Abstract

We report the results of investigating a low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, reflective-type modulator based on an ε-GaSe crystal and operated at the 1.960-eV line of a He–Ne laser. We demonstrate that the modulation in an Al–ε-GaSe–Cu device results mainly from the Franz–Keldysh effect. Relatively high speed and low operating voltage could make these modulators with Schottky-barrier contacts attractive devices in the red range of the spectrum.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Maschke, F. Levy, Landolt–Börnstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, S. Flügge, ed., New Series, Group III: Crystal and Solid State Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), Vol. 17, pp. 9–10.
  2. Y. Iwamura, N. Moriyama, N. Watanabe, “Anomalously large shift of absorption edge of GaSe-based layer crystal by applied electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L975–L976 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Iwamura, M. Moriyama, N. Watanabe, “New light modulator using GaSe layered crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L42–L44 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Segura, M. Andres, V. Munoz, “Comments on anomalously large red shift of absorption edge of GaSe-based layered crystals by applied electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 608–1609 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. E. Sulewski, E. Bucher, N. Stücheli, C. S. Oglesby, K. Friemelt, M. Vögt, J. R. Bauman, Ch. Kloc, “Search for giant Franz–Keldysh-like effects in GaSe and other layered semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 79–83 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. A. Navarro, M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Andres, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Numerical analysis of thermally induced optical nonlinearity in GaSe layered crystal,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 244–247 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. S. Yao, J. Buchert, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved picosecond absorption spectroscopy of the layered compound gallium selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 6534–6537 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kurtin, C. A. Mead, “Surface barriers on layer semiconductors: GaSe,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1865–1867 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Manfredotti, A. Quirini, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Space-charge limited currents in n-GaSe crystals,” Solid State Commun. 15, 1347–1353 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1981), p. 813.
  11. K. R. Allakhverdiev, S. S. Babaev, E. Yu. Salaev, M. M. Tagyev, “Angular behaviour of the polar optical phonons in AIIIBVI layered semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 96, 177–182 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. I. Ismailov, E. S. Guseinova, G. A. Akhundov, “Optical absorption edge of GaS and GaSe single crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 5, 2656–2657 (1963).
  13. M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Anders, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Temperature dependence of refractive index and absorption coefficient of GaSe at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 118, 335–337 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. V. Keldysh, “The effect of a strong electric field on the optical properties of insulating crystals,” Soviet Phys. JETP 34, 788–790 (1958).

1996 (1)

E. A. Navarro, M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Andres, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Numerical analysis of thermally induced optical nonlinearity in GaSe layered crystal,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 244–247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Anders, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Temperature dependence of refractive index and absorption coefficient of GaSe at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 118, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. E. Sulewski, E. Bucher, N. Stücheli, C. S. Oglesby, K. Friemelt, M. Vögt, J. R. Bauman, Ch. Kloc, “Search for giant Franz–Keldysh-like effects in GaSe and other layered semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 79–83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

Y. Iwamura, M. Moriyama, N. Watanabe, “New light modulator using GaSe layered crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L42–L44 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Segura, M. Andres, V. Munoz, “Comments on anomalously large red shift of absorption edge of GaSe-based layered crystals by applied electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 608–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Y. Iwamura, N. Moriyama, N. Watanabe, “Anomalously large shift of absorption edge of GaSe-based layer crystal by applied electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L975–L976 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

S. S. Yao, J. Buchert, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved picosecond absorption spectroscopy of the layered compound gallium selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 6534–6537 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

K. R. Allakhverdiev, S. S. Babaev, E. Yu. Salaev, M. M. Tagyev, “Angular behaviour of the polar optical phonons in AIIIBVI layered semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 96, 177–182 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

C. Manfredotti, A. Quirini, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Space-charge limited currents in n-GaSe crystals,” Solid State Commun. 15, 1347–1353 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

S. Kurtin, C. A. Mead, “Surface barriers on layer semiconductors: GaSe,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1865–1867 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

F. I. Ismailov, E. S. Guseinova, G. A. Akhundov, “Optical absorption edge of GaS and GaSe single crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 5, 2656–2657 (1963).

