The capabilities and limitations of rainbow refractometry, specifically the minimum measurable droplet size and the errors in the refractive index (temperature), have been studied. We evaluate what we believe is a new method of indirectly applying the Lorenz-Mie theory to rainbow refractometry. The results show that this new method reduces the errors and eliminates the biases that may occur if the Airy theory is used. A more precise method to filter the high-frequency oscillations associated with the measurement signals was developed. Finally, it was discovered that the errors associated with rainbow refractometry are such that a single droplet measurement is unreliable. A mean refractive index should be determined on the basis of multiple droplet measurements.
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