Abstract

The control and the characterization of optical losses are crucial elements in the design of high-quality thin films. Nonuniformity of losses and the existence of local defects have led us to perform simultaneous absorption and scattering mapping in exactly the same experimental conditions. An improved setup and new procedures are capable of providing such paired mappings of absorption and partial scattering at various spatial scales. The diameter of the pump beam, which governs lateral spatial resolution, can be chosen to be 3–100 µm. The detectivity threshold can be as low as 0.1 part in 106 for absorption and 0.01 part in 106 for mapping partial scattering. Spatial windows can range from micrometer-sized areas for the study of micro defects to centimeter-sized areas on which the uniformity of losses can be checked. We study the spatial distribution of absorption and scattering losses under scale transformation by changing the spatial window while keeping the spatial resolution constant. We present one-dimensional and bidimensional multiscale studies. For example, we show that one can use multiscale mapping of defects to evaluate the qualities of substrate cleaning, which are not identical on micrometric and centimetric scales.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  25. A. Gatto, M. Commandré, “Multiscale mapping technique for the simultaneous estimation of absorption and partial scattering of optical coatings,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 110–123 (2000).
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1997 (1)

E. Welsch, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288, 8–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. Deumié, R. Richier, P. Dumas, C. Amra, “Multiscale roughness in optical multilayers: atomic force microscopy and light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5583–5594 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5012–5034 (1996).

1995 (2)

1994 (4)

A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, “Micrometer resolved inspection of defects and laser damage sites in UV high-reflecting coatings by photothermal displacement microscopy,” J. Phys. IV 4, C7611–C7614 (1994).

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Photothermal absorption microscopy of defects in ZrO2 and MgF2 single layer films,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1334–1342 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. Amra, “Light scattering from multilayer optics. A. Investigation tools,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 197–210 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. Amra, “Light scattering from multilayer optics. II. Application to experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 221–226 (1994).

1993 (3)

1992 (1)

1973 (1)

D. Milam, R. A. Bradbury, “The role of inclusions and linear absorption in laser damage to dielectric mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage to Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ. 387, 124–132 (1973).

Albrand, G.

Amra, C.

C. Deumié, R. Richier, P. Dumas, C. Amra, “Multiscale roughness in optical multilayers: atomic force microscopy and light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5583–5594 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Amra, “Light scattering from multilayer optics. A. Investigation tools,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 197–210 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. Amra, “Light scattering from multilayer optics. II. Application to experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 221–226 (1994).

C. Amra, C. Grèzes-Besset, L. Bruel, “Comparison of surface and bulk scattering in optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5492–5503 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balasubramanian, K.

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).

Boccara, C. A.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bodeman, A.

M. Reichling, A. Bodeman, N. Kaiser, “New insight into defect-induced damage in UV multilayer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 307–316 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bodemann, A.

A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, “Micrometer resolved inspection of defects and laser damage sites in UV high-reflecting coatings by photothermal displacement microscopy,” J. Phys. IV 4, C7611–C7614 (1994).

Borgogno, J. P.

Bradbury, R. A.

D. Milam, R. A. Bradbury, “The role of inclusions and linear absorption in laser damage to dielectric mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage to Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ. 387, 124–132 (1973).

Broulik, U.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bruel, L.

Bussemer, P.

Chow, R.

M. R. Kozlowski, R. Chow, “The role of defects in laser damage of multilayer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2114, 640–649 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Commandre, M.

M. Commandre, P. Roche, A. Gatto, L. Escoubas, “Multiscale absorption and scattering mapping,” presented at the Conference on Optical Interface Coating, Tucson, Arizona, 7–12 June 1998.

Commandré, M.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5012–5034 (1996).

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Absorption mapping for characterization of glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2372–2379 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gatto, M. Commandré, “Statistical distribution of optical losses in bare substrates and thin films through increasing spatial windows,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 197–207 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Gatto, M. Commandré, “Multiscale mapping technique for the simultaneous estimation of absorption and partial scattering of optical coatings,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 110–123 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Desrumeaux, C.

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, C. Desrumeaux, “Nano absorbing centers: a key point in laser damage of thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 315–325 (1997).

Deumié, C.

Dijon, J.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, C. Desrumeaux, “Nano absorbing centers: a key point in laser damage of thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 315–325 (1997).

Dumas, P.

Duparré, A.

