Abstract

An x-ray multilayer monochromator with improved resolution and a low specular background is presented. The monochromator consists of a lamellar multilayer amplitude grating with appropriate parameters used at the zeroth diffraction order. The device is fabricated by means of combining deposition of thin films on a nanometer scale, UV lithography, and reactive ion etching. The performance of this new monochromator at photon energies near 1500 eV is shown.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Nicolosi, J. P. Groven, D. Merlo, R. Jenkins, “Layered synthetic microstructures for long wavelength x-ray spectrometry,” Opt. Eng. 25, 964–970 (1991).
  2. J. J. McGee, J. F. Slack, C. R. Herrington, “Boron analysis by electron microprobe using MoB4C layered synthetic crystals,” Am. Mineral. 76, 681–684 (1991).
  3. D. S. Urch, “Soft x-ray spectroscopy,” J. Phys. III France 4, 1613–1623 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Habulihaz, E. Martins, S. Gampblin, D. S. Urch, “Chemical effects in soft x-ray spectra-even with multilayers: silicon L spectra using a 300 angströms device,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 15–20 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Hombourger, P. Jonnard, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, “Use of layered synthetic microstructures for the quantitative analysis of light elements,” X-Ray Spectrom. 28, 163 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Arbaoui, J.-M. André, P. Couillaux, R. Barchewitz, “Versatile x-uv spectrogoniometer with multilayer interference mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2055–2058 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Arbaoui, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, Y. Lepêtre, R. Rivoira, “Performances of a layered synthetic microstructure spectrogoniometer for characterictic x-ray lines,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1207–1211 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Marmoret, J.-M. André, “Bragg reflectivity of layered synthetic microstructures in the x-ray anomalous scattering regions,” Appl. Opt. 22, 17–19 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Pardo, T. Mégadémini, J.-M. André, “X-UV synthetic interference mirror: a theoretical approach,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1579–1597 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. E. Sammar, J.-M. André, M. Ouahabi, B. Pardo, R. Barchewitz, “Monochromateur multicouche à bande passante étroite pour le rayonnement X,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 316-II, 1055–1060 (1993).
  11. M. Fialin, H. Rémy, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, F. Rousseaux, M.-F. Ravet, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, “Extending the possibilities of soft x-ray spectrometry through the etching of layered synthtic microstructure monochromators,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 60–65 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Sammar, K. Krastev, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, R. Rivoira, “Narrow bandpass multilayer x-ray monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2969–2972 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Layered synthetic microstructure technology considerations for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3534–3537 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Jark, “Enhancement of diffraction grating efficiencies in the soft x-ray region by a multilayer coating,” Opt. Commun. 60, 201–205 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 80 to 1700eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. SPIE688, 81–90 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Berrouane, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, C. Khan Malek, R. Rivoira, “Soft x-ray multilayer gratings with subhalfmicron period,” Opt. Commun. 76, 111–115 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. A. Chernov, N. I. Chkhlao, N. V. Kovalenko, S. V. Mytnichenko, “Fabrication and performance characteristics of a Ni/C multilayer grating for hard x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359, 138–140 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Krastev, F. Le Guern, K. Coat, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, M.-F. Ravet, E. Cambril, F. Rousseaux, P. Davi, “Spectral sampling of a soft x-ray tube by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 368, 533–542 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Jergel, P. Mikulik, E. Majkova, S. Luby, R. Senderak, E. Pincik, M. Brunel, P. Hudek, I. Kostic, A. Konecnikova, “Structural characterisation of lamellar multilayer gratings by x-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, A220–A223 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J.-M. André, A. Sammar, R. Barchewitz, C. Bizeuil, P. Stemmler, B. Villette, “X-UV lamellar multilayer amplitude gratings,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 8, 171–193 (1998).
  23. A. Sammar, J.-M. André, B. Pardo, “Diffraction and scattering by lamellar amplitude multilayer gratings in the X-UV region,” Opt. Commun. 86, 245–254 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Krastev, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, “Further applications of a recursive modal method for calculating the efficiencies of X-UV multilayer gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2027–2033 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1999

C. Hombourger, P. Jonnard, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, “Use of layered synthetic microstructures for the quantitative analysis of light elements,” X-Ray Spectrom. 28, 163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Jergel, P. Mikulik, E. Majkova, S. Luby, R. Senderak, E. Pincik, M. Brunel, P. Hudek, I. Kostic, A. Konecnikova, “Structural characterisation of lamellar multilayer gratings by x-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, A220–A223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J.-M. André, A. Sammar, R. Barchewitz, C. Bizeuil, P. Stemmler, B. Villette, “X-UV lamellar multilayer amplitude gratings,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 8, 171–193 (1998).

