Abstract

Ocean color is the radiance that emanates from the ocean because of scattering by chlorophyll pigments and particles of organic and inorganic origin. Air bubbles in the ocean also scatter light and thus contribute to the water-leaving radiance. This additional water-leaving radiance that is due to oceanic air bubbles could violate the black pixel assumption at near-infrared wavelengths and be attributed to chlorophyll in the visible. Hence, the accuracy of the atmospheric correction required for the retrieval of ocean color from satellite measurements is impaired. A comprehensive radiative transfer code for the coupled atmosphere-ocean system is employed to assess the effect of oceanic air bubbles on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery. This effect is found to depend on the wavelength-dependent optical properties of oceanic air bubbles as well as atmospheric aerosols.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  42. Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific ocean and north Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2002

2001

E. J. Terrill, W. K. Melville, D. Stramski, “Bubble entrainment by breaking waves and their influence on optical scattering in the upper ocean,” J. Geophy. Res. 106, 16815–16823 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. J. Flatau, M. Flatau, J. R. Zaneveld, C. D. Mobley, “Remote sensing of bubble clouds in seawater,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 126, 2511–2524 (2000).

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Technol. Soc. 4, 329–338 (1998).

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6525–6536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observation System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

1991

1990

K. Isao, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, K. Kogure, “Role of sub-micrometer particles in the ocean,” Nature 345, 242–244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Medwin, N. D. Breitz, “Ambient and transient bubble spectral densities in quiescent seas and under spilling breakers,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 12751–12759 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

T. J. O’Hern, L. d’Agostino, A. J. Acosta, “Comparison of holographic and Coulter counter measurement of cavitation nuclei in the ocean,” Trans. ASME J. Fluids Eng. 110, 200–207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evens, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Baldy, “Bubbles in the close vicinity of breaking waves: statistical characteristics of the generation and dispersion mechanism,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 8239–8248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, “Bubbles in the near-surface ocean: a general description,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 587–590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

B. D. Johnson, P. J. Wangersky, “Microbubbles: stabilization by monolayers of adsorbed particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14641–14647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Walsh, P. J. Mulhearn, “Photographic measurements of bubble populations from breaking wind waves at sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14553–14565 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. E. Yount, “Skins of varying permeability: a microscopic investigation of bubble formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Thorpe, “The effect of langmuir circulation on the distribution of submerged bubbles caused by breaking wind waves,” J. Fluid Mech. 14, 151–170 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Yount, E. W. Gillary, D. C. Hoffman, “A microscopic investigation of bubbles formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. E. Glazman, “Effects of absorbed films on gas bubble radial oscillations,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 74, 980–986 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

O. B. Toon, T. P. Ackerman, “Algorithms for calculation of scattering by stratified spheres,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3657–3660 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic water based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Mulhearn, “Distribution of microbubbles in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 6429–6434 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, “Bubble populations and spectra in near-surface ocean: summary and review of field measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 457–463 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

B. D. Johnson, R. C. Cooke, “Bubble populations and spectra in coastal waters: a photographic approach,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3761–3766 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1970

H. Medwin, “In situ acoustic measurements of bubble populations in coastal ocean waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 599–611 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1954

F. E. Fox, K. Herzfeld, “Gas bubbles with organic skin as cavitation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 26, 984–989 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, T. P.

Acosta, A. J.

T. J. O’Hern, L. d’Agostino, A. J. Acosta, “Comparison of holographic and Coulter counter measurement of cavitation nuclei in the ocean,” Trans. ASME J. Fluids Eng. 110, 200–207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evens, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baldy, S.

S. Baldy, “Bubbles in the close vicinity of breaking waves: statistical characteristics of the generation and dispersion mechanism,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 8239–8248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Breitz, N. D.

H. Medwin, N. D. Breitz, “Ambient and transient bubble spectral densities in quiescent seas and under spilling breakers,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 12751–12759 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evens, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evens, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bukata, R. P.

R. P. Bukata, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).

Charlton, F.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Chen, J. J. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, “Pitfalls in atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: How should aerosol optical properties be computed?” Appl. Opt. 41, 412–423 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Technol. Soc. 4, 329–338 (1998).

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evens, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, R. C.

B. D. Johnson, R. C. Cooke, “Bubble populations and spectra in coastal waters: a photographic approach,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3761–3766 (1979).
[CrossRef]

d’Agostino, L.

T. J. O’Hern, L. d’Agostino, A. J. Acosta, “Comparison of holographic and Coulter counter measurement of cavitation nuclei in the ocean,” Trans. ASME J. Fluids Eng. 110, 200–207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

de Haan, J. F.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, A. G.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evens, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evens, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-790214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass. 01731, 1979).

Flatau, M.