1958 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “The effect of a strong electric field on the optical properties of insulating crystals,” Soviet Phys. JETP 34, 788–790 (1958).

Akhundov, G. A.

F. I. Ismailov, E. S. Guseinova, G. A. Akhundov, “Optical absorption edge of GaS and GaSe single crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 5, 2656–2657 (1963).

Alfano, R. R.

S. S. Yao, J. Buchert, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved picosecond absorption spectroscopy of the layered compound gallium selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 6534–6537 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Allakhverdiev, K. R.

K. R. Allakhverdiev, S. S. Babaev, E. Yu. Salaev, M. M. Tagyev, “Angular behaviour of the polar optical phonons in AIIIBVI layered semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 96, 177–182 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Anders, M. V.

M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Anders, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Temperature dependence of refractive index and absorption coefficient of GaSe at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 118, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Andres, M.

A. Segura, M. Andres, V. Munoz, “Comments on anomalously large red shift of absorption edge of GaSe-based layered crystals by applied electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 608–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andres, M. V.

E. A. Navarro, M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Andres, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Numerical analysis of thermally induced optical nonlinearity in GaSe layered crystal,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 244–247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Babaev, S. S.

K. R. Allakhverdiev, S. S. Babaev, E. Yu. Salaev, M. M. Tagyev, “Angular behaviour of the polar optical phonons in AIIIBVI layered semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 96, 177–182 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, J. R.

P. E. Sulewski, E. Bucher, N. Stücheli, C. S. Oglesby, K. Friemelt, M. Vögt, J. R. Bauman, Ch. Kloc, “Search for giant Franz–Keldysh-like effects in GaSe and other layered semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 79–83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bucher, E.

P. E. Sulewski, E. Bucher, N. Stücheli, C. S. Oglesby, K. Friemelt, M. Vögt, J. R. Bauman, Ch. Kloc, “Search for giant Franz–Keldysh-like effects in GaSe and other layered semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 79–83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Buchert, J.

S. S. Yao, J. Buchert, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved picosecond absorption spectroscopy of the layered compound gallium selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 6534–6537 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Friemelt, K.

P. E. Sulewski, E. Bucher, N. Stücheli, C. S. Oglesby, K. Friemelt, M. Vögt, J. R. Bauman, Ch. Kloc, “Search for giant Franz–Keldysh-like effects in GaSe and other layered semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 79–83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guseinova, E. S.

F. I. Ismailov, E. S. Guseinova, G. A. Akhundov, “Optical absorption edge of GaS and GaSe single crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 5, 2656–2657 (1963).

Hernandez, M. A.

E. A. Navarro, M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Andres, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Numerical analysis of thermally induced optical nonlinearity in GaSe layered crystal,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 244–247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Anders, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Temperature dependence of refractive index and absorption coefficient of GaSe at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 118, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ismailov, F. I.

F. I. Ismailov, E. S. Guseinova, G. A. Akhundov, “Optical absorption edge of GaS and GaSe single crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 5, 2656–2657 (1963).

Iwamura, Y.

Y. Iwamura, M. Moriyama, N. Watanabe, “New light modulator using GaSe layered crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L42–L44 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iwamura, N. Moriyama, N. Watanabe, “Anomalously large shift of absorption edge of GaSe-based layer crystal by applied electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L975–L976 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “The effect of a strong electric field on the optical properties of insulating crystals,” Soviet Phys. JETP 34, 788–790 (1958).

Kloc, Ch.

P. E. Sulewski, E. Bucher, N. Stücheli, C. S. Oglesby, K. Friemelt, M. Vögt, J. R. Bauman, Ch. Kloc, “Search for giant Franz–Keldysh-like effects in GaSe and other layered semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 79–83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kurtin, S.

S. Kurtin, C. A. Mead, “Surface barriers on layer semiconductors: GaSe,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1865–1867 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Levy, F.

