Abstract

A surface profiler that incorporates a feedback controller to eliminate external disturbances is proposed and demonstrated. Its overall performance is dependent on the frequency response of the feedback loop. The frequency of the modulating signal strongly influences the response of the feedback controller. When we used the integrating-bucket method, the CCD camera had to be operated at a low-frequency video rate. Our technique uses a CCD camera equipped with an electronic shutter. The shutter function enables us to apply high-speed sinusoidal phase modulation to the conventional integrating-bucket method under the standard video rate.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Yoshino, M. Nara, S. Mnatzakanian, B. S. Lee, T. C. Strand, “Laser diode feedback interferometer for stabilization and displacement measurements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 892–897 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, T. Maruyama, “Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2496–2502 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, J. Kato, T. Nakajima, “Active phase-shifting interferometer using current modulation of a laser diode,” Opt. Rev. 3, 287–292 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, J. Kato, “Active phase-shifting interferometers for shape and deformation measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2930–2937 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Sasaki, H. Okazaki, M. Sakai, “Sinusoidal phase modulating interferometer using the integrating-bucket method,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1089–1093 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, J. Kaneda, T. Maruyama, “Real-time two-dimensional surface profile measurement in sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2754–2759 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1515 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, T. Maruyama, “Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2496–2502 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, J. Kato, T. Nakajima, “Active phase-shifting interferometer using current modulation of a laser diode,” Opt. Rev. 3, 287–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, J. Kato, “Active phase-shifting interferometers for shape and deformation measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2930–2937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, J. Kaneda, T. Maruyama, “Real-time two-dimensional surface profile measurement in sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2754–2759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1515 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

Kaneda, J.

T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, J. Kaneda, T. Maruyama, “Real-time two-dimensional surface profile measurement in sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2754–2759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kato, J.

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, J. Kato, T. Nakajima, “Active phase-shifting interferometer using current modulation of a laser diode,” Opt. Rev. 3, 287–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, J. Kato, “Active phase-shifting interferometers for shape and deformation measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2930–2937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. S.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, J. Kato, T. Nakajima, “Active phase-shifting interferometer using current modulation of a laser diode,” Opt. Rev. 3, 287–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, J. Kato, “Active phase-shifting interferometers for shape and deformation measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2930–2937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, T.

T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, T. Maruyama, “Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2496–2502 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, J. Kaneda, T. Maruyama, “Real-time two-dimensional surface profile measurement in sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2754–2759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mnatzakanian, S.

Nakajima, T.

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, J. Kato, T. Nakajima, “Active phase-shifting interferometer using current modulation of a laser diode,” Opt. Rev. 3, 287–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nara, M.

Okada, T.

T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, T. Maruyama, “Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2496–2502 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, H.

Sakai, M.

Sasaki, O.

T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, T. Maruyama, “Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2496–2502 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, J. Kaneda, T. Maruyama, “Real-time two-dimensional surface profile measurement in sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2754–2759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1515 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O. Sasaki, H. Okazaki, M. Sakai, “Sinusoidal phase modulating interferometer using the integrating-bucket method,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1089–1093 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strand, T. C.

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, T. Maruyama, “Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2496–2502 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, J. Kaneda, T. Maruyama, “Real-time two-dimensional surface profile measurement in sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2754–2759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1515 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1515 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, J. Kato, “Active phase-shifting interferometers for shape and deformation measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2930–2937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, J. Kato, T. Nakajima, “Active phase-shifting interferometer using current modulation of a laser diode,” Opt. Rev. 3, 287–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Opt. Eng. (4)

T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, J. Kaneda, T. Maruyama, “Real-time two-dimensional surface profile measurement in sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2754–2759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1515 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, T. Maruyama, “Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2496–2502 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, J. Kato, “Active phase-shifting interferometers for shape and deformation measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2930–2937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

J. Liu, I. Yamaguchi, J. Kato, T. Nakajima, “Active phase-shifting interferometer using current modulation of a laser diode,” Opt. Rev. 3, 287–292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of the disturbance-free high-speed sinusoidal phase-modulating laser diode interferometer: LM, laser diode modulator; FBSG, feedback-signal generator; MSG, modulating-signal generator; ND filter, neutral density filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the integrating-bucket method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of (a) a conventional modulating signal and (b) a high-speed modulating signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Timing chart of signal processing for order discrimination.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Discrimination of the order of images.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Block diagram of the modulating-signal generator: PLL, phase-locked loop; BPF, bandpass filter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculation of the error caused by the time difference between T s and T m /4.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Interference signals observed by the photodiode (a) without and (b) with feedback control.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Three-dimensional surface profile of a diamond-turned aluminum disk.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Two-dimensional surface profiles of a diamond-turned aluminum disk measured with (a) a Talystep profilometer and (b) our system.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Imt=m cosωct+θ
St, x, y=a+b cosz cosωct+θ+αx, y,
z=2πmβL0/λ02,
αx, y=4πLx, y/λ0
pix, y=Tci-1Tci St, x, ydt i=1–4,
αx, y=p1+p2-p3-p4p1-p2+p3-p4,
Tm/4=Ts,
Tf=n±1/4Tm,
n=round14TfTs1,
fm=14Tf4 round14TfTs1±1.

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