Abstract

The design of a stigmatic spectroscopic system for diagnostics of laser-produced plasmas in the 2.5–40-nm region is presented. The system consists of a grazing-incidence toroidal mirror that focuses the radiation emitted by a laser-produced plasma onto the entrance slit of a spectrograph. The latter has a grazing-incidence spherical variable-line-spaced grating with flat-field properties coupled to a spherical focusing mirror that compensates for the astigmatism. The mirror is crossed with respect to the grating; i.e., it is mounted with its tangential plane coincident with the equatorial plane of the grating. The spectrum is acquired by an extreme-UV- (EUV-) enhanced CCD detector with high quantum efficiency. This stigmatic design also has spectral and spatial resolution capability for extended sources: The spectral resolution is also preserved for off-plane points, whereas the spatial resolution decreases for points far from the optical axis. The expected performance is presented and compared with that of a stigmatic design with a plane variable-line-spaced grating illuminated in converging light.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2000

1999

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Characterization of a charge-coupled-device detector in the 1100–0.14-nm (1-eV to 9-keV) spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 38, 29–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kieldsen, F. Folkmann, J. E. Hansen, H. Knudsen, M. S. Rasmussen, J. B. West, T. Andersen, “Measurement of the absolute photoionization cross section of C+ near threshold,” Astrophys. J. 524, L143–l146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, “Experimental measurement of the CII L-shell photoabsorption spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4985–4988 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. N. Nahar, A. K. Pradhan, “Electron-ion recombination rate coefficients, photoionization cross sections, and ionization fractions for astrophysically abundant elements. I. Carbon and nitrogen,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 111, 339–355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Woo Choi, J. Ung Lee, C. Hee Nam, “Space-resolving flat-field extreme ultraviolet spectrograph system and its aberration analysis with wave-front aberration,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1457–1466 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. T. Kennedy, J. T. Costello, J. P. Mosnier, “New experiments in photoabsorption studies of singly and multiply charged ions,” J. Electon. Spect. Rel. Phen. 79, 283–288 (1996)
[CrossRef]

1995

E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, F. Xianping, “Measurement of the K-shell photoionization cross section of C IV through the L-shell photoabsorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 314–323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

S. N. Nahar, A. K. Pradhan, “Unified treatment of electron-ion recombination in the close-coupling approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1816–1835 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Wuilleumier, J.-M. Bizau, D. Cubaynes, B. Rouvellou, L. Journel, “Present status of inner-shell photoionization studies in singly and multiply charged atomic ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 87, 190–197 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

E. Jannitti, M. Gaye, M. Mazzoni, P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, “K-shell photoabsorption spectrum of C II,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4033–4041 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1991

J. T. Costello, J. P. Mosnier, E. T. Kennedy, P. K. Carroll, G. O’Sullivan, “X-UV absorption spectroscopy with laser-produced plasmas: a review,” Phys. Scr. 34, 77–92 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Nicolosi, E. Jannitti, G. Tondello, “A review on experimental studies on the photoabsorption spectra of low Z ions,” J. Phys. IV 1, 89–98 (1991).

1987

1986

M. C. E. Huber, R. J. Sandeman, “The measurement of oscillator strengths,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 49, 397–490 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

1981

E. T. Kennedy, P. K. Carroll, “Laser produced plasmas,” Contemp. Phys. 22, 61–96 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

1979

1948

Andersen, T.

H. Kieldsen, F. Folkmann, J. E. Hansen, H. Knudsen, M. S. Rasmussen, J. B. West, T. Andersen, “Measurement of the absolute photoionization cross section of C+ near threshold,” Astrophys. J. 524, L143–l146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baez, A. V.

Bannister, N. P.

R. M. Rideout, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, A. Kenter, R. Kraft, “Synchrotron measurements of the absolute x-ray quantum efficiency of Cs-I coated microchannel plates,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 384–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bizau, J.-M.