K. Maschke, F. Levy, Landolt–Börnstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, S. Flügge, ed., New Series, Group III: Crystal and Solid State Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), Vol. 17, pp. 9–10.

Manfredotti, C.

C. Manfredotti, A. Quirini, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Space-charge limited currents in n-GaSe crystals,” Solid State Commun. 15, 1347–1353 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Maschke, K.

K. Maschke, F. Levy, Landolt–Börnstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, S. Flügge, ed., New Series, Group III: Crystal and Solid State Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), Vol. 17, pp. 9–10.

Mead, C. A.

S. Kurtin, C. A. Mead, “Surface barriers on layer semiconductors: GaSe,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1865–1867 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Moriyama, M.

Y. Iwamura, M. Moriyama, N. Watanabe, “New light modulator using GaSe layered crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L42–L44 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moriyama, N.

Y. Iwamura, N. Moriyama, N. Watanabe, “Anomalously large shift of absorption edge of GaSe-based layer crystal by applied electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L975–L976 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, V.

E. A. Navarro, M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Andres, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Numerical analysis of thermally induced optical nonlinearity in GaSe layered crystal,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 244–247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Anders, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Temperature dependence of refractive index and absorption coefficient of GaSe at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 118, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Segura, M. Andres, V. Munoz, “Comments on anomalously large red shift of absorption edge of GaSe-based layered crystals by applied electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 608–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Navarro, E. A.

E. A. Navarro, M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Andres, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Numerical analysis of thermally induced optical nonlinearity in GaSe layered crystal,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 244–247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oglesby, C. S.

P. E. Sulewski, E. Bucher, N. Stücheli, C. S. Oglesby, K. Friemelt, M. Vögt, J. R. Bauman, Ch. Kloc, “Search for giant Franz–Keldysh-like effects in GaSe and other layered semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 79–83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Quirini, A.

C. Manfredotti, A. Quirini, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Space-charge limited currents in n-GaSe crystals,” Solid State Commun. 15, 1347–1353 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, A.

C. Manfredotti, A. Quirini, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Space-charge limited currents in n-GaSe crystals,” Solid State Commun. 15, 1347–1353 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Salaev, E. Yu.

K. R. Allakhverdiev, S. S. Babaev, E. Yu. Salaev, M. M. Tagyev, “Angular behaviour of the polar optical phonons in AIIIBVI layered semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 96, 177–182 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Segura, A.

E. A. Navarro, M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Andres, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Numerical analysis of thermally induced optical nonlinearity in GaSe layered crystal,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 244–247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Anders, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Temperature dependence of refractive index and absorption coefficient of GaSe at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 118, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Segura, M. Andres, V. Munoz, “Comments on anomalously large red shift of absorption edge of GaSe-based layered crystals by applied electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 608–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stücheli, N.

P. E. Sulewski, E. Bucher, N. Stücheli, C. S. Oglesby, K. Friemelt, M. Vögt, J. R. Bauman, Ch. Kloc, “Search for giant Franz–Keldysh-like effects in GaSe and other layered semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 79–83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sulewski, P. E.

P. E. Sulewski, E. Bucher, N. Stücheli, C. S. Oglesby, K. Friemelt, M. Vögt, J. R. Bauman, Ch. Kloc, “Search for giant Franz–Keldysh-like effects in GaSe and other layered semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 79–83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1981), p. 813.

Tagyev, M. M.

K. R. Allakhverdiev, S. S. Babaev, E. Yu. Salaev, M. M. Tagyev, “Angular behaviour of the polar optical phonons in AIIIBVI layered semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 96, 177–182 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vasanelli, L.

C. Manfredotti, A. Quirini, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Space-charge limited currents in n-GaSe crystals,” Solid State Commun. 15, 1347–1353 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vögt, M.

P. E. Sulewski, E. Bucher, N. Stücheli, C. S. Oglesby, K. Friemelt, M. Vögt, J. R. Bauman, Ch. Kloc, “Search for giant Franz–Keldysh-like effects in GaSe and other layered semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 79–83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, N.

