Abstract

We study the performance of an adaptive optics (AO) system with four laser guide stars (LGSs) and a natural guide star (NGS). The residual cone effect with four LGSs is obtained by a numerical simulation. This method allows the adaptive optics system to be extended toward the visible part of the spectrum without tomographic reconstruction of three-dimensional atmospheric perturbations, resolving the cone effect in the visible. Diffraction-limited images are obtained with 17-arc ms precision in median atmospheric conditions at wavelengths longer than 600 nm. The gain achievable with such a system operated on an existing AO system is studied. For comparison, performance in terms of achievable Strehl ratio is also computed for a reasonable system composed of a 40 × 40 Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensor optimized for the I band. Typical errors of a NGS wave front are computed by use of analytical formulas. With the NGS errors and the cone effect, the Strehl ratio can reach 0.45 at 1.25 µm under good-seeing conditions with the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS; a 14 × 14 subpupil wave-front sensor) at the Very Large Telescope and 0.8 with a 40 × 40 Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensor.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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1998 (2)

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Le Louarn, R. Foy, N. Hubin, M. Tallon, “Laser guide star for 3.6- and 8-m telescopes: performances and astrophysical implications,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 756–768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

F. Chassat, “Calcul du domaine d’isoplanétisme d’un système d’optique adaptative fonctionnant à travers la turbulence atmosphérique,” J. Opt. (Paris) 20, 13–23 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Robin, M. Creze, “Stellar population in the Milky Way: a synthetic model,” Astron. Astrophys. 157, 71–90 (1986).

1985 (1)

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive optics telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

Angel, J. R. P.

Arsenault, R.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, H. T.

Beuzit, J.-L.

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccini, D.

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, C.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carbillet, M.

F. Delplancke, M. Carbillet, N. N. Hubin, S. Esposito, F. J. Rigaut, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, R. Ragazzoni, M. Le Louarn, L. Fini, “Laser guide star simulations for 8-m class telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 371–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, F. Delplancke, S. Esposito, B. Femenia, L. Fini, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, N. Hubin, F. Rigaut, “LA3OS2: a software package for laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3762, 379–389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chassat, F.

F. Chassat, “Calcul du domaine d’isoplanétisme d’un système d’optique adaptative fonctionnant à travers la turbulence atmosphérique,” J. Opt. (Paris) 20, 13–23 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chazallet, E.

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Conan, J.-M.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, J.-M. Conan, P. Y. Kern, P.-Y. Madec, D. Rabaud, D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, F. J. Rigaut, “Design of the Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS) of the VLT,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 508–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crampton, D.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Creze, M.

A. Robin, M. Creze, “Stellar population in the Milky Way: a synthetic model,” Astron. Astrophys. 157, 71–90 (1986).

Delplancke, F.

F. Delplancke, M. Carbillet, N. N. Hubin, S. Esposito, F. J. Rigaut, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, R. Ragazzoni, M. Le Louarn, L. Fini, “Laser guide star simulations for 8-m class telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 371–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, F. Delplancke, S. Esposito, B. Femenia, L. Fini, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, N. Hubin, F. Rigaut, “LA3OS2: a software package for laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3762, 379–389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Demailly, L.

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eisenhauer, F.

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, S.

M. Carbillet, F. Delplancke, S. Esposito, B. Femenia, L. Fini, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, N. Hubin, F. Rigaut, “LA3OS2: a software package for laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3762, 379–389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Delplancke, M. Carbillet, N. N. Hubin, S. Esposito, F. J. Rigaut, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, R. Ragazzoni, M. Le Louarn, L. Fini, “Laser guide star simulations for 8-m class telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 371–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Femenia, B.

M. Carbillet, F. Delplancke, S. Esposito, B. Femenia, L. Fini, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, N. Hubin, F. Rigaut, “LA3OS2: a software package for laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3762, 379–389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fini, L.

M. Carbillet, F. Delplancke, S. Esposito, B. Femenia, L. Fini, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, N. Hubin, F. Rigaut, “LA3OS2: a software package for laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3762, 379–389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Delplancke, M. Carbillet, N. N. Hubin, S. Esposito, F. J. Rigaut, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, R. Ragazzoni, M. Le Louarn, L. Fini, “Laser guide star simulations for 8-m class telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 371–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, J. M.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foy, R.

