Abstract

Using an optimization technique, we derived subsurface properties of coastal and oceanic waters from measured remote-sensing reflectance spectra. These data included both optically deep and shallow environments. The measured reflectance covered a spectral range from 400 to 800 nm. The inversions used data from each 5-, 10-, and 20-nm contiguous bands, including Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS), and a self-defined medium-resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) channels, respectively. This study is designed to evaluate the influence of spectral resolution and channel placement on the accuracy of remote-sensing retrievals and to provide guidance for future sensor design. From the results of this study, we found the following: (1) use of 10-nm-wide contiguous channels provides almost identical results as found for 5-nm contiguous channels; (2) use of 20-nm contiguous channels and MERIS provides comparable results with those with 5-nm contiguous channels for deep waters, but use of contiguous 20-nm channels perform better than MERIS for optically shallow waters; and (3) SeaWiFS or MODIS channels work fine for deep, clearer waters (total absorption coefficient at 440 nm < 0.3 m-1), but introduce more errors in bathymetry retrievals for optically shallow waters. The inclusion of the 645-nm MODIS land band in its channel set improves inversion returns for both deep and shallow waters.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  25. C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
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  26. K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  35. M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, J. C. DeMunck, “A simple method of full spectrum reconstruction by a five-band approach for ocean color application,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1977–1986 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder are preparing a manuscript to be called “Applying MODIS channels to high chlorophyll-concentration waters after correcting chlorophyll fluorescence.”
  37. M. H. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 343–348 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  38. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium Breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 343–348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (4)

R. Pope, E. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, J. C. DeMunck, “A simple method of full spectrum reconstruction by a five-band approach for ocean color application,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1977–1986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium Breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (3)

1993 (1)

1991 (3)

J. T. O. Kirk, “Volume scattering function, average cosines, and the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 455–467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4011 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: use of a reflectance model,” Oceanol. Acta. 7, 33–50 (1987).

1985 (1)

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

A. Arnone, R.

R. A. Arnone, P. Maritinolich, R. W. Gould, R. Stumpf, S. Ladner, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” in Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November 1998.

Austin, R. W.

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, NASA Tech. Mem. 104566, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Baker, K. A.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: use of a reflectance model,” Oceanol. Acta. 7, 33–50 (1987).

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationship between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, K. P. Du, “Particle phase function and remote-sensing reflectance model: a revisit,” presented at the Ocean Color Research Team Meeting, San Diego, Calif., May 21–24, 2001.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, “Multiband analytical algorithm for deriving absorption and backscattering coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. submitted for publication.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder are preparing a manuscript to be called “Applying MODIS channels to high chlorophyll-concentration waters after correcting chlorophyll fluorescence.”

Caverhill, C. M.

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. F.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeMunck, J. C.

M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, J. C. DeMunck, “A simple method of full spectrum reconstruction by a five-band approach for ocean color application,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1977–1986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Du, K. P.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, K. P. Du, “Particle phase function and remote-sensing reflectance model: a revisit,” presented at the Ocean Color Research Team Meeting, San Diego, Calif., May 21–24, 2001.

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B. A.

Fry, E.

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationship between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 1–43 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, G. R.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

Jacobs, M. M.

Johnsen, G.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium Breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kamykowski, D.

K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, “Volume scattering function, average cosines, and the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 455–467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, G. J.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium Breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ladner, S.

R. A. Arnone, P. Maritinolich, R. W. Gould, R. Stumpf, S. Ladner, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” in Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November 1998.

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder are preparing a manuscript to be called “Applying MODIS channels to high chlorophyll-concentration waters after correcting chlorophyll fluorescence.”

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, “Multiband analytical algorithm for deriving absorption and backscattering coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. submitted for publication.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, K. P. Du, “Particle phase function and remote-sensing reflectance model: a revisit,” presented at the Ocean Color Research Team Meeting, San Diego, Calif., May 21–24, 2001.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. R.

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Maritinolich, P.

R. A. Arnone, P. Maritinolich, R. W. Gould, R. Stumpf, S. Ladner, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” in Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November 1998.

Marra, J.

McClain, C. R.

Millie, D. F.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium Breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Morel, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: use of a reflectance model,” Oceanol. Acta. 7, 33–50 (1987).

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Minimum requirements for an operational ocean-colour sensor for the open ocean,” IOCCG Rep. 1 (International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France, 1998).

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, “Ocean color spectra measured off the Oregon coast: characteristic vectors,” Appl. Opt. 15, 394–402 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, NASA Tech. Mem. 104566, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Ortner, P. B.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Patch, J. S.

Peacock, T. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. J.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

S. Sathyendranath, F. E. Hoge, T. Platt, R. N. Swift, “Detection of phytoplankton pigments from ocean color: improved algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1081–1089 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R.

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, F. E. Hoge, T. Platt, R. N. Swift, “Detection of phytoplankton pigments from ocean color: improved algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1081–1089 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, “Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour in Coastal, and Other Optically-Complex, Waters,” IOCCG Rep. 3 (International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, Dartmouth, Canada, 2000).

Schofield, O. M.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium Breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimwell, S. J.