P. J. Flatau, M. Flatau, J. R. Zaneveld, C. D. Mobley, “Remote sensing of bubble clouds in seawater,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 126, 2511–2524 (2000).

Flatau, P. J.

P. J. Flatau, M. Flatau, J. R. Zaneveld, C. D. Mobley, “Remote sensing of bubble clouds in seawater,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 126, 2511–2524 (2000).

Fox, F. E.

F. E. Fox, K. Herzfeld, “Gas bubbles with organic skin as cavitation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 26, 984–989 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Frette, Ø.

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Technol. Soc. 4, 329–338 (1998).

Gentili, B.

Gillary, E. W.

D. E. Yount, E. W. Gillary, D. C. Hoffman, “A microscopic investigation of bubbles formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Glazman, R. E.

R. E. Glazman, “Effects of absorbed films on gas bubble radial oscillations,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 74, 980–986 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observation System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evens, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hara, S.

K. Isao, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, K. Kogure, “Role of sub-micrometer particles in the ocean,” Nature 345, 242–244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Herzfeld, K.

F. E. Fox, K. Herzfeld, “Gas bubbles with organic skin as cavitation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 26, 984–989 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. V.

M. D. King, L. F. Radke, P. V. Hobbs, “Optical properties of marine stratocumulus clouds modified by ships,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2729–2739 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, D. C.

D. E. Yount, E. W. Gillary, D. C. Hoffman, “A microscopic investigation of bubbles formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hoogenboom, H. J.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Isao, K.

K. Isao, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, K. Kogure, “Role of sub-micrometer particles in the ocean,” Nature 345, 242–244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Johnson, B.

Johnson, B. D.

B. D. Johnson, P. J. Wangersky, “Microbubbles: stabilization by monolayers of adsorbed particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14641–14647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Johnson, R. C. Cooke, “Bubble populations and spectra in coastal waters: a photographic approach,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3761–3766 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G.

King, M. D.

M. D. King, L. F. Radke, P. V. Hobbs, “Optical properties of marine stratocumulus clouds modified by ships,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2729–2739 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kogure, K.

K. Isao, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, K. Kogure, “Role of sub-micrometer particles in the ocean,” Nature 345, 242–244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M.

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6525–6536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, “Scattering of light of bubbles and its effect on remote sensing,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC’98)28–31 July 1998, Qingdao, China, M.-X. He, G. Chen, eds. (Beijing Fortune Quick Printing Corporation, Ltd., Beijing, China), pp. 167–171.

Li, W.

Maritorena, S.

Medwin, H.

H. Medwin, N. D. Breitz, “Ambient and transient bubble spectral densities in quiescent seas and under spilling breakers,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 12751–12759 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Medwin, “In situ acoustic measurements of bubble populations in coastal ocean waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 599–611 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Melville, W. K.

E. J. Terrill, W. K. Melville, D. Stramski, “Bubble entrainment by breaking waves and their influence on optical scattering in the upper ocean,” J. Geophy. Res. 106, 16815–16823 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

P. J. Flatau, M. Flatau, J. R. Zaneveld, C. D. Mobley, “Remote sensing of bubble clouds in seawater,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 126, 2511–2524 (2000).

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

Morel, A.

Mulhearn, P. J.

A. L. Walsh, P. J. Mulhearn, “Photographic measurements of bubble populations from breaking wind waves at sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14553–14565 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Mulhearn, “Distribution of microbubbles in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 6429–6434 (1981).
[CrossRef]

O’Hern, T. J.

T. J. O’Hern, L. d’Agostino, A. J. Acosta, “Comparison of holographic and Coulter counter measurement of cavitation nuclei in the ocean,” Trans. ASME J. Fluids Eng. 110, 200–207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, N. T.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific ocean and north Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T.

T. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” SIO Ref. 72–78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

Prieur, L.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic water based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Radke, L. F.

M. D. King, L. F. Radke, P. V. Hobbs, “Optical properties of marine stratocumulus clouds modified by ships,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2729–2739 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reinersman, P.

Robinson, W.

Sathyendranath, S.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic water based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schreurs, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-790214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass. 01731, 1979).

Siegel, D. A.

Smirnov, A. V.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific ocean and north Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evens, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smyshlyaev, S. P.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific ocean and north Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, J. J.

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Chen, J. J. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, “Pitfalls in atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: How should aerosol optical properties be computed?” Appl. Opt. 41, 412–423 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Technol. Soc. 4, 329–338 (1998).

Stamnes, K.

Stavn, R.

Stephens, G. L.

S.-C. Tsay, G. L. Stephens, “A physical/optical model for atmospheric aerosols with application to visibility problems, CIRA Rep. ISSN 0737-5352-16 (Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1990).