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288, 8–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Photothermal absorption microscopy of defects in ZrO2 and MgF2 single layer films,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1334–1342 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. Kassam, A. Duparré, K. Hehl, P. Bussemer, J. Neubert, “Light scattering from the volume of optical thin films: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1304–1313 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehlers, H.

U. Willamowski, D. Ristau, T. Gross, P. Kadkhoda, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, “Bestimmung des Absorptionsgrads,” in Untersuchungen zu ISO Standardmessverfarhen zur Charakterisierung optischer Laserkomponenten, Eureka-Verbundprojekt EUROLASER CHOCLAB (EU 1269), Instruments and Standardization Procedures for Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover, Germany, 1998), pp. 31–97.

Escoubas, L.

L. Escoubas, “Cartographies d’absorption et de diffusion de couches minces optiques. Bilan des pertes interfaces/volume. Corrélation défauts locaux—endommagement laser,” D. Sc. dissertation (Université d’Aix-Marseille III, Marseille, France1997).

M. Commandre, P. Roche, A. Gatto, L. Escoubas, “Multiscale absorption and scattering mapping,” presented at the Conference on Optical Interface Coating, Tucson, Arizona, 7–12 June 1998.

Fan, Z. X.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gatto, A.

A. Gatto, “Défauts locaux absorbants et diffusants—rôle et évolution dans l’irradiation—corrélation—etude multi-échelles,” D. Sc. dissertation (Université d’Aix-Marseille III, Marseille, France, 1999).

A. Gatto, M. Commandré, “Statistical distribution of optical losses in bare substrates and thin films through increasing spatial windows,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 197–207 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Commandre, P. Roche, A. Gatto, L. Escoubas, “Multiscale absorption and scattering mapping,” presented at the Conference on Optical Interface Coating, Tucson, Arizona, 7–12 June 1998.

A. Gatto, M. Commandré, “Multiscale mapping technique for the simultaneous estimation of absorption and partial scattering of optical coatings,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 110–123 (2000).
[Crossref]

Giesen, A.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Grèzes-Besset, C.

Gross, T.

U. Willamowski, D. Ristau, T. Gross, P. Kadkhoda, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, “Bestimmung des Absorptionsgrads,” in Untersuchungen zu ISO Standardmessverfarhen zur Charakterisierung optischer Laserkomponenten, Eureka-Verbundprojekt EUROLASER CHOCLAB (EU 1269), Instruments and Standardization Procedures for Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover, Germany, 1998), pp. 31–97.

Guenther, K. H.

Hehl, K.

Hu, X.-Q.

Kadkhoda, P.

U. Willamowski, D. Ristau, T. Gross, P. Kadkhoda, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, “Bestimmung des Absorptionsgrads,” in Untersuchungen zu ISO Standardmessverfarhen zur Charakterisierung optischer Laserkomponenten, Eureka-Verbundprojekt EUROLASER CHOCLAB (EU 1269), Instruments and Standardization Procedures for Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover, Germany, 1998), pp. 31–97.

Kaiser, N.

E. Welsch, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, “Micrometer resolved inspection of defects and laser damage sites in UV high-reflecting coatings by photothermal displacement microscopy,” J. Phys. IV 4, C7611–C7614 (1994).

M. Reichling, A. Bodeman, N. Kaiser, “New insight into defect-induced damage in UV multilayer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 307–316 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kassam, S.

Kozlowski, M. R.

M. R. Kozlowski, R. Chow, “The role of defects in laser damage of multilayer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2114, 640–649 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kuo, P. K.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lalezari, R.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Matthias, E.

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Photothermal absorption microscopy of defects in ZrO2 and MgF2 single layer films,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1334–1342 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mattson, L.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).

Milam, D.

D. Milam, R. A. Bradbury, “The role of inclusions and linear absorption in laser damage to dielectric mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage to Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ. 387, 124–132 (1973).

Moncur, K.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Neubert, J.

Obramski, H. J.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Poiroux, T.

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, C. Desrumeaux, “Nano absorbing centers: a key point in laser damage of thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 315–325 (1997).

Reicher, D.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Reichling, M.

A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, “Micrometer resolved inspection of defects and laser damage sites in UV high-reflecting coatings by photothermal displacement microscopy,” J. Phys. IV 4, C7611–C7614 (1994).