F. J. Wuilleumier, J.-M. Bizau, D. Cubaynes, B. Rouvellou, L. Journel, “Present status of inner-shell photoionization studies in singly and multiply charged atomic ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 87, 190–197 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boscolo, A.

Bowyer, S.

Bridges, J. M.

J. M. Bridges, C. L. Cromer, T. J. McIlrath, “Laser produced plasma x-ray ultraviolet (XUV) radiation source,” X-Ray Calibration: Techniques, Sources and Detectors, P. Lee, P. D. Rockett, eds., Proc. SPIE689, 19–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brunton, A. N.

R. M. Rideout, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, A. Kenter, R. Kraft, “Synchrotron measurements of the absolute x-ray quantum efficiency of Cs-I coated microchannel plates,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 384–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, P. K.

J. T. Costello, J. P. Mosnier, E. T. Kennedy, P. K. Carroll, G. O’Sullivan, “X-UV absorption spectroscopy with laser-produced plasmas: a review,” Phys. Scr. 34, 77–92 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Kennedy, P. K. Carroll, “Laser produced plasmas,” Contemp. Phys. 22, 61–96 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Costello, J. T.

E. T. Kennedy, J. T. Costello, J. P. Mosnier, “New experiments in photoabsorption studies of singly and multiply charged ions,” J. Electon. Spect. Rel. Phen. 79, 283–288 (1996)
[CrossRef]

J. T. Costello, J. P. Mosnier, E. T. Kennedy, P. K. Carroll, G. O’Sullivan, “X-UV absorption spectroscopy with laser-produced plasmas: a review,” Phys. Scr. 34, 77–92 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cromer, C. L.

J. M. Bridges, C. L. Cromer, T. J. McIlrath, “Laser produced plasma x-ray ultraviolet (XUV) radiation source,” X-Ray Calibration: Techniques, Sources and Detectors, P. Lee, P. D. Rockett, eds., Proc. SPIE689, 19–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cubaynes, D.

F. J. Wuilleumier, J.-M. Bizau, D. Cubaynes, B. Rouvellou, L. Journel, “Present status of inner-shell photoionization studies in singly and multiply charged atomic ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 87, 190–197 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ederer, D. L.

J. A. R. Samson, D. L. Ederer, Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy II (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1998).

Everman, E.

Fan, P.

Folkmann, F.

H. Kieldsen, F. Folkmann, J. E. Hansen, H. Knudsen, M. S. Rasmussen, J. B. West, T. Andersen, “Measurement of the absolute photoionization cross section of C+ near threshold,” Astrophys. J. 524, L143–l146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. W.

R. M. Rideout, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, A. Kenter, R. Kraft, “Synchrotron measurements of the absolute x-ray quantum efficiency of Cs-I coated microchannel plates,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 384–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garifo, L.

Gaye, M.

E. Jannitti, M. Gaye, M. Mazzoni, P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, “K-shell photoabsorption spectrum of C II,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4033–4041 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

Hansen, J. E.

H. Kieldsen, F. Folkmann, J. E. Hansen, H. Knudsen, M. S. Rasmussen, J. B. West, T. Andersen, “Measurement of the absolute photoionization cross section of C+ near threshold,” Astrophys. J. 524, L143–l146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harada, T.

Hee Nam, C.

Hettrick, M.

Huber, M. C. E.

M. C. E. Huber, R. J. Sandeman, “The measurement of oscillator strengths,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 49, 397–490 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jannitti, E.

E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, F. Xianping, “Measurement of the K-shell photoionization cross section of C IV through the L-shell photoabsorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 314–323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Jannitti, M. Gaye, M. Mazzoni, P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, “K-shell photoabsorption spectrum of C II,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4033–4041 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nicolosi, E. Jannitti, G. Tondello, “A review on experimental studies on the photoabsorption spectra of low Z ions,” J. Phys. IV 1, 89–98 (1991).

Jin, R.

Journel, L.

F. J. Wuilleumier, J.-M. Bizau, D. Cubaynes, B. Rouvellou, L. Journel, “Present status of inner-shell photoionization studies in singly and multiply charged atomic ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 87, 190–197 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kauffmann, R.