M. Le Louarn, R. Foy, N. Hubin, M. Tallon, “Laser guide star for 3.6- and 8-m telescopes: performances and astrophysical implications,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 756–768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive optics telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

Fried, D. L.

Fuchs, A.

A. Fuchs, J. Vernin, “Final report on PARSCA 1992 and 1993 campaigns,” ESO Tech. Rep. VLT-TRE-UNI-17400-0001 (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1996).

Gendron, E.

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, J.-M. Conan, P. Y. Kern, P.-Y. Madec, D. Rabaud, D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, F. J. Rigaut, “Design of the Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS) of the VLT,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 508–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gigan, P.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Greenwood, D. P.

Hoffmann, R.

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

M. Le Louarn, R. Foy, N. Hubin, M. Tallon, “Laser guide star for 3.6- and 8-m telescopes: performances and astrophysical implications,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 756–768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, F. Delplancke, S. Esposito, B. Femenia, L. Fini, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, N. Hubin, F. Rigaut, “LA3OS2: a software package for laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3762, 379–389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N. N.

F. Delplancke, M. Carbillet, N. N. Hubin, S. Esposito, F. J. Rigaut, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, R. Ragazzoni, M. Le Louarn, L. Fini, “Laser guide star simulations for 8-m class telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 371–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, J.-M. Conan, P. Y. Kern, P.-Y. Madec, D. Rabaud, D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, F. J. Rigaut, “Design of the Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS) of the VLT,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 508–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jagourel, P.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P. Y.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, J.-M. Conan, P. Y. Kern, P.-Y. Madec, D. Rabaud, D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, F. J. Rigaut, “Design of the Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS) of the VLT,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 508–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive optics telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

Lacombe, F.

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, J.-M. Conan, P. Y. Kern, P.-Y. Madec, D. Rabaud, D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, F. J. Rigaut, “Design of the Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS) of the VLT,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 508–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lagrange, A.-M.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, J.-M. Conan, P. Y. Kern, P.-Y. Madec, D. Rabaud, D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, F. J. Rigaut, “Design of the Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS) of the VLT,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 508–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lai, O.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Rigaut, O. Lai, J. P. Véran, “PUEO’s performance: image quality improvement,” Tech. Rep. (Observatoire de Paris, Paris, 1996).

Le Louarn, M.

M. Le Louarn, R. Foy, N. Hubin, M. Tallon, “Laser guide star for 3.6- and 8-m telescopes: performances and astrophysical implications,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 756–768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Le Louarn, M. Tallon, “A solution to the cone effect: theory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 1066–1073 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Delplancke, M. Carbillet, N. N. Hubin, S. Esposito, F. J. Rigaut, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, R. Ragazzoni, M. Le Louarn, L. Fini, “Laser guide star simulations for 8-m class telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 371–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hart, M.

Madec, P.-Y.

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, J.-M. Conan, P. Y. Kern, P.-Y. Madec, D. Rabaud, D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, F. J. Rigaut, “Design of the Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS) of the VLT,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 508–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

F. Delplancke, M. Carbillet, N. N. Hubin, S. Esposito, F. J. Rigaut, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, R. Ragazzoni, M. Le Louarn, L. Fini, “Laser guide star simulations for 8-m class telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 371–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, D.

Mouillet, D.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, J.-M. Conan, P. Y. Kern, P.-Y. Madec, D. Rabaud, D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, F. J. Rigaut, “Design of the Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS) of the VLT,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 508–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, D. V.

Parenti, R. R.

Primmerman, C. A.

Puget, P.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, J.-M. Conan, P. Y. Kern, P.-Y. Madec, D. Rabaud, D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, F. J. Rigaut, “Design of the Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS) of the VLT,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 508–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rabaud, D.

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, J.-M. Conan, P. Y. Kern, P.-Y. Madec, D. Rabaud, D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, F. J. Rigaut, “Design of the Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS) of the VLT,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 508–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

F. Delplancke, M. Carbillet, N. N. Hubin, S. Esposito, F. J. Rigaut, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, R. Ragazzoni, M. Le Louarn, L. Fini, “Laser guide star simulations for 8-m class telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 371–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riccardi, A.

