Abstract

A method, believed novel, is demonstrated for determining the strain-optic coefficient profile as well as the residual-stress profile of an optical fiber by use of a modified polariscope combined with a fiber-elongation apparatus. Measurement results of the residual-stress and the strain-optic coefficient profiles for Ge-doped and Er–Ge–Al-doped optical fibers are demonstrated with this method.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, “Tension increase correlated to refractive-index change in fibers containing UV-written Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1346–1348 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Characteristics of long-period fiber grating utilizing periodic stress relaxation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440–443 (2000).
  4. C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. L. Chu, T. Whitbread, “Measurement of stresses in optical fiber and preform,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4241–4245 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Park, K. Oh, U.-C. Paek, D. Y. Kim, C. R. Kurkjian, “Residual stresses in a doubly clad fiber with depressed inner cladding (DIC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1823–1833 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. W. Raine, “A microscope for measuring axial stress profiles with high spatial resolution and low noise,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Optical Fiber Measurement Conference (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, 1997), pp. 269–272.
  8. K. W. Raine, R. Feced, S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, “Measurement of axial stress at high spatial resolution in ultraviolet-exposed fibers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1086–1095 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Aben, C. Guillemet, Photoelasticity of Glass (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), Chap. 7.
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. R. Nissle, C. L. Babcock, “Stress-optical coefficient as related to glass composition,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 596–598 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Matusita, R. Yokota, T. Kimijima, T. Komatsu, C. Ihara, “Compositional trends in photoelastic constants of borate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67, 261–265 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Poritsky, “Analysis of thermal stresses in sealed cylinders and the effect of viscous flow during anneal,” Physics (N.Y.) 5, 406–411 (1934).

2000 (2)

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Characteristics of long-period fiber grating utilizing periodic stress relaxation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440–443 (2000).

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1984 (1)

K. Matusita, R. Yokota, T. Kimijima, T. Komatsu, C. Ihara, “Compositional trends in photoelastic constants of borate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67, 261–265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1973 (1)

T. R. Nissle, C. L. Babcock, “Stress-optical coefficient as related to glass composition,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 596–598 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1934 (1)

H. Poritsky, “Analysis of thermal stresses in sealed cylinders and the effect of viscous flow during anneal,” Physics (N.Y.) 5, 406–411 (1934).

Aben, H.

H. Aben, C. Guillemet, Photoelasticity of Glass (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, M.

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Characteristics of long-period fiber grating utilizing periodic stress relaxation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440–443 (2000).

Babcock, C. L.

T. R. Nissle, C. L. Babcock, “Stress-optical coefficient as related to glass composition,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 596–598 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

Chung, Y.

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cordier, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feced, R.

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

Guillemet, C.

H. Aben, C. Guillemet, Photoelasticity of Glass (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

Han, W.-T.

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Handerek, V. A.

Ihara, C.

K. Matusita, R. Yokota, T. Kimijima, T. Komatsu, C. Ihara, “Compositional trends in photoelastic constants of borate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67, 261–265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kanellopoulos, S. E.

Kim, C.-S.

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Kimijima, T.

K. Matusita, R. Yokota, T. Kimijima, T. Komatsu, C. Ihara, “Compositional trends in photoelastic constants of borate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67, 261–265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, T.

K. Matusita, R. Yokota, T. Kimijima, T. Komatsu, C. Ihara, “Compositional trends in photoelastic constants of borate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67, 261–265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kurkjian, C. R.

Lee, B. H.

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

Matusita, K.

K. Matusita, R. Yokota, T. Kimijima, T. Komatsu, C. Ihara, “Compositional trends in photoelastic constants of borate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67, 261–265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishide, K.

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Characteristics of long-period fiber grating utilizing periodic stress relaxation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440–443 (2000).

Nissle, T. R.

T. R. Nissle, C. L. Babcock, “Stress-optical coefficient as related to glass composition,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 596–598 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Paek, U.-C.

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, K. Oh, U.-C. Paek, D. Y. Kim, C. R. Kurkjian, “Residual stresses in a doubly clad fiber with depressed inner cladding (DIC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1823–1833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Poignant, H.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poritsky, H.