R. Kauffmann, “X-ray radiation from laser plasma,” in Physics of Laser Plasma, Handbook of Plasma Physics, A. Rubenchik, S. Witkowski, eds. (North Holland, Amersterdam, 1991), p. 111.

Kennedy, E. T.

E. T. Kennedy, J. T. Costello, J. P. Mosnier, “New experiments in photoabsorption studies of singly and multiply charged ions,” J. Electon. Spect. Rel. Phen. 79, 283–288 (1996)
[CrossRef]

J. T. Costello, J. P. Mosnier, E. T. Kennedy, P. K. Carroll, G. O’Sullivan, “X-UV absorption spectroscopy with laser-produced plasmas: a review,” Phys. Scr. 34, 77–92 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Kennedy, P. K. Carroll, “Laser produced plasmas,” Contemp. Phys. 22, 61–96 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kenter, A.

R. M. Rideout, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, A. Kenter, R. Kraft, “Synchrotron measurements of the absolute x-ray quantum efficiency of Cs-I coated microchannel plates,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 384–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kieldsen, H.

H. Kieldsen, F. Folkmann, J. E. Hansen, H. Knudsen, M. S. Rasmussen, J. B. West, T. Andersen, “Measurement of the absolute photoionization cross section of C+ near threshold,” Astrophys. J. 524, L143–l146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, P.

Kita, T.

Knudsen, H.

H. Kieldsen, F. Folkmann, J. E. Hansen, H. Knudsen, M. S. Rasmussen, J. B. West, T. Andersen, “Measurement of the absolute photoionization cross section of C+ near threshold,” Astrophys. J. 524, L143–l146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kraft, R.

R. M. Rideout, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, A. Kenter, R. Kraft, “Synchrotron measurements of the absolute x-ray quantum efficiency of Cs-I coated microchannel plates,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 384–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

Lampton, M.

Lees, J. E.

R. M. Rideout, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, A. Kenter, R. Kraft, “Synchrotron measurements of the absolute x-ray quantum efficiency of Cs-I coated microchannel plates,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 384–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malvezzi, A. M.

Mazzoni, M.

E. Jannitti, M. Gaye, M. Mazzoni, P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, “K-shell photoabsorption spectrum of C II,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4033–4041 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIlrath, T. J.

J. M. Bridges, C. L. Cromer, T. J. McIlrath, “Laser produced plasma x-ray ultraviolet (XUV) radiation source,” X-Ray Calibration: Techniques, Sources and Detectors, P. Lee, P. D. Rockett, eds., Proc. SPIE689, 19–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

More, R. M.

R. M. More, “Atomic physics of laser produced plasma,” in Physics of Laser Plasma, Handbook of Plasma Physics, A. Rubenchik, S. Witkowski, eds. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 63–110.

Mosnier, J. P.

E. T. Kennedy, J. T. Costello, J. P. Mosnier, “New experiments in photoabsorption studies of singly and multiply charged ions,” J. Electon. Spect. Rel. Phen. 79, 283–288 (1996)
[CrossRef]

J. T. Costello, J. P. Mosnier, E. T. Kennedy, P. K. Carroll, G. O’Sullivan, “X-UV absorption spectroscopy with laser-produced plasmas: a review,” Phys. Scr. 34, 77–92 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nahar, S. N.

S. N. Nahar, A. K. Pradhan, “Electron-ion recombination rate coefficients, photoionization cross sections, and ionization fractions for astrophysically abundant elements. I. Carbon and nitrogen,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 111, 339–355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Nahar, A. K. Pradhan, “Unified treatment of electron-ion recombination in the close-coupling approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1816–1835 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakano, N.

Naletto, G.

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “Optical design of a grazing incidence spectrometer with varied line-space flat grating for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE3764, 85–93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nicolosi, P.