1997

A. Sammar, K. Krastev, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, R. Rivoira, “Narrow bandpass multilayer x-ray monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2969–2972 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Krastev, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, “Further applications of a recursive modal method for calculating the efficiencies of X-UV multilayer gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2027–2033 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Fialin, H. Rémy, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, F. Rousseaux, M.-F. Ravet, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, “Extending the possibilities of soft x-ray spectrometry through the etching of layered synthtic microstructure monochromators,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 60–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Krastev, F. Le Guern, K. Coat, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, M.-F. Ravet, E. Cambril, F. Rousseaux, P. Davi, “Spectral sampling of a soft x-ray tube by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 368, 533–542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Habulihaz, E. Martins, S. Gampblin, D. S. Urch, “Chemical effects in soft x-ray spectra-even with multilayers: silicon L spectra using a 300 angströms device,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 15–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

V. A. Chernov, N. I. Chkhlao, N. V. Kovalenko, S. V. Mytnichenko, “Fabrication and performance characteristics of a Ni/C multilayer grating for hard x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359, 138–140 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. S. Urch, “Soft x-ray spectroscopy,” J. Phys. III France 4, 1613–1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. E. Sammar, J.-M. André, M. Ouahabi, B. Pardo, R. Barchewitz, “Monochromateur multicouche à bande passante étroite pour le rayonnement X,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 316-II, 1055–1060 (1993).

1991

A. Sammar, J.-M. André, B. Pardo, “Diffraction and scattering by lamellar amplitude multilayer gratings in the X-UV region,” Opt. Commun. 86, 245–254 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Nicolosi, J. P. Groven, D. Merlo, R. Jenkins, “Layered synthetic microstructures for long wavelength x-ray spectrometry,” Opt. Eng. 25, 964–970 (1991).

J. J. McGee, J. F. Slack, C. R. Herrington, “Boron analysis by electron microprobe using MoB4C layered synthetic crystals,” Am. Mineral. 76, 681–684 (1991).

1990

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 80 to 1700eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Berrouane, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, C. Khan Malek, R. Rivoira, “Soft x-ray multilayer gratings with subhalfmicron period,” Opt. Commun. 76, 111–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

B. Pardo, T. Mégadémini, J.-M. André, “X-UV synthetic interference mirror: a theoretical approach,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1579–1597 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. Arbaoui, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, Y. Lepêtre, R. Rivoira, “Performances of a layered synthetic microstructure spectrogoniometer for characterictic x-ray lines,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1207–1211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. Jark, “Enhancement of diffraction grating efficiencies in the soft x-ray region by a multilayer coating,” Opt. Commun. 60, 201–205 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. Arbaoui, J.-M. André, P. Couillaux, R. Barchewitz, “Versatile x-uv spectrogoniometer with multilayer interference mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2055–2058 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

1983

André, J.-M.

C. Hombourger, P. Jonnard, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, “Use of layered synthetic microstructures for the quantitative analysis of light elements,” X-Ray Spectrom. 28, 163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. André, A. Sammar, R. Barchewitz, C. Bizeuil, P. Stemmler, B. Villette, “X-UV lamellar multilayer amplitude gratings,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 8, 171–193 (1998).

A. Sammar, K. Krastev, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, R. Rivoira, “Narrow bandpass multilayer x-ray monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2969–2972 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Krastev, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, “Further applications of a recursive modal method for calculating the efficiencies of X-UV multilayer gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2027–2033 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Fialin, H. Rémy, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, F. Rousseaux, M.-F. Ravet, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, “Extending the possibilities of soft x-ray spectrometry through the etching of layered synthtic microstructure monochromators,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 60–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Krastev, F. Le Guern, K. Coat, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, M.-F. Ravet, E. Cambril, F. Rousseaux, P. Davi, “Spectral sampling of a soft x-ray tube by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 368, 533–542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Sammar, J.-M. André, M. Ouahabi, B. Pardo, R. Barchewitz, “Monochromateur multicouche à bande passante étroite pour le rayonnement X,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 316-II, 1055–1060 (1993).