H. Poritsky, “Analysis of thermal stresses in sealed cylinders and the effect of viscous flow during anneal,” Physics (N.Y.) 5, 406–411 (1934).

Poumellec, B.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raine, K. W.

K. W. Raine, R. Feced, S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, “Measurement of axial stress at high spatial resolution in ultraviolet-exposed fibers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1086–1095 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Raine, “A microscope for measuring axial stress profiles with high spatial resolution and low noise,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Optical Fiber Measurement Conference (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, 1997), pp. 269–272.

Salathé, R. P.

Taunay, T.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wada, A.

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Characteristics of long-period fiber grating utilizing periodic stress relaxation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440–443 (2000).

Whitbread, T.

Xie, W. X.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, S.

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Characteristics of long-period fiber grating utilizing periodic stress relaxation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440–443 (2000).

Yamauchi, R.

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Characteristics of long-period fiber grating utilizing periodic stress relaxation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440–443 (2000).

Yokota, R.

K. Matusita, R. Yokota, T. Kimijima, T. Komatsu, C. Ihara, “Compositional trends in photoelastic constants of borate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67, 261–265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Characteristics of long-period fiber grating utilizing periodic stress relaxation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440–443 (2000).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

T. R. Nissle, C. L. Babcock, “Stress-optical coefficient as related to glass composition,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 596–598 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. Matusita, R. Yokota, T. Kimijima, T. Komatsu, C. Ihara, “Compositional trends in photoelastic constants of borate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 67, 261–265 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, K. Oh, U.-C. Paek, D. Y. Kim, C. R. Kurkjian, “Residual stresses in a doubly clad fiber with depressed inner cladding (DIC),” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1823–1833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Physics (N.Y.) (1)

H. Poritsky, “Analysis of thermal stresses in sealed cylinders and the effect of viscous flow during anneal,” Physics (N.Y.) 5, 406–411 (1934).

Other (2)

K. W. Raine, “A microscope for measuring axial stress profiles with high spatial resolution and low noise,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Optical Fiber Measurement Conference (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, 1997), pp. 269–272.

H. Aben, C. Guillemet, Photoelasticity of Glass (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ray trajectory across an optical-fiber cross section.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagrams of two phase-retardation measurement setups: (a) new setup in which a rotating polarizer and a quarter-wave plate are used, (b) setup in which a variable phase compensator is used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Perspective view of the Poincaré sphere for visualizing the trajectories of the polarization state of the input beam for the experimental setup shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b), (b) side view of the polarization state trajectories on the Poincaré sphere seen from the positive y direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for the measurement of stress and strain-optic coefficient profiles of an optical fiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Three-dimensional intensity profiles of transmitted light through our experimental setup for the Er–Ge–Al-doped fiber (a) with no external strain, (b) with 0.067% external strain applied to the fiber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured phase-retardation profiles induced by the stresses in a Ge-doped fiber, in which the core is doped with Ge oxides and the inner cladding is doped with P oxides and F; (b) calculated axial component of the residual-stress profile; (c) calculated strain-optic coefficient profile.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Measured phase-retardation profiles induced by the stresses in the Er–Ge–Al-doped fiber, in which the core is doped with Er, Al, and Ge oxides and the inner cladding is doped with P oxides and F: (b) calculated axial component of the residual stress profile; (c) calculated strain-optic coefficient profile.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nz-ny=Cσz-σy,
Iy=I0 sin2Φy/2,
Φy=2πCλ-c2-y2c2-y2 σzdx+δδ0y+δ,
δ0y4πCλycσzrr2-y2 rdr.
σzr=-λ2π2Crcdδ0/dyy2-r2 dy.
δ=90°-2θ.
nz-ny=Cσz=n032p12-p111+νzPz,
Wyzi+δ0y+δiy=0, i=1,2,
Wy=-δ1y-δ2yz1-z2.
Pr=-λ2π2rcdW/dyy2-r2 dy.
zr=-λPr2π2rcdδ0/dyy2-r2 dy.

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