Abstract

Mechanical flexure is a source of major failures in astronomical spectrographs, for which the reimaging of a focal-plane pinhole has to be maintained in position within a fraction of a CCD pixel that has dimensions of the order of 15 µm. The d.o.lo.res. (an acronym for device optimized for low resolution) spectrograph for the Italian national telescope, Galileo, showed displacements of the image of the pinhole more than 10 times greater than expected. The mechanical failure was overcome by the insertion of a passive optical wedge that can add an out-of-phase circle to the flexure ellipse. The results encourage the use of the gravitational eccentric correction optics (GECO) optical-gravitational device in all astronomical observations made with the d.o.lo.res. spectrograph.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. E. Nicklas, H. Boehnhardt, W. Fuertig, R. Harke, A. Hess, P. Juergens, B. Muschielok, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, K. Tarantik, “Image motion and flexure compensation of the FORS spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 93–104 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. V. Radovan, B. C. Bigelow, J. E. Nelson, A. I. Sheinis, “Design of a collimator support to provide flexure control on Cassegrain spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 155–163 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Szeto, R. G. Murowinski, S. Roberts, L. Saddlemyer, R. Bennett, C. G. Dickson, P. Hastings, “Gemini multiobject spectrograph: a flexure critical design,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 297–306 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

Bennett, R.

K. Szeto, R. G. Murowinski, S. Roberts, L. Saddlemyer, R. Bennett, C. G. Dickson, P. Hastings, “Gemini multiobject spectrograph: a flexure critical design,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, B. C.

M. V. Radovan, B. C. Bigelow, J. E. Nelson, A. I. Sheinis, “Design of a collimator support to provide flexure control on Cassegrain spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 155–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boehnhardt, H.

H. E. Nicklas, H. Boehnhardt, W. Fuertig, R. Harke, A. Hess, P. Juergens, B. Muschielok, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, K. Tarantik, “Image motion and flexure compensation of the FORS spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 93–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bonanno, G.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bonifacio, P.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, P.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Caldara, P.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Catalano, S.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Comari, M.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Conconi, P.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cosentino, R.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Damiani, F.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delabre, B.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dickson, C. G.

K. Szeto, R. G. Murowinski, S. Roberts, L. Saddlemyer, R. Bennett, C. G. Dickson, P. Hastings, “Gemini multiobject spectrograph: a flexure critical design,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dimarcantonio, P.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franchini, M.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fuertig, W.

H. E. Nicklas, H. Boehnhardt, W. Fuertig, R. Harke, A. Hess, P. Juergens, B. Muschielok, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, K. Tarantik, “Image motion and flexure compensation of the FORS spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 93–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harke, R.

H. E. Nicklas, H. Boehnhardt, W. Fuertig, R. Harke, A. Hess, P. Juergens, B. Muschielok, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, K. Tarantik, “Image motion and flexure compensation of the FORS spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 93–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hastings, P.

K. Szeto, R. G. Murowinski, S. Roberts, L. Saddlemyer, R. Bennett, C. G. Dickson, P. Hastings, “Gemini multiobject spectrograph: a flexure critical design,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hess, A.

H. E. Nicklas, H. Boehnhardt, W. Fuertig, R. Harke, A. Hess, P. Juergens, B. Muschielok, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, K. Tarantik, “Image motion and flexure compensation of the FORS spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 93–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N. N.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Juergens, P.

H. E. Nicklas, H. Boehnhardt, W. Fuertig, R. Harke, A. Hess, P. Juergens, B. Muschielok, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, K. Tarantik, “Image motion and flexure compensation of the FORS spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 93–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mantegazza, L.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, R.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Molaro, P. P.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Molinari, E.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Monai, S.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murowinski, R. G.

K. Szeto, R. G. Murowinski, S. Roberts, L. Saddlemyer, R. Bennett, C. G. Dickson, P. Hastings, “Gemini multiobject spectrograph: a flexure critical design,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muschielok, B.

H. E. Nicklas, H. Boehnhardt, W. Fuertig, R. Harke, A. Hess, P. Juergens, B. Muschielok, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, K. Tarantik, “Image motion and flexure compensation of the FORS spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 93–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. E.

M. V. Radovan, B. C. Bigelow, J. E. Nelson, A. I. Sheinis, “Design of a collimator support to provide flexure control on Cassegrain spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 155–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nicklas, H. E.

H. E. Nicklas, H. Boehnhardt, W. Fuertig, R. Harke, A. Hess, P. Juergens, B. Muschielok, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, K. Tarantik, “Image motion and flexure compensation of the FORS spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 93–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pallavicini, R.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pasquini, L.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Passaretta, F.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Radovan, M. V.