A. Sammar, J.-M. André, B. Pardo, “Diffraction and scattering by lamellar amplitude multilayer gratings in the X-UV region,” Opt. Commun. 86, 245–254 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Berrouane, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, C. Khan Malek, R. Rivoira, “Soft x-ray multilayer gratings with subhalfmicron period,” Opt. Commun. 76, 111–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Pardo, T. Mégadémini, J.-M. André, “X-UV synthetic interference mirror: a theoretical approach,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1579–1597 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Arbaoui, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, Y. Lepêtre, R. Rivoira, “Performances of a layered synthetic microstructure spectrogoniometer for characterictic x-ray lines,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1207–1211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Arbaoui, J.-M. André, P. Couillaux, R. Barchewitz, “Versatile x-uv spectrogoniometer with multilayer interference mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2055–2058 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Marmoret, J.-M. André, “Bragg reflectivity of layered synthetic microstructures in the x-ray anomalous scattering regions,” Appl. Opt. 22, 17–19 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbaoui, M.

M. Arbaoui, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, Y. Lepêtre, R. Rivoira, “Performances of a layered synthetic microstructure spectrogoniometer for characterictic x-ray lines,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1207–1211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Arbaoui, J.-M. André, P. Couillaux, R. Barchewitz, “Versatile x-uv spectrogoniometer with multilayer interference mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2055–2058 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 80 to 1700eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barchewitz, R.

J.-M. André, A. Sammar, R. Barchewitz, C. Bizeuil, P. Stemmler, B. Villette, “X-UV lamellar multilayer amplitude gratings,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 8, 171–193 (1998).

A. Sammar, K. Krastev, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, R. Rivoira, “Narrow bandpass multilayer x-ray monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2969–2972 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Krastev, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, “Further applications of a recursive modal method for calculating the efficiencies of X-UV multilayer gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2027–2033 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Krastev, F. Le Guern, K. Coat, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, M.-F. Ravet, E. Cambril, F. Rousseaux, P. Davi, “Spectral sampling of a soft x-ray tube by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 368, 533–542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Sammar, J.-M. André, M. Ouahabi, B. Pardo, R. Barchewitz, “Monochromateur multicouche à bande passante étroite pour le rayonnement X,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 316-II, 1055–1060 (1993).

H. Berrouane, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, C. Khan Malek, R. Rivoira, “Soft x-ray multilayer gratings with subhalfmicron period,” Opt. Commun. 76, 111–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Arbaoui, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, Y. Lepêtre, R. Rivoira, “Performances of a layered synthetic microstructure spectrogoniometer for characterictic x-ray lines,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1207–1211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Arbaoui, J.-M. André, P. Couillaux, R. Barchewitz, “Versatile x-uv spectrogoniometer with multilayer interference mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2055–2058 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Berrouane, H.

H. Berrouane, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, C. Khan Malek, R. Rivoira, “Soft x-ray multilayer gratings with subhalfmicron period,” Opt. Commun. 76, 111–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bizeuil, C.

J.-M. André, A. Sammar, R. Barchewitz, C. Bizeuil, P. Stemmler, B. Villette, “X-UV lamellar multilayer amplitude gratings,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 8, 171–193 (1998).

Brunel, M.

M. Jergel, P. Mikulik, E. Majkova, S. Luby, R. Senderak, E. Pincik, M. Brunel, P. Hudek, I. Kostic, A. Konecnikova, “Structural characterisation of lamellar multilayer gratings by x-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, A220–A223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cambril, E.

M. Fialin, H. Rémy, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, F. Rousseaux, M.-F. Ravet, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, “Extending the possibilities of soft x-ray spectrometry through the etching of layered synthtic microstructure monochromators,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 60–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Krastev, F. Le Guern, K. Coat, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, M.-F. Ravet, E. Cambril, F. Rousseaux, P. Davi, “Spectral sampling of a soft x-ray tube by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 368, 533–542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. SPIE688, 81–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chauvineau, J.-P.

C. Hombourger, P. Jonnard, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, “Use of layered synthetic microstructures for the quantitative analysis of light elements,” X-Ray Spectrom. 28, 163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Fialin, H. Rémy, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, F. Rousseaux, M.-F. Ravet, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, “Extending the possibilities of soft x-ray spectrometry through the etching of layered synthtic microstructure monochromators,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 60–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chernov, V. A.