M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, J. C. DeMunck, “A simple method of full spectrum reconstruction by a five-band approach for ocean color application,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1977–1986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 1–43 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stavn, R. H.

Steward, R. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stumpf, R.

R. A. Arnone, P. Maritinolich, R. W. Gould, R. Stumpf, S. Ladner, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” in Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November 1998.

Swift, R. N.

Tester, P. A.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium Breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vinyard, B. T.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium Breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Gould, R.

R. A. Arnone, P. Maritinolich, R. W. Gould, R. Stumpf, S. Ladner, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” in Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November 1998.

Wang, M.

Wang, M. H.

Warnock, R. E.

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A. D.

Wernand, M. R.

M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, J. C. DeMunck, “A simple method of full spectrum reconstruction by a five-band approach for ocean color application,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1977–1986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 1–43 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (12)

S. Sathyendranath, F. E. Hoge, T. Platt, R. N. Swift, “Detection of phytoplankton pigments from ocean color: improved algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1081–1089 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationship between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4011 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Pope, E. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Mueller, “Ocean color spectra measured off the Oregon coast: characteristic vectors,” Appl. Opt. 15, 394–402 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 343–348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deep-Sea Res. (1)

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, J. C. DeMunck, “A simple method of full spectrum reconstruction by a five-band approach for ocean color application,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 1977–1986 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (7)

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27967–27978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (7)

J. T. O. Kirk, “Volume scattering function, average cosines, and the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 455–467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium Breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oceanol. Acta. (1)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: use of a reflectance model,” Oceanol. Acta. 7, 33–50 (1987).

Other (10)

R. A. Arnone, P. Maritinolich, R. W. Gould, R. Stumpf, S. Ladner, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” in Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November 1998.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder are preparing a manuscript to be called “Applying MODIS channels to high chlorophyll-concentration waters after correcting chlorophyll fluorescence.”

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, “Multiband analytical algorithm for deriving absorption and backscattering coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. submitted for publication.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 1–43 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, K. P. Du, “Particle phase function and remote-sensing reflectance model: a revisit,” presented at the Ocean Color Research Team Meeting, San Diego, Calif., May 21–24, 2001.

A. Morel, “Minimum requirements for an operational ocean-colour sensor for the open ocean,” IOCCG Rep. 1 (International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France, 1998).

S. Sathyendranath, “Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour in Coastal, and Other Optically-Complex, Waters,” IOCCG Rep. 3 (International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, Dartmouth, Canada, 2000).

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, NASA Tech. Mem. 104566, Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Samples of measured remote-sensing reflectance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of a(440) retrievals for the sensors in Table 2: (a) for the entire data set, (b) for optically shallow waters only, (c) for a(440) < 0.3 m-1 only.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of a ϕ(440) retrievals for the sensors in Table 2: (a) for the entire data set, (b) for optically shallow waters only, (c) for a ϕ(440) < 0.1 m-1 only.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of a g (440) retrievals for the sensors in Table 2: (a) for the entire data set, (b) for optically shallow waters only, (c) for a g (440) < 0.3 m-1 only.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of retrievals of the effective particle backscattering coefficient at 640 nm for the sensors in Table 2: (a) for the entire data set and (b) for optically shallow waters only.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption curvatures of the three major components. Note the scale difference between the left and the right Y axes. a ϕ and a g spectra vary with concentrations, whereas the water spectrum is constant.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of SeaWiFS retrieval in simulation of the entire R rs spectrum: filled circles, the measured spectrum; open circle, a simulation by use of SeaWiFS retrievals. Apparently the simulation is a good match with the measured spectrum for SeaWiFS bands, but performs poorly for the extrapolated 570–650-nm range as there are no bands to force the simulation to match the measurement. The 670-nm band cannot be used because of the strong chlorophyll-a fluorescence expected there (not shown in simulation) for high-chlorophyll waters.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of bathymetry retrievals for the sensors in Table 2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Samples of remote-sensing reflectance for optically shallow waters.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Data Information

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Table 2 Wavelength Selections

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Table 3 Percentage Differences When Compared with the Results from Each 5-nm Contiguous Band

Equations (17)

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Rrs0.52 rrs1-1.56 rrs,
rrsrrsC+rrsBrrsdp1-exp-1cosθw+DuCcosθvκH +1π ρ exp-1cosθw+DuBcosθvκH.
κa+bb,
bbλ=bbwλ+bbpλ,
rrsdpgwbbwa+bb+gpbbpa+bb,
gp0.1841-0.602 exp-3.852up,
upbbpa+bb.
DuC1.031+2.4u0.5, DuB1.041+5.4u0.5,
ubba+bb.
aλ=awλ+aϕλ+agλ.
aϕλ=a0λ+a1λlnPP,
agλ=G exp-Sλ-440,
bbpλ=Ƃ640λY,
Y3.441-3.17 exp-2.01χ,
ρλ=B ρsd+λ,
error=400670Rrs-Rˆrs2+750800Rrs-Rˆrs20.5400670 Rrs+750800 Rrs,
δ=expmeanlnQiinvQistd-1.

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