P. Villoresi, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, “Design and experimental characterization of a high-resolution instrument for measuring the extreme-UV absorption of laser plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 39, 85–93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, “Experimental measurement of the CII L-shell photoabsorption spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4985–4988 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, F. Xianping, “Measurement of the K-shell photoionization cross section of C IV through the L-shell photoabsorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 314–323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Jannitti, M. Gaye, M. Mazzoni, P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, “K-shell photoabsorption spectrum of C II,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4033–4041 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nicolosi, E. Jannitti, G. Tondello, “A review on experimental studies on the photoabsorption spectra of low Z ions,” J. Phys. IV 1, 89–98 (1991).

O’Sullivan, G.

J. T. Costello, J. P. Mosnier, E. T. Kennedy, P. K. Carroll, G. O’Sullivan, “X-UV absorption spectroscopy with laser-produced plasmas: a review,” Phys. Scr. 34, 77–92 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. F.

R. M. Rideout, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, A. Kenter, R. Kraft, “Synchrotron measurements of the absolute x-ray quantum efficiency of Cs-I coated microchannel plates,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 384–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pelizzo, M. G.

Poletto, L.

L. Poletto, G. Tondello, “Design of a high-throughput grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4000–4006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Characterization of a charge-coupled-device detector in the 1100–0.14-nm (1-eV to 9-keV) spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 38, 29–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “Optical design of a grazing incidence spectrometer with varied line-space flat grating for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE3764, 85–93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, A. K.

S. N. Nahar, A. K. Pradhan, “Electron-ion recombination rate coefficients, photoionization cross sections, and ionization fractions for astrophysically abundant elements. I. Carbon and nitrogen,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 111, 339–355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Nahar, A. K. Pradhan, “Unified treatment of electron-ion recombination in the close-coupling approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1816–1835 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasmussen, M. S.

H. Kieldsen, F. Folkmann, J. E. Hansen, H. Knudsen, M. S. Rasmussen, J. B. West, T. Andersen, “Measurement of the absolute photoionization cross section of C+ near threshold,” Astrophys. J. 524, L143–l146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rideout, R. M.

R. M. Rideout, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, A. Kenter, R. Kraft, “Synchrotron measurements of the absolute x-ray quantum efficiency of Cs-I coated microchannel plates,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 384–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rouvellou, B.

F. J. Wuilleumier, J.-M. Bizau, D. Cubaynes, B. Rouvellou, L. Journel, “Present status of inner-shell photoionization studies in singly and multiply charged atomic ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 87, 190–197 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, D. L. Ederer, Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy II (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1998).

Sandeman, R. J.

M. C. E. Huber, R. J. Sandeman, “The measurement of oscillator strengths,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 49, 397–490 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Siegmund, O. H. W.

Sokolowski, J.

Tondello, G.

L. Poletto, G. Tondello, “Design of a high-throughput grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4000–4006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Characterization of a charge-coupled-device detector in the 1100–0.14-nm (1-eV to 9-keV) spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 38, 29–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Nicolosi, E. Jannitti, G. Tondello, “A review on experimental studies on the photoabsorption spectra of low Z ions,” J. Phys. IV 1, 89–98 (1991).

L. Garifo, A. M. Malvezzi, G. Tondello, “Grazing incidence spectrograph-monochromator with a focusing toroidal mirror,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1900–1906 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “Optical design of a grazing incidence spectrometer with varied line-space flat grating for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE3764, 85–93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ung Lee, J.

Vallerga, J. V.

Villoresi, P.

P. Villoresi, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, “Design and experimental characterization of a high-resolution instrument for measuring the extreme-UV absorption of laser plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 39, 85–93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, “Experimental measurement of the CII L-shell photoabsorption spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4985–4988 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, F. Xianping, “Measurement of the K-shell photoionization cross section of C IV through the L-shell photoabsorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 314–323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Jannitti, M. Gaye, M. Mazzoni, P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, “K-shell photoabsorption spectrum of C II,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4033–4041 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, J. B.

H. Kieldsen, F. Folkmann, J. E. Hansen, H. Knudsen, M. S. Rasmussen, J. B. West, T. Andersen, “Measurement of the absolute photoionization cross section of C+ near threshold,” Astrophys. J. 524, L143–l146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woo Choi, I.