F. Delplancke, M. Carbillet, N. N. Hubin, S. Esposito, F. J. Rigaut, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, R. Ragazzoni, M. Le Louarn, L. Fini, “Laser guide star simulations for 8-m class telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 371–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, F. Delplancke, S. Esposito, B. Femenia, L. Fini, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, N. Hubin, F. Rigaut, “LA3OS2: a software package for laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3762, 379–389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, F. Delplancke, S. Esposito, B. Femenia, L. Fini, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, N. Hubin, F. Rigaut, “LA3OS2: a software package for laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3762, 379–389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Rigaut, O. Lai, J. P. Véran, “PUEO’s performance: image quality improvement,” Tech. Rep. (Observatoire de Paris, Paris, 1996).

Rigaut, F. J.

F. Delplancke, M. Carbillet, N. N. Hubin, S. Esposito, F. J. Rigaut, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, R. Ragazzoni, M. Le Louarn, L. Fini, “Laser guide star simulations for 8-m class telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 371–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, J.-M. Conan, P. Y. Kern, P.-Y. Madec, D. Rabaud, D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, F. J. Rigaut, “Design of the Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS) of the VLT,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 508–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robin, A.

A. Robin, M. Creze, “Stellar population in the Milky Way: a synthetic model,” Astron. Astrophys. 157, 71–90 (1986).

Rouan, D.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, J.-M. Conan, P. Y. Kern, P.-Y. Madec, D. Rabaud, D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, F. J. Rigaut, “Design of the Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS) of the VLT,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 508–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, in Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, D. M. Alloin, J. M. Mariotti, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 115–137.
[CrossRef]

Salmon, D.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandler, D. G.

Sasiela, R. J.

Stahl, S.

Stilburn, J.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tallon, M.

M. Le Louarn, R. Foy, N. Hubin, M. Tallon, “Laser guide star for 3.6- and 8-m telescopes: performances and astrophysical implications,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 756–768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Le Louarn, M. Tallon, “A solution to the cone effect: theory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 1066–1073 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, G. A.

Véran, J. P.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Rigaut, O. Lai, J. P. Véran, “PUEO’s performance: image quality improvement,” Tech. Rep. (Observatoire de Paris, Paris, 1996).

Vernin, J.

A. Fuchs, J. Vernin, “Final report on PARSCA 1992 and 1993 campaigns,” ESO Tech. Rep. VLT-TRE-UNI-17400-0001 (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1996).

Viard, E.

F. Delplancke, M. Carbillet, N. N. Hubin, S. Esposito, F. J. Rigaut, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, R. Ragazzoni, M. Le Louarn, L. Fini, “Laser guide star simulations for 8-m class telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 371–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, F. Delplancke, S. Esposito, B. Femenia, L. Fini, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, N. Hubin, F. Rigaut, “LA3OS2: a software package for laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3762, 379–389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zollars, B. G.

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive optics telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

A. Robin, M. Creze, “Stellar population in the Milky Way: a synthetic model,” Astron. Astrophys. 157, 71–90 (1986).

Exp. Astron. (1)

J.-L. Beuzit, L. Demailly, E. Gendron, P. Gigan, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, N. Hubin, D. Bonaccini, E. Chazallet, D. Rabaud, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, R. Hoffmann, F. Eisenhauer, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-meter telescope,” Exp. Astron. 7, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (Paris) (1)

F. Chassat, “Calcul du domaine d’isoplanétisme d’un système d’optique adaptative fonctionnant à travers la turbulence atmosphérique,” J. Opt. (Paris) 20, 13–23 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. Le Louarn, R. Foy, N. Hubin, M. Tallon, “Laser guide star for 3.6- and 8-m telescopes: performances and astrophysical implications,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 756–768 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Véran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Adaptive Optics Bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

M. Le Louarn, M. Tallon, “A solution to the cone effect: theory,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 1066–1073 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Delplancke, M. Carbillet, N. N. Hubin, S. Esposito, F. J. Rigaut, E. Marchetti, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, R. Ragazzoni, M. Le Louarn, L. Fini, “Laser guide star simulations for 8-m class telescopes,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 371–382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, F. Delplancke, S. Esposito, B. Femenia, L. Fini, A. Riccardi, E. Viard, N. Hubin, F. Rigaut, “LA3OS2: a software package for laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE3762, 379–389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fuchs, J. Vernin, “Final report on PARSCA 1992 and 1993 campaigns,” ESO Tech. Rep. VLT-TRE-UNI-17400-0001 (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1996).

F. Rigaut, O. Lai, J. P. Véran, “PUEO’s performance: image quality improvement,” Tech. Rep. (Observatoire de Paris, Paris, 1996).

