Abstract

Chromium–scandium (Cr–Sc) is a promising material combination for multilayer mirrors in the water window region. A possible x-ray source for laboratory use in this wavelength range is the nitrogen K α line at 3.16 nm. High reflectivities at this wavelength can be achieved with Cr–Sc multilayer mirrors if the interfaces between adjacent layers are smooth. The growth parameters of the magnetron sputtering process for these materials have been optimized. It is shown that the reflectivity of such mirrors can be considerably improved by the application of a proper bias voltage during film growth. The high quality of the multilayer films is demonstrated with copper K α x-ray reflection and transmission electron microscopy. The reflective properties of the multilayers close to the nitrogen K α line were measured with synchrotron radiation for different angles of incidence. Reflectivities between R = 5.9% for near-normal incidence (θ = 1.5°) and R = 29.6% for θ = 59.9° were measured.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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2000 (2)

M. Toyoda, Y. Shitani, M. Yanagihara, T. Ejima, M. Yamamoto, M. Watanabe, “A soft x-ray imaging microscope with a multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objective: imaging tests,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1926–1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

D. L. Windt, “IMD, software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H. C. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Short-period x-ray multilayers based on Cr/Sc,” Opt. Commun. 134, 7–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Williams, “Resolution in soft x-ray microscopes,” Ultramicroscopy 47, 55–79 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

T. W. Barbee, “Multilayers for x-ray optics,” Opt. Eng. 25, 898–915 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

V. B. Loboda, I. E. Protsenko, “Structure and electrical resistance of thin scandium films. III. Study on electrical properties,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 16, (3) 357–365 (1981).

Barbee, T. W.

T. W. Barbee, “Multilayers for x-ray optics,” Opt. Eng. 25, 898–915 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Beckhoff, B.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berglund, M.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergmann, K.

Bijkerk, F.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, G.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ejima, T.

M. Toyoda, Y. Shitani, M. Yanagihara, T. Ejima, M. Yamamoto, M. Watanabe, “A soft x-ray imaging microscope with a multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objective: imaging tests,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1926–1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fliegauf, R.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, H. M.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Williams, “Resolution in soft x-ray microscopes,” Ultramicroscopy 47, 55–79 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Williams, “Resolution in soft x-ray microscopes,” Ultramicroscopy 47, 55–79 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Klein, R.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lebert, R.

Loboda, V. B.

V. B. Loboda, I. E. Protsenko, “Structure and electrical resistance of thin scandium films. III. Study on electrical properties,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 16, (3) 357–365 (1981).

Louis, E.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mertins, H. C.

Meyer, B.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

Murakami, K.

Nagata, H.

Nakamura, H.

Neff, W.

Oestreich, S.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohtani, M.

Oshino, T.

Packe, I.

Peuker, M.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Protsenko, I. E.

V. B. Loboda, I. E. Protsenko, “Structure and electrical resistance of thin scandium films. III. Study on electrical properties,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 16, (3) 357–365 (1981).

Rosen, R. S.

Rosier, O.

Rost, D.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rymell, L.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salashchenko, N. N.

Schäfers, F.

Schmitz, D.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmolla, F.

Scholze, F.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schriever, G.

Shamov, E. A.

Shitani, Y.

M. Toyoda, Y. Shitani, M. Yanagihara, T. Ejima, M. Yamamoto, M. Watanabe, “A soft x-ray imaging microscope with a multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objective: imaging tests,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1926–1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

Toyoda, M.

M. Toyoda, Y. Shitani, M. Yanagihara, T. Ejima, M. Yamamoto, M. Watanabe, “A soft x-ray imaging microscope with a multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objective: imaging tests,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1926–1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Veldkamp, M.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, S. P.

Watanabe, M.

M. Toyoda, Y. Shitani, M. Yanagihara, T. Ejima, M. Yamamoto, M. Watanabe, “A soft x-ray imaging microscope with a multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objective: imaging tests,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1926–1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weser, J.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, S.

C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Williams, “Resolution in soft x-ray microscopes,” Ultramicroscopy 47, 55–79 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, “IMD, software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yakshin, A. E.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

M. Toyoda, Y. Shitani, M. Yanagihara, T. Ejima, M. Yamamoto, M. Watanabe, “A soft x-ray imaging microscope with a multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objective: imaging tests,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1926–1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yanagihara, M.

M. Toyoda, Y. Shitani, M. Yanagihara, T. Ejima, M. Yamamoto, M. Watanabe, “A soft x-ray imaging microscope with a multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objective: imaging tests,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1926–1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD, software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

V. B. Loboda, I. E. Protsenko, “Structure and electrical resistance of thin scandium films. III. Study on electrical properties,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 16, (3) 357–365 (1981).

J. Microsc. (1)

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Toyoda, Y. Shitani, M. Yanagihara, T. Ejima, M. Yamamoto, M. Watanabe, “A soft x-ray imaging microscope with a multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objective: imaging tests,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1926–1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Short-period x-ray multilayers based on Cr/Sc,” Opt. Commun. 134, 7–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. W. Barbee, “Multilayers for x-ray optics,” Opt. Eng. 25, 898–915 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, S. Williams, “Resolution in soft x-ray microscopes,” Ultramicroscopy 47, 55–79 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. Cheng, G. Jan, eds., X-Ray Microscopy: Instrumentation and Biological Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

J. Thieme, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, E. Umbach, eds., X-Ray Microscopy and Spectromicroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998).

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, M. Veldkamp, J. Weser, G. Ulm, E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, S. Oestreich, F. Bijkerk, “New PTB beamlines for high-accuracy EUV reflectometry at BESSY II,” in Soft X-Ray and EUV Imaging Systems, W. M. Kaiser, R. H. Stulen, eds., Proc. SPIE4146, 72–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, CD-ROM (ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio 44073, 2000).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated reflectivity of a Cr–Sc multilayer with 300 periods (d = 1.58 nm) at λ = 3.16 nm as a function of the interface width.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated reflectivity of Cr–Sc multilayers at θ = 0°, 30°, and 60° as a function of the number of periods N. An interface width of σ = 0.4 nm was assumed for the simulation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of the applied bias voltage on the reflectivity of Cr–Sc multilayers with 20 periods.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured copper K α x-ray reflection of samples A, B, C, and D.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional TEM images of Cr–Sc multilayers with the corresponding SAED patterns: left, a sample with d = 1.57 nm and right, a sample with d = 3.17 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured near-normal incidence reflectivity (θ = 1.5°) of samples A (■) and B (●) as a function of the soft x-ray wavelength and corresponding simulations (—).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured reflectivities of the Cr–Sc multilayers C (■) and D (●) at the nitrogen K α line (λ = 3.16 nm) and corresponding simulations (—).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Overview of the Cr–Sc Multilayersa

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