V. A. Chernov, N. I. Chkhlao, N. V. Kovalenko, S. V. Mytnichenko, “Fabrication and performance characteristics of a Ni/C multilayer grating for hard x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359, 138–140 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chkhlao, N. I.

V. A. Chernov, N. I. Chkhlao, N. V. Kovalenko, S. V. Mytnichenko, “Fabrication and performance characteristics of a Ni/C multilayer grating for hard x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359, 138–140 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coat, K.

K. Krastev, F. Le Guern, K. Coat, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, M.-F. Ravet, E. Cambril, F. Rousseaux, P. Davi, “Spectral sampling of a soft x-ray tube by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 368, 533–542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Couillaux, P.

M. Arbaoui, J.-M. André, P. Couillaux, R. Barchewitz, “Versatile x-uv spectrogoniometer with multilayer interference mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2055–2058 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 80 to 1700eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danzmann, K.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. SPIE688, 81–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Davi, P.

K. Krastev, F. Le Guern, K. Coat, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, M.-F. Ravet, E. Cambril, F. Rousseaux, P. Davi, “Spectral sampling of a soft x-ray tube by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 368, 533–542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Decanini, D.

M. Fialin, H. Rémy, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, F. Rousseaux, M.-F. Ravet, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, “Extending the possibilities of soft x-ray spectrometry through the etching of layered synthtic microstructure monochromators,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 60–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fialin, M.

M. Fialin, H. Rémy, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, F. Rousseaux, M.-F. Ravet, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, “Extending the possibilities of soft x-ray spectrometry through the etching of layered synthtic microstructure monochromators,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 60–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gampblin, S.

B. Habulihaz, E. Martins, S. Gampblin, D. S. Urch, “Chemical effects in soft x-ray spectra-even with multilayers: silicon L spectra using a 300 angströms device,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 15–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Groven, J. P.

J. A. Nicolosi, J. P. Groven, D. Merlo, R. Jenkins, “Layered synthetic microstructures for long wavelength x-ray spectrometry,” Opt. Eng. 25, 964–970 (1991).

Habulihaz, B.

B. Habulihaz, E. Martins, S. Gampblin, D. S. Urch, “Chemical effects in soft x-ray spectra-even with multilayers: silicon L spectra using a 300 angströms device,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 15–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hawryluk, A. M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. SPIE688, 81–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Herrington, C. R.

J. J. McGee, J. F. Slack, C. R. Herrington, “Boron analysis by electron microprobe using MoB4C layered synthetic crystals,” Am. Mineral. 76, 681–684 (1991).

Hombourger, C.

C. Hombourger, P. Jonnard, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, “Use of layered synthetic microstructures for the quantitative analysis of light elements,” X-Ray Spectrom. 28, 163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hudek, P.

M. Jergel, P. Mikulik, E. Majkova, S. Luby, R. Senderak, E. Pincik, M. Brunel, P. Hudek, I. Kostic, A. Konecnikova, “Structural characterisation of lamellar multilayer gratings by x-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, A220–A223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 80 to 1700eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jark, W.

W. Jark, “Enhancement of diffraction grating efficiencies in the soft x-ray region by a multilayer coating,” Opt. Commun. 60, 201–205 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, R.

J. A. Nicolosi, J. P. Groven, D. Merlo, R. Jenkins, “Layered synthetic microstructures for long wavelength x-ray spectrometry,” Opt. Eng. 25, 964–970 (1991).

Jergel, M.

M. Jergel, P. Mikulik, E. Majkova, S. Luby, R. Senderak, E. Pincik, M. Brunel, P. Hudek, I. Kostic, A. Konecnikova, “Structural characterisation of lamellar multilayer gratings by x-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, A220–A223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jonnard, P.

C. Hombourger, P. Jonnard, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, “Use of layered synthetic microstructures for the quantitative analysis of light elements,” X-Ray Spectrom. 28, 163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

Khan Malek, C.

H. Berrouane, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, C. Khan Malek, R. Rivoira, “Soft x-ray multilayer gratings with subhalfmicron period,” Opt. Commun. 76, 111–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Konecnikova, A.

M. Jergel, P. Mikulik, E. Majkova, S. Luby, R. Senderak, E. Pincik, M. Brunel, P. Hudek, I. Kostic, A. Konecnikova, “Structural characterisation of lamellar multilayer gratings by x-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, A220–A223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kostic, I.

