Myers, “Defect segregation in CdGeAs2,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 440–444 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

E. Tanaka, K. Kato, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation in CdGeAs2,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 484, 475–479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Schepler, P. A. Budni, “Nonlinear frequency conversion performance of AgGaSe2, ZnGeP2, and CdGeAs2,” MRS Bull. 23, 45–49 (1998).

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Kildal, J. C. Mikkelsen, “Efficient doubling and cw difference frequency mixing in the infrared using the chalcopyrite CdGeAs2,” Opt. Commun. 10, 306–309 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, T. M. Pollak, “Efficient second harmonic generation in low-loss CdGeAs2,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 355.

K. L. Vodopyanov, G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, J. P. Maffetone, I. Zwieback, “Optical parametric generation in CGA crystals,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 392–393.

V. G. Dimitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), p. 178.

P. G. Schunemann, “Growth of CdGeAs2 for mid-IR to far-IR frequency conversion,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 94–95.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pulse shapes of the pump laser at 9.55 µm for the long-pulse (LP) and short-pulse (SP) cases.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized SHG power: (a) long pulse, 295 K; (b) long pulse, 80 K; (c) short pulse, 295 K; and (d) short pulse, 80 K.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SHG performance for the long-pulse (LP) and short-pulse (SP) cases: (a) SHG energy as a function of the fundamental energy, (b) peak SHG power as a function of the peak fundamental power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature dependence of the SHG energy for the long-pulse and short-pulse cases.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absorption Coefficients of CdGeAs2 (cm-1)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the SHG Experiment

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