Stramski, D.

E. J. Terrill, W. K. Melville, D. Stramski, “Bubble entrainment by breaking waves and their influence on optical scattering in the upper ocean,” J. Geophy. Res. 106, 16815–16823 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, “Gas microbubbles: an assessment of their significance to light scattering in quiescent seas,” in Ocean Optics XII, G. S. Gaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 704–710 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Terauchi, K.

K. Isao, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, K. Kogure, “Role of sub-micrometer particles in the ocean,” Nature 345, 242–244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Terrill, E. J.

E. J. Terrill, W. K. Melville, D. Stramski, “Bubble entrainment by breaking waves and their influence on optical scattering in the upper ocean,” J. Geophy. Res. 106, 16815–16823 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, G. E.

G. E. Thomas, K. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge University, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, S. A.

S. A. Thorpe, “The effect of langmuir circulation on the distribution of submerged bubbles caused by breaking wind waves,” J. Fluid Mech. 14, 151–170 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

Tsay, S.-C.

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Chen, J. J. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, “Pitfalls in atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: How should aerosol optical properties be computed?” Appl. Opt. 41, 412–423 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-C. Tsay, G. L. Stephens, “A physical/optical model for atmospheric aerosols with application to visibility problems, CIRA Rep. ISSN 0737-5352-16 (Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1990).

Vassen, W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Villevalde, Y. V.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific ocean and north Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
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Walsh, A. L.

A. L. Walsh, P. J. Mulhearn, “Photographic measurements of bubble populations from breaking wind waves at sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14553–14565 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wangersky, P. J.

B. D. Johnson, P. J. Wangersky, “Microbubbles: stabilization by monolayers of adsorbed particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14641–14647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wouts, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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J. Wu, “Bubbles in the near-surface ocean: a general description,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 587–590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, “Bubble populations and spectra in near-surface ocean: summary and review of field measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 457–463 (1981).
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Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific ocean and north Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yan, B.

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Chen, J. J. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, “Pitfalls in atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: How should aerosol optical properties be computed?” Appl. Opt. 41, 412–423 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Technol. Soc. 4, 329–338 (1998).

Yount, D. E.

D. E. Yount, E. W. Gillary, D. C. Hoffman, “A microscopic investigation of bubbles formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Yount, “Skins of varying permeability: a microscopic investigation of bubble formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
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Zaneveld, J. R.

P. J. Flatau, M. Flatau, J. R. Zaneveld, C. D. Mobley, “Remote sensing of bubble clouds in seawater,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 126, 2511–2524 (2000).

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X. Zhang, M. Lewis, B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6525–6536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, “Scattering of light of bubbles and its effect on remote sensing,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC’98)28–31 July 1998, Qingdao, China, M.-X. He, G. Chen, eds. (Beijing Fortune Quick Printing Corporation, Ltd., Beijing, China), pp. 167–171.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6525–6536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Chen, J. J. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, “Pitfalls in atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: How should aerosol optical properties be computed?” Appl. Opt. 41, 412–423 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Remote Sensing

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

R. E. Glazman, “Effects of absorbed films on gas bubble radial oscillations,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 74, 980–986 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Fox, K. Herzfeld, “Gas bubbles with organic skin as cavitation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 26, 984–989 (1954).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Yount, “Skins of varying permeability: a microscopic investigation of bubble formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Yount, E. W. Gillary, D. C. Hoffman, “A microscopic investigation of bubbles formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Technol. Soc.

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Technol. Soc. 4, 329–338 (1998).

J. Fluid Mech.

S. A. Thorpe, “The effect of langmuir circulation on the distribution of submerged bubbles caused by breaking wind waves,” J. Fluid Mech. 14, 151–170 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophy. Res.

E. J. Terrill, W. K. Melville, D. Stramski, “Bubble entrainment by breaking waves and their influence on optical scattering in the upper ocean,” J. Geophy. Res. 106, 16815–16823 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

M. D. King, L. F. Radke, P. V. Hobbs, “Optical properties of marine stratocumulus clouds modified by ships,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2729–2739 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Medwin, “In situ acoustic measurements of bubble populations in coastal ocean waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 599–611 (1970).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Johnson, R. C. Cooke, “Bubble populations and spectra in coastal waters: a photographic approach,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3761–3766 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Walsh, P. J. Mulhearn, “Photographic measurements of bubble populations from breaking wind waves at sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14553–14565 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Medwin, N. D. Breitz, “Ambient and transient bubble spectral densities in quiescent seas and under spilling breakers,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 12751–12759 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Johnson, P. J. Wangersky, “Microbubbles: stabilization by monolayers of adsorbed particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14641–14647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Baldy, “Bubbles in the close vicinity of breaking waves: statistical characteristics of the generation and dispersion mechanism,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 8239–8248 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, “Bubbles in the near-surface ocean: a general description,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 587–590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Mulhearn, “Distribution of microbubbles in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 6429–6434 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, “Bubble populations and spectra in near-surface ocean: summary and review of field measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 457–463 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific ocean and north Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20983–20988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observation System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evens, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic water based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. Isao, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, K. Kogure, “Role of sub-micrometer particles in the ocean,” Nature 345, 242–244 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.