M. Jergel, P. Mikulik, E. Majkova, S. Luby, R. Senderak, E. Pincik, M. Brunel, P. Hudek, I. Kostic, A. Konecnikova, “Structural characterisation of lamellar multilayer gratings by x-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, A220–A223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kovalenko, N. V.

V. A. Chernov, N. I. Chkhlao, N. V. Kovalenko, S. V. Mytnichenko, “Fabrication and performance characteristics of a Ni/C multilayer grating for hard x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359, 138–140 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krastev, K.

A. Sammar, K. Krastev, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, R. Rivoira, “Narrow bandpass multilayer x-ray monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2969–2972 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Krastev, F. Le Guern, K. Coat, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, M.-F. Ravet, E. Cambril, F. Rousseaux, P. Davi, “Spectral sampling of a soft x-ray tube by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 368, 533–542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Krastev, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, “Further applications of a recursive modal method for calculating the efficiencies of X-UV multilayer gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2027–2033 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuhne, M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. SPIE688, 81–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Le Guern, F.

K. Krastev, F. Le Guern, K. Coat, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, M.-F. Ravet, E. Cambril, F. Rousseaux, P. Davi, “Spectral sampling of a soft x-ray tube by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 368, 533–542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lepêtre, Y.

M. Arbaoui, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, Y. Lepêtre, R. Rivoira, “Performances of a layered synthetic microstructure spectrogoniometer for characterictic x-ray lines,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1207–1211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Luby, S.

M. Jergel, P. Mikulik, E. Majkova, S. Luby, R. Senderak, E. Pincik, M. Brunel, P. Hudek, I. Kostic, A. Konecnikova, “Structural characterisation of lamellar multilayer gratings by x-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, A220–A223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Majkova, E.

M. Jergel, P. Mikulik, E. Majkova, S. Luby, R. Senderak, E. Pincik, M. Brunel, P. Hudek, I. Kostic, A. Konecnikova, “Structural characterisation of lamellar multilayer gratings by x-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, A220–A223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marmoret, R.

Martins, E.

B. Habulihaz, E. Martins, S. Gampblin, D. S. Urch, “Chemical effects in soft x-ray spectra-even with multilayers: silicon L spectra using a 300 angströms device,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 15–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McGee, J. J.

J. J. McGee, J. F. Slack, C. R. Herrington, “Boron analysis by electron microprobe using MoB4C layered synthetic crystals,” Am. Mineral. 76, 681–684 (1991).

Mégadémini, T.

B. Pardo, T. Mégadémini, J.-M. André, “X-UV synthetic interference mirror: a theoretical approach,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1579–1597 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Merlo, D.

J. A. Nicolosi, J. P. Groven, D. Merlo, R. Jenkins, “Layered synthetic microstructures for long wavelength x-ray spectrometry,” Opt. Eng. 25, 964–970 (1991).

Mikulik, P.

M. Jergel, P. Mikulik, E. Majkova, S. Luby, R. Senderak, E. Pincik, M. Brunel, P. Hudek, I. Kostic, A. Konecnikova, “Structural characterisation of lamellar multilayer gratings by x-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, A220–A223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Müller, P.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. SPIE688, 81–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mytnichenko, S. V.

V. A. Chernov, N. I. Chkhlao, N. V. Kovalenko, S. V. Mytnichenko, “Fabrication and performance characteristics of a Ni/C multilayer grating for hard x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359, 138–140 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nicolosi, J. A.

J. A. Nicolosi, J. P. Groven, D. Merlo, R. Jenkins, “Layered synthetic microstructures for long wavelength x-ray spectrometry,” Opt. Eng. 25, 964–970 (1991).

Ouahabi, M.

A. E. Sammar, J.-M. André, M. Ouahabi, B. Pardo, R. Barchewitz, “Monochromateur multicouche à bande passante étroite pour le rayonnement X,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 316-II, 1055–1060 (1993).

Pardo, B.

A. E. Sammar, J.-M. André, M. Ouahabi, B. Pardo, R. Barchewitz, “Monochromateur multicouche à bande passante étroite pour le rayonnement X,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 316-II, 1055–1060 (1993).

A. Sammar, J.-M. André, B. Pardo, “Diffraction and scattering by lamellar amplitude multilayer gratings in the X-UV region,” Opt. Commun. 86, 245–254 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Pardo, T. Mégadémini, J.-M. André, “X-UV synthetic interference mirror: a theoretical approach,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1579–1597 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pincik, E.