G. Rousset, in Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, D. M. Alloin, J. M. Mariotti, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 115–137.
[CrossRef]

D. G. Sandler, in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, F. Roddier, ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1999), p. 262.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. N. Hubin, E. Gendron, J.-M. Conan, P. Y. Kern, P.-Y. Madec, D. Rabaud, D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, F. J. Rigaut, “Design of the Nasmyth adaptive optics system (NAOS) of the VLT,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 508–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

In the four-LGS method, each of the four LGSs is seen by only one fourth of the WFS subapertures, and the round trip of the laser light prevents estimation of the atmospheric tip–tilt from the LGS wave fronts. All the unsensed modes on the telescope pupil (defocus, two astigmatisms, plus tip and tilt) that are due to the tip–tilt insensitivity of the four LGSs are shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of Strehl ratio performance obtained with the analytical formula of Tyler [Eq. (2) shown by diamonds] and with a numerical simulation of the wave-front propagation through a Kolmogorov atmosphere (solid curves). Two sets of typical atmospheric conditions are shown: upper curve, GS conditions; lower curve, MS conditions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

S R obtained with one, three, four, and five LGSs at 500 nm under the GS conditions defined in Table 1 and Eq. (1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

S R obtained with the four-LGS (solid curves) method compared with results with one LGS (dashed curves). Results with GS and MS are plotted. Upper solid and dashed curves, r 0 = 0.25 m; the lower solid and dashed curves, r 0 = 0.15 m. Variances were computed with Eq. (1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of Strehl ratio performance of the four-LGS and one-LGS methods for the classic AO system, NAOS-14. An AO system optimized for shorter wavelengths with 40 × 40 subapertures (NAOS-40) is also shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) S R obtained for the 14-subaperture SHS NAOS system and 9th-magnitude LGSs with the 4-LGS method (points) compared with results with one LGS (dashed curves) under GS conditions (upper curves) and MS conditions (lower curves). (b) S R obtained using 6th LGS magnitudes and a 40 × 40 subaperture SHS. With NAOS-40, the four-LGS method permits a factor-of-2 gain in Strehl ratio at 1000 nm under GS conditions and a factor-of-1.1 gain under MS conditions relative to the one-LGS method.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) NAOS-14 S R obtained as a function of the NGS R magnitude with four LGSs (solid curves) compared with results with one LGS (diamonds) for GS conditions (upper curves) and MS conditions (lower curves) with an 8-m telescope at 1250 nm. (b) NAOS-40 performance reached with either four LGSs or one LGS as a function of the NGS magnitude at 1250 nm. With a NGS magnitude of less than 13, the four-LGS method gives slightly better S R than the one-LGS method. At higher magnitudes, the correction is worse with four LGSs because of the need for bright NGS to provide correction up to the astigmatism mode.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Performance degradation as a function of NGS off-axis angle (in arc seconds) at 1250 nm. The four-LGS S R loss is plotted as solid curves; the one-LGS S R loss is plotted as dashed curves. Results are presented for both GS and MS conditions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Sky coverage available versus Strehl ratio at 1250 nm for 20° galactic latitude and 180° galactic longitude. NGS, four-LGS and one-LGS results are plotted by dashed, solid, and dashed–dotted curves, respectively. (b) Same plot as in (a) for figure the galactic plane.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Atmospheric Parameters Considered in the Simulationa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Numerical and Analytical Results of the Cone Effect for One LGS from Eqs. (1) and (2)a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Configurations Used in Computing Performancea

Tables Icon

Table 4 Contribution of Errors in NAOS-14 and NAOS-40 Systems with One LGS or Four LGSs at 500 and 1500 nm under GS Conditionsa

Tables Icon

Table 5 NGS Magnitudes Corresponding to a Loss of 50% of Strehl Ratio with NAOS-14 or NAOS-40 Systems under GS and MS Conditions with Four and One LGSa

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σcone2=drWr/RϕNGSr=ϕLGSr2drWr/R,
σ2=D/d05/3,
d0=λ6/5 cos3/5ψCn2hFh/H-3/5,
SRexp-σ2.
rop=2.40 m
rop/H=5.50
σ4LGSsλ2=σ4LGSs5002×500λ2,
σtot2=σ4LGSs2+σfit2+σalias2+σph2+σron2+σtime2,

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