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Photothermal absorption microscopy of defects in ZrO2 and MgF2 single layer films,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1334–1342 (1994).
[Crossref]

E. Welsch, M. Reichling, “Micrometer resolved photothermal displacement inspection of optical coatings,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1455–1475 (1993).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, X.-Q. Hu, K. Balasubramanian, K. H. Guenther, “Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxyde thin films deposited by reactive low voltage ion plating measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5660–5664 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Reichling, A. Bodeman, N. Kaiser, “New insight into defect-induced damage in UV multilayer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 307–316 (1995).
[Crossref]

Richier, R.

Ristau, D.

E. Welsch, D. Ristau, “Photothermal measurements on optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7239–7253 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

U. Willamowski, D. Ristau, T. Gross, P. Kadkhoda, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, “Bestimmung des Absorptionsgrads,” in Untersuchungen zu ISO Standardmessverfarhen zur Charakterisierung optischer Laserkomponenten, Eureka-Verbundprojekt EUROLASER CHOCLAB (EU 1269), Instruments and Standardization Procedures for Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover, Germany, 1998), pp. 31–97.

Roche, P.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5012–5034 (1996).

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Absorption mapping for characterization of glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2372–2379 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Commandre, P. Roche, A. Gatto, L. Escoubas, “Multiscale absorption and scattering mapping,” presented at the Conference on Optical Interface Coating, Tucson, Arizona, 7–12 June 1998.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ruppe, C.

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288, 8–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schafer, D.

E. Welsch, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
[Crossref]

Starke, K.

U. Willamowski, D. Ristau, T. Gross, P. Kadkhoda, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, “Bestimmung des Absorptionsgrads,” in Untersuchungen zu ISO Standardmessverfarhen zur Charakterisierung optischer Laserkomponenten, Eureka-Verbundprojekt EUROLASER CHOCLAB (EU 1269), Instruments and Standardization Procedures for Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover, Germany, 1998), pp. 31–97.

Steiger, B.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J. R.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thomas, M.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thomsen-Schmidt, P.

E. Welsch, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
[Crossref]

Von Gunten, M.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Welsch, E.

E. Welsch, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. Welsch, D. Ristau, “Photothermal measurements on optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7239–7253 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Photothermal absorption microscopy of defects in ZrO2 and MgF2 single layer films,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1334–1342 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, “Micrometer resolved inspection of defects and laser damage sites in UV high-reflecting coatings by photothermal displacement microscopy,” J. Phys. IV 4, C7611–C7614 (1994).

E. Welsch, M. Reichling, “Micrometer resolved photothermal displacement inspection of optical coatings,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1455–1475 (1993).
[Crossref]

E. Welsch, “Absorption measurements,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Guenther, eds., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Chap. 9.

Willamowski, U.

U. Willamowski, D. Ristau, T. Gross, P. Kadkhoda, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, “Bestimmung des Absorptionsgrads,” in Untersuchungen zu ISO Standardmessverfarhen zur Charakterisierung optischer Laserkomponenten, Eureka-Verbundprojekt EUROLASER CHOCLAB (EU 1269), Instruments and Standardization Procedures for Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover, Germany, 1998), pp. 31–97.

Wu, Z. L.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, X.-Q. Hu, K. Balasubramanian, K. H. Guenther, “Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxyde thin films deposited by reactive low voltage ion plating measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5660–5664 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. Welsch, M. Reichling, “Micrometer resolved photothermal displacement inspection of optical coatings,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1455–1475 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

C. Amra, “Light scattering from multilayer optics. A. Investigation tools,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 197–210 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

C. Amra, “Light scattering from multilayer optics. II. Application to experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 221–226 (1994).

J. Phys. IV (1)

A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, “Micrometer resolved inspection of defects and laser damage sites in UV high-reflecting coatings by photothermal displacement microscopy,” J. Phys. IV 4, C7611–C7614 (1994).

Laser-Induced Damage to Optical Materials (1)

D. Milam, R. A. Bradbury, “The role of inclusions and linear absorption in laser damage to dielectric mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage to Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ. 387, 124–132 (1973).

Opt. Eng. (2)

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Photothermal absorption microscopy of defects in ZrO2 and MgF2 single layer films,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1334–1342 (1994).
[Crossref]

E. Welsch, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schafer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288, 8–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (14)

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, C. A. Boccara, U. Broulik, M. Commandré, J. Dijon, A. Giesen, Z. X. Fan, P. K. Kuo, R. Lalezari, K. Moncur, H. J. Obramski, D. Reicher, D. Ristau, P. Roche, B. Steiger, M. Thomas, M. Von Gunten, “Absorptance measurements of optical coatings—a round robin,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 62–73 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Reichling, A. Bodeman, N. Kaiser, “New insight into defect-induced damage in UV multilayer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 307–316 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. R. Kozlowski, R. Chow, “The role of defects in laser damage of multilayer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2114, 640–649 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, C. Desrumeaux, “Nano absorbing centers: a key point in laser damage of thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 315–325 (1997).