M. Jergel, P. Mikulik, E. Majkova, S. Luby, R. Senderak, E. Pincik, M. Brunel, P. Hudek, I. Kostic, A. Konecnikova, “Structural characterisation of lamellar multilayer gratings by x-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, A220–A223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ravet, M.-F.

M. Fialin, H. Rémy, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, F. Rousseaux, M.-F. Ravet, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, “Extending the possibilities of soft x-ray spectrometry through the etching of layered synthtic microstructure monochromators,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 60–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Krastev, F. Le Guern, K. Coat, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, M.-F. Ravet, E. Cambril, F. Rousseaux, P. Davi, “Spectral sampling of a soft x-ray tube by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 368, 533–542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rémy, H.

M. Fialin, H. Rémy, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, F. Rousseaux, M.-F. Ravet, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, “Extending the possibilities of soft x-ray spectrometry through the etching of layered synthtic microstructure monochromators,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 60–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rife, J. C.

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 80 to 1700eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivoira, R.

A. Sammar, K. Krastev, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, R. Rivoira, “Narrow bandpass multilayer x-ray monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2969–2972 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Berrouane, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, C. Khan Malek, R. Rivoira, “Soft x-ray multilayer gratings with subhalfmicron period,” Opt. Commun. 76, 111–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Arbaoui, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, Y. Lepêtre, R. Rivoira, “Performances of a layered synthetic microstructure spectrogoniometer for characterictic x-ray lines,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1207–1211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rousseaux, F.

M. Fialin, H. Rémy, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, F. Rousseaux, M.-F. Ravet, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, “Extending the possibilities of soft x-ray spectrometry through the etching of layered synthtic microstructure monochromators,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 60–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Krastev, F. Le Guern, K. Coat, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, M.-F. Ravet, E. Cambril, F. Rousseaux, P. Davi, “Spectral sampling of a soft x-ray tube by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 368, 533–542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sammar, A.

J.-M. André, A. Sammar, R. Barchewitz, C. Bizeuil, P. Stemmler, B. Villette, “X-UV lamellar multilayer amplitude gratings,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 8, 171–193 (1998).

A. Sammar, K. Krastev, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, R. Rivoira, “Narrow bandpass multilayer x-ray monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2969–2972 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Sammar, J.-M. André, B. Pardo, “Diffraction and scattering by lamellar amplitude multilayer gratings in the X-UV region,” Opt. Commun. 86, 245–254 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sammar, A. E.

A. E. Sammar, J.-M. André, M. Ouahabi, B. Pardo, R. Barchewitz, “Monochromateur multicouche à bande passante étroite pour le rayonnement X,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 316-II, 1055–1060 (1993).

Senderak, R.

M. Jergel, P. Mikulik, E. Majkova, S. Luby, R. Senderak, E. Pincik, M. Brunel, P. Hudek, I. Kostic, A. Konecnikova, “Structural characterisation of lamellar multilayer gratings by x-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, A220–A223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slack, J. F.

J. J. McGee, J. F. Slack, C. R. Herrington, “Boron analysis by electron microprobe using MoB4C layered synthetic crystals,” Am. Mineral. 76, 681–684 (1991).

Stearns, D. G.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. SPIE688, 81–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stemmler, P.

J.-M. André, A. Sammar, R. Barchewitz, C. Bizeuil, P. Stemmler, B. Villette, “X-UV lamellar multilayer amplitude gratings,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 8, 171–193 (1998).

Urch, D. S.

B. Habulihaz, E. Martins, S. Gampblin, D. S. Urch, “Chemical effects in soft x-ray spectra-even with multilayers: silicon L spectra using a 300 angströms device,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 15–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Urch, “Soft x-ray spectroscopy,” J. Phys. III France 4, 1613–1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Villette, B.

J.-M. André, A. Sammar, R. Barchewitz, C. Bizeuil, P. Stemmler, B. Villette, “X-UV lamellar multilayer amplitude gratings,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 8, 171–193 (1998).

Wende, B.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. SPIE688, 81–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Am. Mineral.

J. J. McGee, J. F. Slack, C. R. Herrington, “Boron analysis by electron microprobe using MoB4C layered synthetic crystals,” Am. Mineral. 76, 681–684 (1991).