M. V. Radovan, B. C. Bigelow, J. E. Nelson, A. I. Sheinis, “Design of a collimator support to provide flexure control on Cassegrain spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 155–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S.

K. Szeto, R. G. Murowinski, S. Roberts, L. Saddlemyer, R. Bennett, C. G. Dickson, P. Hastings, “Gemini multiobject spectrograph: a flexure critical design,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rodono, M.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saddlemyer, L.

K. Szeto, R. G. Murowinski, S. Roberts, L. Saddlemyer, R. Bennett, C. G. Dickson, P. Hastings, “Gemini multiobject spectrograph: a flexure critical design,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Santin, P.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scuderi, S.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, W.

H. E. Nicklas, H. Boehnhardt, W. Fuertig, R. Harke, A. Hess, P. Juergens, B. Muschielok, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, K. Tarantik, “Image motion and flexure compensation of the FORS spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 93–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sheinis, A. I.

M. V. Radovan, B. C. Bigelow, J. E. Nelson, A. I. Sheinis, “Design of a collimator support to provide flexure control on Cassegrain spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 155–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stahl, O.

H. E. Nicklas, H. Boehnhardt, W. Fuertig, R. Harke, A. Hess, P. Juergens, B. Muschielok, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, K. Tarantik, “Image motion and flexure compensation of the FORS spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 93–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Szeto, K.

K. Szeto, R. G. Murowinski, S. Roberts, L. Saddlemyer, R. Bennett, C. G. Dickson, P. Hastings, “Gemini multiobject spectrograph: a flexure critical design,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tarantik, K.

H. E. Nicklas, H. Boehnhardt, W. Fuertig, R. Harke, A. Hess, P. Juergens, B. Muschielok, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, K. Tarantik, “Image motion and flexure compensation of the FORS spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 93–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zerbi, F. M.

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Pallavicini, L. Pasquini, B. Delabre, N. N. Hubin, P. Conconi, L. Mantegazza, R. Mazzoleni, E. Molinari, F. M. Zerbi, P. P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, P. Santin, P. Dimarcantonio, M. Franchini, G. Bonanno, P. Bruno, R. Cosentino, S. Scuderi, S. Catalano, M. Rodono, P. Caldara, F. Damiani, M. Comari, S. Monai, F. Passaretta, “Design study of an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph and imager for the VLT,” in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, M. Iye, A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4008, 167–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Nicklas, H. Boehnhardt, W. Fuertig, R. Harke, A. Hess, P. Juergens, B. Muschielok, W. Seifert, O. Stahl, K. Tarantik, “Image motion and flexure compensation of the FORS spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 93–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Radovan, B. C. Bigelow, J. E. Nelson, A. I. Sheinis, “Design of a collimator support to provide flexure control on Cassegrain spectrographs,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 155–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Szeto, R. G. Murowinski, S. Roberts, L. Saddlemyer, R. Bennett, C. G. Dickson, P. Hastings, “Gemini multiobject spectrograph: a flexure critical design,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorico, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

d.o.lo.res. spectrograph mounted at the Nasmyth B focus of the TNG (La Palma, Canary Islands) without the protective covers removed: A, CCD detector; B, camera; C, collimator; D, support bars (responsible for the flexure); E, TNG focal-plane flange.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left, finite-element analysis made during the device’s design phase (1995). Capital letters have the same meanings as in Fig. 1. Right, measurement of the elliptical orbit of the image of a pinhole fixed in the TNG focal plane. The ellipse is measured on the CCD detector, and the dashed lines correspond to the pixel size.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top, schematic representation of the optical train displacement and its effect on the image on the CCD of a fixed pinhole on the telescope’s focal plane: Tax, Dax, telescope and detector optical axes. Bottom, a glass wedge (W) is used in the parallel beam to compensate for image displacement. Co, collimator; Ca, camera; D, CCD; T, telescope’s focal plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top, GECO optogravitational device as built in the gOlem workshop. The eccentric weight and the inclined wedge housing are visible. Center, vectorial sum of the flexure ellipse and the GECO circle: the effects of different phase angles are shown. Bottom, residual of the flexure ellipse after installation of the GECO; cf. Fig. 2: the scale is different but the dashed lines still correspond to the pixel size.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dual GECO. Left: A, eccentric ring corotating with gravity (normal GECO); B, rotating bearings pinpointed to the collimator exit; C, internal counterrotating ring. Right, dual wedge in its maximum (max) and minimum (min; i.e., no beam deviation) configurations.

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