E. Welsch, “Absorption measurements,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Guenther, eds., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Chap. 9.

L. Escoubas, “Cartographies d’absorption et de diffusion de couches minces optiques. Bilan des pertes interfaces/volume. Corrélation défauts locaux—endommagement laser,” D. Sc. dissertation (Université d’Aix-Marseille III, Marseille, France1997).

M. Commandre, P. Roche, A. Gatto, L. Escoubas, “Multiscale absorption and scattering mapping,” presented at the Conference on Optical Interface Coating, Tucson, Arizona, 7–12 June 1998.

A. Gatto, “Défauts locaux absorbants et diffusants—rôle et évolution dans l’irradiation—corrélation—etude multi-échelles,” D. Sc. dissertation (Université d’Aix-Marseille III, Marseille, France, 1999).

A. Gatto, M. Commandré, “Statistical distribution of optical losses in bare substrates and thin films through increasing spatial windows,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 197–207 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Gatto, M. Commandré, “Multiscale mapping technique for the simultaneous estimation of absorption and partial scattering of optical coatings,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 110–123 (2000).
[Crossref]

International Organization for Standardization, ISO 11551: Test Method for Absorptance of Optical Laser Components, International Standard (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1997).

U. Willamowski, D. Ristau, T. Gross, P. Kadkhoda, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, “Bestimmung des Absorptionsgrads,” in Untersuchungen zu ISO Standardmessverfarhen zur Charakterisierung optischer Laserkomponenten, Eureka-Verbundprojekt EUROLASER CHOCLAB (EU 1269), Instruments and Standardization Procedures for Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover, Germany, 1998), pp. 31–97.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).

International Organization for Standardization,Test Method for Radiation Scattered by Optical Components, working draft of document ISO TC 172/SC 9/WG 6 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1997).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for mapping of absorption and partial scattering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Influence of pump-beam size on detection of defects. Calculation of the measured absorption for a succession of defects with increasing widths, i.e., 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 µm but the same maximal absorption value, 22 ppm, for each defect. The space between defects is 20 µm. The length of the measured line is 200 µm (201 points; sampling step, 1 µm; pump-beam diameter, 3 or 10 µm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Influence of the sampling step on detection of defects. Calculation of the measured absorption for the same succession of defects as in Fig. 2. (Pump-beam diameter, 10 µm; 201 points).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Computation of the centered F.T. of the same line absorption measurement as in Fig. 2. (Sampling step, 1 µm; pump-beam diameter, 10 µm; 201 points).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two-dimensional multiscale study of absorption. Example of absorption mapping on a bare fused-silica substrate (Herasil H1) before cleaning for three increasing spatial windows. Mapping parameters: pump-beam diameter, 10 µm; probe-beam diameter, 28 µm; number of points, 400. The spatial window increases from 0.2 mm × 0.2 mm for scale I [(a) perspective, (b) histogram, (c) 2D F.T.] to 2 mm × 2 mm for scale II [(a)–(c)] and then 20 mm × 20 mm in scale III [(a)–(c)]. The three respective sampling steps are 10, 100, and 1000 µm. For (c) the x and y axes are given in inverse meters.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two-dimensional multiscale study of absorption. Examples of absorption mapping on the same area of the bare fused-silica substrate after cleaning for three increasing spatial windows. Mapping parameters are the same as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two-dimensional multiscale study of partial scattering. Example of scattering mappings on the bare-fused silica substrate before cleaning for three increasing spatial windows. Common mapping parameters are the same as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

One-dimensional multiscale study of absorption on a low contrast resolution target. (a) F.T. of the line series measurements on a log–log scale. Frequency modulation is detected (the spatial frequencies are in inverse meters on the x axis). (b), (c) Overview of the absorption values along the line measurements: (b) 100- and 200 µm-long lines, (c) 800- and 1600-µm-long lines.

Equations (3)

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Px=P0ρπ/2exp-2x/ρ2,  P0=-+ Pxdx.
Asimx0=1P0-+ AxPx-x0dx.
Asimiτ=1P0-+ AxPx-iτdx.

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