Appl. Opt.

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris

A. E. Sammar, J.-M. André, M. Ouahabi, B. Pardo, R. Barchewitz, “Monochromateur multicouche à bande passante étroite pour le rayonnement X,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 316-II, 1055–1060 (1993).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. D

M. Jergel, P. Mikulik, E. Majkova, S. Luby, R. Senderak, E. Pincik, M. Brunel, P. Hudek, I. Kostic, A. Konecnikova, “Structural characterisation of lamellar multilayer gratings by x-ray reflectivity and scanning electron microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, A220–A223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. III France

D. S. Urch, “Soft x-ray spectroscopy,” J. Phys. III France 4, 1613–1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. X-ray Sci. Technol.

J.-M. André, A. Sammar, R. Barchewitz, C. Bizeuil, P. Stemmler, B. Villette, “X-UV lamellar multilayer amplitude gratings,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 8, 171–193 (1998).

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A

K. Krastev, F. Le Guern, K. Coat, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, M.-F. Ravet, E. Cambril, F. Rousseaux, P. Davi, “Spectral sampling of a soft x-ray tube by a lamellar multilayer grating in standard and conical mountings,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 368, 533–542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

V. A. Chernov, N. I. Chkhlao, N. V. Kovalenko, S. V. Mytnichenko, “Fabrication and performance characteristics of a Ni/C multilayer grating for hard x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359, 138–140 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H. Berrouane, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, C. Khan Malek, R. Rivoira, “Soft x-ray multilayer gratings with subhalfmicron period,” Opt. Commun. 76, 111–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Sammar, J.-M. André, B. Pardo, “Diffraction and scattering by lamellar amplitude multilayer gratings in the X-UV region,” Opt. Commun. 86, 245–254 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Jark, “Enhancement of diffraction grating efficiencies in the soft x-ray region by a multilayer coating,” Opt. Commun. 60, 201–205 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. A. Nicolosi, J. P. Groven, D. Merlo, R. Jenkins, “Layered synthetic microstructures for long wavelength x-ray spectrometry,” Opt. Eng. 25, 964–970 (1991).

M. Arbaoui, R. Barchewitz, J.-M. André, Y. Lepêtre, R. Rivoira, “Performances of a layered synthetic microstructure spectrogoniometer for characterictic x-ray lines,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1207–1211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr.

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 80 to 1700eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl.

B. Pardo, T. Mégadémini, J.-M. André, “X-UV synthetic interference mirror: a theoretical approach,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1579–1597 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. Arbaoui, J.-M. André, P. Couillaux, R. Barchewitz, “Versatile x-uv spectrogoniometer with multilayer interference mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2055–2058 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Sammar, K. Krastev, J.-M. André, R. Barchewitz, R. Rivoira, “Narrow bandpass multilayer x-ray monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2969–2972 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X-Ray Spectrom.

B. Habulihaz, E. Martins, S. Gampblin, D. S. Urch, “Chemical effects in soft x-ray spectra-even with multilayers: silicon L spectra using a 300 angströms device,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 15–20 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Hombourger, P. Jonnard, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, “Use of layered synthetic microstructures for the quantitative analysis of light elements,” X-Ray Spectrom. 28, 163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Fialin, H. Rémy, J.-M. André, J.-P. Chauvineau, F. Rousseaux, M.-F. Ravet, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, “Extending the possibilities of soft x-ray spectrometry through the etching of layered synthtic microstructure monochromators,” X-Ray Spectrom. 25, 60–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, K. Danzmann, M. Kuhne, P. Müller, B. Wende, “Soft x-ray beamsplitters and highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for use as soft x-ray laser cavity components,” in Multilayer Structures Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. SPIE688, 81–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a LMAG monochromator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Process for fabricating the LMAG by UV lithography and RIE. Details of the different steps from (a)–(e) are given in the main text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between the experimental reflectivity and the glancing angle, of the LMAG monochromator and the corresponding MIM at the photon energy 1500 eV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between the theoretical reflectivity and the glancing angle, of the LMAG monochromator and the corresponding MIM at the photon energy 1500 eV.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM micrograph of our LMAG.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrum of an aluminum target recorded with the LMAG monochromator and the corresponding MIM. The Al-Kα line is observed at the two first orders of Bragg diffraction.

Equations (1)

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RCθc4/sin4 θ,

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