Y. Iwamura, M. Moriyama, N. Watanabe, “New light modulator using GaSe layered crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L42–L44 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iwamura, N. Moriyama, N. Watanabe, “Anomalously large shift of absorption edge of GaSe-based layer crystal by applied electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L975–L976 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yao, S. S.

S. S. Yao, J. Buchert, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved picosecond absorption spectroscopy of the layered compound gallium selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 6534–6537 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

P. E. Sulewski, E. Bucher, N. Stücheli, C. S. Oglesby, K. Friemelt, M. Vögt, J. R. Bauman, Ch. Kloc, “Search for giant Franz–Keldysh-like effects in GaSe and other layered semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 79–83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

E. A. Navarro, M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Andres, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Numerical analysis of thermally induced optical nonlinearity in GaSe layered crystal,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 244–247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

S. Kurtin, C. A. Mead, “Surface barriers on layer semiconductors: GaSe,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1865–1867 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

Y. Iwamura, N. Moriyama, N. Watanabe, “Anomalously large shift of absorption edge of GaSe-based layer crystal by applied electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L975–L976 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iwamura, M. Moriyama, N. Watanabe, “New light modulator using GaSe layered crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L42–L44 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Segura, M. Andres, V. Munoz, “Comments on anomalously large red shift of absorption edge of GaSe-based layered crystals by applied electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 608–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. A. Hernandez, M. V. Anders, A. Segura, V. Munoz, “Temperature dependence of refractive index and absorption coefficient of GaSe at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 118, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. S. Yao, J. Buchert, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved picosecond absorption spectroscopy of the layered compound gallium selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 6534–6537 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

K. R. Allakhverdiev, S. S. Babaev, E. Yu. Salaev, M. M. Tagyev, “Angular behaviour of the polar optical phonons in AIIIBVI layered semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 96, 177–182 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

C. Manfredotti, A. Quirini, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Space-charge limited currents in n-GaSe crystals,” Solid State Commun. 15, 1347–1353 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Solid State (1)

F. I. Ismailov, E. S. Guseinova, G. A. Akhundov, “Optical absorption edge of GaS and GaSe single crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 5, 2656–2657 (1963).

Soviet Phys. JETP (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “The effect of a strong electric field on the optical properties of insulating crystals,” Soviet Phys. JETP 34, 788–790 (1958).

Other (2)

K. Maschke, F. Levy, Landolt–Börnstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, S. Flügge, ed., New Series, Group III: Crystal and Solid State Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), Vol. 17, pp. 9–10.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1981), p. 813.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the reflective light modulator: 1, Cu electrode; 2, ε-GaSe plate; 3, Cu holder (heat conductor); 4, Al electrode; 5, heater; 6, thermocouple; 7, silver paste contact. The direction of the optical axis of crystal is denoted c, U G is the output of square-wave pulses of the generator, I 0 and I r denote the direction of the incident and the reflected light, respectively, and E is the direction of the applied electric field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variations in detector signal U S with amount of applied voltage for the Al–p-GaSe–Cu structure with a 20-µm-thick GaSe crystal. Open and filled circles, measurements at T = 23 °C and T = 30 °C, respectively. Dashed and solid curves were calculated with Eq. (6) at T = 23 °C for the free-carrier concentrations N a = 2.4 × 1014 cm-3 and N a = 6 × 1014 cm-3, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the detector signal on the temperature for the Al–p-GaSe–Cu structure at applied voltage U G = 50 V.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of the energy-level diagram of Al–p-GaSe–Cu at room temperature and under laser illumination for two cases: a, no voltage applied; b, U G ≠ 0. W 0 and W′ denote the width of the depletion layer for a and b, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the bandgap shift ΔE that is due to the Franz–Keldysh effect for GaSe on applied electric field E calculated with Eq. (3).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W0=2ε0εsφbeNa-11/2,
W=2ε0εsφb+UGeeNa-11/2.
ΔE=3|e|Eη/42m*1/22/3,
αT=7.39×e0.0588T,
αΔEF-K=7.39exp0.0588ΔEF-K/β.
US=ΔItr/I0tr=I0tr-Itr/I0tr,

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