Abstract

The method of cavity ringdown spectroscopy (when a tunable pulsed optical parametric oscillator was used) was extended for the loss evaluation in thin films (2–20-µm thickness). The technique was applied in two key telecommunication wavelength ranges of 1260–1330 and 1480–1650 nm. The measurement sensitivity was determined to be 50 ppm (5 × 10-5). The results for polymer films are in close correlation with conventional spectrophotometric data and propagation loss for planar waveguides. Films of greater thickness and better optical quality are expected to provide an even higher loss resolution.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy of jet-cooled copper silicides,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 5190–5199 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Yu, M. C. Lin, “Kinetics of phenyl radical reactions with selected cycloalkanes and carbon tetrachloride,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 8599–8603 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for probing surface processes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104–112 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Engeln, G. von Helden, A. J. A. van Roij, G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy on solid C60,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2732–2733 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Fischbeck, R. Moosburger, M. Topper, K. Petermann, “Design concept for single-mode polymer waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 32, 212–213 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1999

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, A. J. A. van Roij, G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy on solid C60,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2732–2733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for probing surface processes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. Fischbeck, R. Moosburger, M. Topper, K. Petermann, “Design concept for single-mode polymer waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 32, 212–213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy of jet-cooled copper silicides,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 5190–5199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Yu, M. C. Lin, “Kinetics of phenyl radical reactions with selected cycloalkanes and carbon tetrachloride,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 8599–8603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Boogaarts, M. G. H.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Collier, C. P.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy of jet-cooled copper silicides,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 5190–5199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Engeln, R.

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, A. J. A. van Roij, G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy on solid C60,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2732–2733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fischbeck, G.

G. Fischbeck, R. Moosburger, M. Topper, K. Petermann, “Design concept for single-mode polymer waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 32, 212–213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hudgens, J. W.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for probing surface processes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huie, R. E.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for probing surface processes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jongma, R. T.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. C.

T. Yu, M. C. Lin, “Kinetics of phenyl radical reactions with selected cycloalkanes and carbon tetrachloride,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 8599–8603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, G.

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, A. J. A. van Roij, G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy on solid C60,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2732–2733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moosburger, R.

G. Fischbeck, R. Moosburger, M. Topper, K. Petermann, “Design concept for single-mode polymer waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 32, 212–213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O’Keefe, A.

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Parker, D. H.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paul, J. B.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy of jet-cooled copper silicides,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 5190–5199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

G. Fischbeck, R. Moosburger, M. Topper, K. Petermann, “Design concept for single-mode polymer waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 32, 212–213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pipino, A. C. R.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for probing surface processes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rakestraw, D. J.

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy of jet-cooled copper silicides,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 5190–5199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, J. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy of jet-cooled copper silicides,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 5190–5199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Topper, M.

G. Fischbeck, R. Moosburger, M. Topper, K. Petermann, “Design concept for single-mode polymer waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 32, 212–213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van Roij, A. J. A.

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, A. J. A. van Roij, G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy on solid C60,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2732–2733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Voelkel, D.

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

von Helden, G.

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, A. J. A. van Roij, G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy on solid C60,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2732–2733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

T. Yu, M. C. Lin, “Kinetics of phenyl radical reactions with selected cycloalkanes and carbon tetrachloride,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 8599–8603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, “Coherent cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for probing surface processes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

G. Fischbeck, R. Moosburger, M. Topper, K. Petermann, “Design concept for single-mode polymer waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 32, 212–213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy of jet-cooled copper silicides,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 5190–5199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, A. J. A. van Roij, G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy on solid C60,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2732–2733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

T. Yu, M. C. Lin, “Kinetics of phenyl radical reactions with selected cycloalkanes and carbon tetrachloride,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 8599–8603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical scheme for cavity ringdown spectroscopy: M1, M2, mirrors forming the cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) CRD kinetics for the 1650-nm PMMA sample. The decay kinetics for the empty cavity, the cavity with a substrate, and the cavity with a film sample on the substrate is shown. Solid curves represent single exponential fits through the data. (b) CRD kinetics for the 1320-nm PMMA sample. The decay kinetics for the empty cavity, the cavity with a substrate, and the cavity with a film sample on a substrate is shown. Solid curves represent single exponential fits through the data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Decay time of the CRD kinetics for empty cavities and cavities with a PMMA film sample in the 1330- and 1550-nm wavelength range. Open circles represent data for the empty cavity; filled squares represent data for cavities with films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Loss in the cavity caused by insertion of the substrate. The error bar indicates the accuracy of measurement (∼50 ppm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Loss spectrum of the PMMA film sample obtained with the CRDS technique.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Loss spectra of films of three different thicknesses of UV-15, scaled to the thickness of one of the films. Variation in the data is also an indicator of measurement sensitivity.

Equations (1)

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T=τr2 lnR-Aτr21-R+A

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