Wuilleumier, F. J.

F. J. Wuilleumier, J.-M. Bizau, D. Cubaynes, B. Rouvellou, L. Journel, “Present status of inner-shell photoionization studies in singly and multiply charged atomic ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 87, 190–197 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xianping, F.

E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, F. Xianping, “Measurement of the K-shell photoionization cross section of C IV through the L-shell photoabsorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 314–323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

Zhang, Z.

Zhou, J.

Appl. Opt.

P. Villoresi, P. Nicolosi, M. G. Pelizzo, “Design and experimental characterization of a high-resolution instrument for measuring the extreme-UV absorption of laser plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 39, 85–93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, A. Boscolo, G. Tondello, “Characterization of a charge-coupled-device detector in the 1100–0.14-nm (1-eV to 9-keV) spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 38, 29–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, M. Lampton, “Ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium bromide as an opaque photocathode applied to microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607–3614 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kita, T. Harada, N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, “Mechanically ruled aberration corrected concave grating for a flat-field grazing incidence spectrograph,” Appl. Opt. 22, 819–825 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Fan, Z. Zhang, J. Zhou, R. Jin, Z. Xu, X. Guo, “Stigmatic grazing-incidence flat-field grating spectrograph,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6720–6723 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Woo Choi, J. Ung Lee, C. Hee Nam, “Space-resolving flat-field extreme ultraviolet spectrograph system and its aberration analysis with wave-front aberration,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1457–1466 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Hettrick, S. Bowyer, “Variable line-space gratings: new designs for use in grazing incidence spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3921–3932 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Garifo, A. M. Malvezzi, G. Tondello, “Grazing incidence spectrograph-monochromator with a focusing toroidal mirror,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1900–1906 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, G. Tondello, “Design of a high-throughput grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4000–4006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

H. Kieldsen, F. Folkmann, J. E. Hansen, H. Knudsen, M. S. Rasmussen, J. B. West, T. Andersen, “Measurement of the absolute photoionization cross section of C+ near threshold,” Astrophys. J. 524, L143–l146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Suppl.

S. N. Nahar, A. K. Pradhan, “Electron-ion recombination rate coefficients, photoionization cross sections, and ionization fractions for astrophysically abundant elements. I. Carbon and nitrogen,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 111, 339–355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. IV

P. Nicolosi, E. Jannitti, G. Tondello, “A review on experimental studies on the photoabsorption spectra of low Z ions,” J. Phys. IV 1, 89–98 (1991).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

F. J. Wuilleumier, J.-M. Bizau, D. Cubaynes, B. Rouvellou, L. Journel, “Present status of inner-shell photoionization studies in singly and multiply charged atomic ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 87, 190–197 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

