Abstract

We present an experimental investigation to evaluate fluorescence microscopy as a tool to detect surface contamination as well as reveal surface damage precursors on optical components for large-aperture laser systems. We performed fluorescence imaging experiments using 351-nm laser excitation, whereas in situ damage testing was performed at laser fluences well below the dielectric breakdown threshold of the pure material. The experimental results demonstrated the potential of this technique to address both aforementioned technical issues.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Bloembergen, “Laser-induced electric breakdown in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 375–386 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. L. Smith, “Laser induced breakdown in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 489–503 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Bloembergen, “Role of cracks, pores, and absorbing inclusions on laser induced damage threshold at surfaces of transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Opt. 12, 661–664 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, “Laser induced damage of optical elements—a status report,” Appl. Opt. 12, 637–649 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. A. Ringlien, N. L. Boling, G. Dube, “An acid treatment for raising the surface damage threshold of laser glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 598–600 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, “Efficacy of ion polishing optical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1486–1488 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. A. Temple, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Carbon dioxide laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser-damage resistance at 1064 nm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3249–3255 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Rear-surface laser damage on 355-nm silica optics owing to Fresnel diffraction on front-surface contamination particles,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3654–3663 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. Faux, R. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van der Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, “Three-dimensional imaging in fluorescence in confocal scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 153, 151–159 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, C. Vov, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276, 2012–2014 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, J. J. De Yoreo, “Microscopic fluorescence imaging of bulk defect clusters in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 24, 268–270 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Salleo, F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, T. Sands, S. S. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Energy deposition at front and rear surfaces during picosecond laser interaction with fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2840–2841 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, “Investigation of processes leading to damage growth in optical materials for large-aperture lasers,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

2001 (1)

A. Salleo, F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, T. Sands, S. S. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Energy deposition at front and rear surfaces during picosecond laser interaction with fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2840–2841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, C. Vov, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276, 2012–2014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van der Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, “Three-dimensional imaging in fluorescence in confocal scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 153, 151–159 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1978 (1)

W. L. Smith, “Laser induced breakdown in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 489–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1974 (2)

J. A. Ringlien, N. L. Boling, G. Dube, “An acid treatment for raising the surface damage threshold of laser glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 598–600 (1974).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen, “Laser-induced electric breakdown in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 375–386 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

Atherton, L. J.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bettis, J. R.

Bloembergen, N.

Boling, N. L.

J. A. Ringlien, N. L. Boling, G. Dube, “An acid treatment for raising the surface damage threshold of laser glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 598–600 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van der Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, “Three-dimensional imaging in fluorescence in confocal scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 153, 151–159 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braunlich, P.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Camp, D. W.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carr, J.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Casper, R. T.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

De Yoreo, J. J.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, J. J. De Yoreo, “Microscopic fluorescence imaging of bulk defect clusters in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 24, 268–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dehaven, M. R.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, J. J. De Yoreo, “Microscopic fluorescence imaging of bulk defect clusters in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 24, 268–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, “Investigation of processes leading to damage growth in optical materials for large-aperture lasers,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Drabenstedt, A.

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, C. Vov, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276, 2012–2014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dube, G.

J. A. Ringlien, N. L. Boling, G. Dube, “An acid treatment for raising the surface damage threshold of laser glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 598–600 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Eder, D. C.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. Faux, R. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Faux, D.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. Faux, R. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

A. Salleo, F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, T. Sands, S. S. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Energy deposition at front and rear surfaces during picosecond laser interaction with fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2840–2841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Rear-surface laser damage on 355-nm silica optics owing to Fresnel diffraction on front-surface contamination particles,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3654–3663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. Faux, R. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, L.

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, C. Vov, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276, 2012–2014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Genin, F. Y.

A. Salleo, F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, T. Sands, S. S. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Energy deposition at front and rear surfaces during picosecond laser interaction with fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2840–2841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Rear-surface laser damage on 355-nm silica optics owing to Fresnel diffraction on front-surface contamination particles,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3654–3663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. Faux, R. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Glass, J.

Gruber, A.

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, C. Vov, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276, 2012–2014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, A. H.

House, R. A.

Hutcheon, I. D.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S. C.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M. R.

F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Rear-surface laser damage on 355-nm silica optics owing to Fresnel diffraction on front-surface contamination particles,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3654–3663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. Faux, R. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, “Investigation of processes leading to damage growth in optical materials for large-aperture lasers,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Liu, X.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lowdermilk, W. H.