P. J. Flatau, M. Flatau, J. R. Zaneveld, C. D. Mobley, “Remote sensing of bubble clouds in seawater,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 126, 2511–2524 (2000).

Trans. ASME J. Fluids Eng.

T. J. O’Hern, L. d’Agostino, A. J. Acosta, “Comparison of holographic and Coulter counter measurement of cavitation nuclei in the ocean,” Trans. ASME J. Fluids Eng. 110, 200–207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. P. Bukata, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).

D. Stramski, “Gas microbubbles: an assessment of their significance to light scattering in quiescent seas,” in Ocean Optics XII, G. S. Gaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 704–710 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, “Scattering of light of bubbles and its effect on remote sensing,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC’98)28–31 July 1998, Qingdao, China, M.-X. He, G. Chen, eds. (Beijing Fortune Quick Printing Corporation, Ltd., Beijing, China), pp. 167–171.

G. E. Thomas, K. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge University, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” SIO Ref. 72–78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

S.-C. Tsay, G. L. Stephens, “A physical/optical model for atmospheric aerosols with application to visibility problems, CIRA Rep. ISSN 0737-5352-16 (Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1990).

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-790214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass. 01731, 1979).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of phase functions of oceanic air bubbles and phytoplankton species. d (µm) denotes the coating thickness used in the computations. (a) Petzold phase function and measured phase functions for phytoplankton particles adopted from Figs. 7a, 7b, 8a, and 8b in the paper by Volten et al. 34 (b) Measured phase function for San Diego Harbor water and for pigment particles adopted from Figs. 6a and 6d in the paper by Volten et al. 34 (c) Computed phase functions for protein-coated bubbles. (d) Computed phase functions for lipid-coated bubbles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TOA reflectance deviation at λ = 865 nm as a function of bubble concentration N 0 and for several coating thicknesses d. The oceanic air bubbles are protein coated to coating thickness d = 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 µm. Aerosol optical depth τ865 = 0.1. The solar zenith is 45°, the relative azimuth angle is 60°, and the viewing zenith angle is 18°: (a) coastal-90 and (b) urban-90 aerosol models.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 2(a) but for λ = 443 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TOA reflectance deviation as a function of wavelength for τ865 = 0.05 and N 0 = 107 m-3. The coastal-90 aerosol model was used.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 but for τ865 = 0.3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TOA reflectance deviation at 865, 765, 555, and 443 nm as a function of the aerosol optical depth at 865 nm for protein-coated bubbles when N 0 = 107 m-3 and coating thickness d = 0.1 µm. The coastal-90 aerosol model was used.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plots of Δρtot443)/ρtot443) as a function of the coating thickness for protein-coated bubbles. τ865 is in the range between 0.05 and 0.8. N 0 = 107 m-3. (a) coastal-90 and (b) urban-90 aerosol models.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as the plots in Fig. 7 but for Δρpath443)/ρtot443).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

ms (λ, 865) values at 443 and 765 nm for 16 aerosol models: (i) Nos. 1–4, coastal 50, 70, 90, 99; (ii) Nos. 5–8, maritime 50, 70, 90, 99; (iii) Nos. 9–13, tropospheric 50, 70, 90, 99; (iv) Nos. 13–16, urban 50, 70, 90, 99. τ865 = 0.10.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

TOA reflectance deviation for different thicknesses Db of the top layer of the ocean in which the bubbles are assumed to be distributed uniformly. The maritime-90 aerosol model was used with τ865 = 0.1. The coating thickness is d = 0.1 µm.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nr=dNrdr=c rmin4r4,
ρtotλ=ρpathλ+tρwλ,
tρwλ=ρtotλ-ρpathλ.
EbΔtρwλ=Δρtotλ-Δρpathλ.
ρpathλ=ρmsλ+ρrλ,
ρpathλ=ρms865msλ, 865+ρrλ.
ρpathBλ=ρms865+Δρms865msλ, 865+Δmsλ, 865+ρrλ.
Δρpathλρms865Δmsλ, 865+msλ, 865Δρms865.
δρTOABλ=ρtotBλ-ρtotλρtotλ×100.
Δρpathλρms865msλ, 865Δmsλ, 865msλ, 865+Δρms865ρms865.

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