E. Jannitti, M. Gaye, M. Mazzoni, P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, “K-shell photoabsorption spectrum of C II,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4033–4041 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Jannitti, P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, F. Xianping, “Measurement of the K-shell photoionization cross section of C IV through the L-shell photoabsorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 314–323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nicolosi, P. Villoresi, “Experimental measurement of the CII L-shell photoabsorption spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4985–4988 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Nahar, A. K. Pradhan, “Unified treatment of electron-ion recombination in the close-coupling approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1816–1835 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. T. Costello, J. P. Mosnier, E. T. Kennedy, P. K. Carroll, G. O’Sullivan, “X-UV absorption spectroscopy with laser-produced plasmas: a review,” Phys. Scr. 34, 77–92 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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J. M. Bridges, C. L. Cromer, T. J. McIlrath, “Laser produced plasma x-ray ultraviolet (XUV) radiation source,” X-Ray Calibration: Techniques, Sources and Detectors, P. Lee, P. D. Rockett, eds., Proc. SPIE689, 19–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, G. Tondello, “Optical design of a grazing incidence spectrometer with varied line-space flat grating for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” in Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection, Spectroscopy, and Polarimetry III, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE3764, 85–93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout and parameters for a SVLS grating with on-axis source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer with a crossed spherical mirror. The top view refers to the plane of dispersion (spectral plane) and the bottom one to the plane perpendicular to the dispersion one (spatial plane).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical layout of a spherical mirror with an extended source in its tangential plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Off-plane resolution for a grazing-incidence spherical mirror in its tangential plane as a function of the magnification factor M and of incidence angle θ0 with 5-mrad angular aperture: (a) θ0 = 85°, (b) θ0 = 87°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic view of the spectroscopic system for laser-produced plasmas.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral focal curves for the two SVLS gratings: (a) 1800 lines/mm, 2.5–20-nm region; the dashed lines indicate the detector plane in the 5–7-nm and the 12–17-nm spectral regions. (b) 1200 lines/mm, 10–40-nm region; the dashed line indicates the detector plane in the 20–30 nm spectral region. Here x and y axes are defined according to Fig. 1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ray-traced images on the entrance slit plane for pointlike sources placed at different distances from the optical axis parallel to the slit: (a) on-axis, (b) 0.5 mm off axis, (c) 1 mm off axis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ray-traced images on the detector plane of a pointlike source placed on the entrance slit in different off-axis positions parallel to the slit: (a) 1800 lines/mm grating, 5-nm wavelength, on-axis source; (b) 0.5-mm off-axis; (c) 1 mm off axis; (d) 1200 lines/mm grating, 20-nm wavelength, on-axis source; (e) 0.5 mm off axis; (f) 1 mm off axis.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic view of the spectroscopic system with a Kirkpatrick–Baez entrance section.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Ray-traced images on the entrance slit plane for pointlike sources placed at different distances from the optical axis parallel to the slit, in the case of a Kirkpatrick–Baez system at 87.5°: (a) on axis; (b) 0.5 mm off axis; (c) 1 mm off axis.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Resolving power evaluated within two pixels (24-µm pixel size): (a) 1800 lines/mm grating, (b) 1200 lines/mm grating.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Schematic view of the spectroscopic system with the plane VLS grating illuminated in converging light.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Ray-traced images on the detector plane for the system shown in Fig. 12 of a pointlike source placed on the entrance slit in different off-axis positions parallel to the slit: (a) 1800 lines/mm grating, 5-nm wavelength, on-axis source; (b) 0.5 mm off-axis; (c) 1 mm off-axis.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Spectroscopic System

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of the Spectrograph for a SVLS Grating with On-Axis Source

Equations (17)

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sin α+sin β=mλd0,
dy=d0+d1y+d2y2+d3y3,
cos2 αr+cos2 βr-cos α+cos βR+mλd1=0,  spectral defocusing,
sin αrcos2 αr-cos αR+sin βrcos2 βr-cos βR+23 mλd2=0,  coma,
4 sin2 αr2cos2 αr-cos αR-1rcos2 αr-cos αR2+1R21r-cos αR+4 sin2 βr2×cos2 βr-cos βR-1rcos2 βr-cos βR2+1R21r-cos βR+2mλd3=0,  spherical aberration.
p=p02+S21/2p0+S2/2p0,
q=q02+S2q02/p021/2q0+S2q0/2p02,
cos θcos θ0-Sp0sin θ0.
1p0+1q0=2Rm cos θ0.
ΔS=p0q0A1+A22.
Ade=qLm cos θ1p+1q-2Rm cos θ,  defocusing,
Aco=38 q sin θLm21pcos θp-1Rm-1qcos θq-1Rm,  coma,
Ade2 LmRmq0p0tan θ0S=σdeS,
Aco316D2cos θ0p02q0q0p02-1-38D2cos2 θ0p0q0×q0p02-1S=σco+σcoS,
Atot=σco2+σde2S21/2,
ΔSσcoM=316D2cos θ0 p01-1M2,near the optical axis,
ΔSσdeM-σde2 S=D tan θ01+MM-D tan θ021+M S,far from the optical axis,

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