Mao, S. S.

A. Salleo, F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, T. Sands, S. S. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Energy deposition at front and rear surfaces during picosecond laser interaction with fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2840–2841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

P. A. Temple, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Carbon dioxide laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser-damage resistance at 1064 nm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3249–3255 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. Faux, R. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, K. E.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nanninga, N.

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van der Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, “Three-dimensional imaging in fluorescence in confocal scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 153, 151–159 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penetrante, B. M.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. Faux, R. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Radousky, H. B.

Richardson, M.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riddle, R.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. Faux, R. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ringlien, J. A.

J. A. Ringlien, N. L. Boling, G. Dube, “An acid treatment for raising the surface damage threshold of laser glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 598–600 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

A. Salleo, F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, T. Sands, S. S. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Energy deposition at front and rear surfaces during picosecond laser interaction with fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2840–2841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Rear-surface laser damage on 355-nm silica optics owing to Fresnel diffraction on front-surface contamination particles,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3654–3663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. Faux, R. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R. E.

A. Salleo, F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, T. Sands, S. S. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Energy deposition at front and rear surfaces during picosecond laser interaction with fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2840–2841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salleo, A.

A. Salleo, F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, T. Sands, S. S. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Energy deposition at front and rear surfaces during picosecond laser interaction with fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2840–2841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Rear-surface laser damage on 355-nm silica optics owing to Fresnel diffraction on front-surface contamination particles,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3654–3663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sands, T.

A. Salleo, F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, T. Sands, S. S. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Energy deposition at front and rear surfaces during picosecond laser interaction with fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2840–2841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, A.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. Faux, R. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, L. M.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X. A.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, “Laser induced breakdown in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 489–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Staggs, M.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, J. J. De Yoreo, “Microscopic fluorescence imaging of bulk defect clusters in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 24, 268–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, “Investigation of processes leading to damage growth in optical materials for large-aperture lasers,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Temple, P. A.

Tietz, C.

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, C. Vov, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276, 2012–2014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Torres, R.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van der Voort, H. T. M.

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van der Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, “Three-dimensional imaging in fluorescence in confocal scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 153, 151–159 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Spronsen, E. A.

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van der Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, “Three-dimensional imaging in fluorescence in confocal scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 153, 151–159 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vital, R. L.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vov, C.

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, C. Vov, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276, 2012–2014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wrachtrup, J.

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, C. Vov, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276, 2012–2014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, J. J. De Yoreo, “Microscopic fluorescence imaging of bulk defect clusters in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 24, 268–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshiyama, J.

Zaitseva, N. P.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. A. Ringlien, N. L. Boling, G. Dube, “An acid treatment for raising the surface damage threshold of laser glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 598–600 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Salleo, F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, T. Sands, S. S. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Energy deposition at front and rear surfaces during picosecond laser interaction with fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2840–2841 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Bloembergen, “Laser-induced electric breakdown in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 375–386 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van der Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, “Three-dimensional imaging in fluorescence in confocal scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 153, 151–159 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (2)

W. L. Smith, “Laser induced breakdown in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 489–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, C. Vov, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276, 2012–2014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, “Investigation of processes leading to damage growth in optical materials for large-aperture lasers,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, D. Faux, R. Riddle, A. Shapiro, D. C. Eder, B. M. Penetrante, D. Milam, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of laser damage initiated by surface contamination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 417–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 365–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement of the in situ damage testing fluorescence microscope. LP, long pass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Fluorescence and (b) light-scattering images of the same 1025 µm × 1025 µm section of the surface of a DKDP sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images from the same 600 µm × 520 µm section of the surface of sample RG8A. 1. Light-scattering image. 2. Fluorescence image under 351-nm excitation before irradiation. 3. Plasma emission image during irradiation with a single 3-ns, 355-nm pulse at ≈15 J/cm2. 4. Light-scattering image after irradiation with a single 355-nm pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images from the same 420 µm × 280 µm section of the surface of sample LL3-LG. 1. Light-scattering image under 351-nm excitation before irradiation. 2. Fluorescence image under 351-nm excitation before irradiation. 3. Plasma emission image during irradiation with a single 3-ns, 355-nm pulse at ≈15 J/cm2. 4. Light-scattering image after irradiation with a single 355-nm pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images from the same 450 µm × 310 µm section of the surface showing the reaction of surface defects from contamination to 355-nm, 3-ns laser pulses at ≈15 J/cm2. Details are provided in the text.

Metrics