Abstract

Efficient frequency doubling and tripling are critical to the successful operation of inertial confinement fusion laser systems such as the National Ignition Facility currently being constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. High-frequency conversion efficiency is strongly dependent on attainment of the phase-matching condition. In an ideal converter crystal, one can obtain the phase-matching condition throughout by angle tuning or temperature tuning of the crystal as a whole. In real crystals, imperfections in the crystal structure prohibit the attainment of phase matching at all locations in the crystal. We have modeled frequency doubling and tripling with a quantitative measure of this departure from phase matching in real crystals. This measure is obtained from interferometry of KDP and KD*P crystals at two orthogonal light polarizations.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. S. Craxton, “High efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 17, 1771–1782 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. W. Short, S. Skupsky, “Frequency conversion of broadband laser light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 580–588 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. Murray, “Overview of the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE Suppl.3492, 1–10 (1998).
  4. D. Eimerl, “High average power harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 575–592 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. R. Nash, G. D. Boyd, M. Sargent, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Effect of optical inhomogeneities on phase matching in non-linear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2564–2576 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Tsuya, Y. Fujino, K. Sugibachi, “Dependence of second harmonic generation on crystal inhomogeneity,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2557–2563 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, D. R. Speck, C. Bibeau, R. B. Ehrlich, C. W. Laumann, J. K. Lawson, T. L. Weiland, “Harmonic conversion of large-aperture 1.05-µm laser beams for inertial-confinement fusion research,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6414–6426 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. S. Craxton, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, “Basic properties of KDP related to the frequency conversion of 1 µm laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1782–1786 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Eimerl, “Electro-optic, linear, and non-linear optical properties of KDP and its isomorphs,” Ferroelectrics 72, 397–439 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. C. Ghosh, G. C. Bhar, “Temperature dispersion in ADP, KDP, and KD*P for non-linear devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 143–145 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Eimerl, J. M. Auerbach, P. W. Milonni, “Paraxial wave theory of second and third harmonic generation in uniaxial crystals. I. Narrowband pump fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1037–1067 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Pliszka, P. P. Bunjeree, “Nonlinear transverse effects in second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1810–1819 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S.-C. Sheng, A. E. Siegman, “Nonlinear-optical calculations using fast transform methods: second harmonic generation with depletion and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 599–606 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. A. Dresser, J. K. McIver, “Second-harmonic generation in a nonlinear, anisotropic medium with diffraction and depletion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 776–784 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, M. D. Feit, “Time dependent propagation of high energy laser beams through the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. 10, 129–160 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. C. Burkhardt, S. A. Couture, J. J. DeYoreo, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, L. A. Hackel, “Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Applications to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 392–405 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. Eimerl, J. M. Auerbach, P. W. Milonni, “Paraxial wave theory of second and third harmonic generation in uniaxial crystals. I. Narrowband pump fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1037–1067 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

R. S. Craxton, “High efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 17, 1771–1782 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

R. W. Short, S. Skupsky, “Frequency conversion of broadband laser light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 580–588 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dresser, J. K. McIver, “Second-harmonic generation in a nonlinear, anisotropic medium with diffraction and depletion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 776–784 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

D. Eimerl, “High average power harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 575–592 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, “Electro-optic, linear, and non-linear optical properties of KDP and its isomorphs,” Ferroelectrics 72, 397–439 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. C. Ghosh, G. C. Bhar, “Temperature dispersion in ADP, KDP, and KD*P for non-linear devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 143–145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. S. Craxton, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, “Basic properties of KDP related to the frequency conversion of 1 µm laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1782–1786 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

S.-C. Sheng, A. E. Siegman, “Nonlinear-optical calculations using fast transform methods: second harmonic generation with depletion and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 599–606 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, M. D. Feit, “Time dependent propagation of high energy laser beams through the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. 10, 129–160 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

F. R. Nash, G. D. Boyd, M. Sargent, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Effect of optical inhomogeneities on phase matching in non-linear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2564–2576 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuya, Y. Fujino, K. Sugibachi, “Dependence of second harmonic generation on crystal inhomogeneity,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2557–2563 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Atherton, L. J.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Auerbach, J. M.

D. Eimerl, J. M. Auerbach, P. W. Milonni, “Paraxial wave theory of second and third harmonic generation in uniaxial crystals. I. Narrowband pump fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1037–1067 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. C. Burkhardt, S. A. Couture, J. J. DeYoreo, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, L. A. Hackel, “Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Applications to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 392–405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barker, C. E.

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. C. Burkhardt, S. A. Couture, J. J. DeYoreo, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, L. A. Hackel, “Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Applications to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 392–405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhar, G. C.

G. C. Ghosh, G. C. Bhar, “Temperature dispersion in ADP, KDP, and KD*P for non-linear devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 143–145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bibeau, C.

Boni, R.

R. S. Craxton, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, “Basic properties of KDP related to the frequency conversion of 1 µm laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1782–1786 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

F. R. Nash, G. D. Boyd, M. Sargent, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Effect of optical inhomogeneities on phase matching in non-linear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2564–2576 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bridenbaugh, P. M.

F. R. Nash, G. D. Boyd, M. Sargent, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Effect of optical inhomogeneities on phase matching in non-linear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2564–2576 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bunjeree, P. P.

Burkhardt, S. C.

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. C. Burkhardt, S. A. Couture, J. J. DeYoreo, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, L. A. Hackel, “Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Applications to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 392–405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Couture, S. A.

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. C. Burkhardt, S. A. Couture, J. J. DeYoreo, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, L. A. Hackel, “Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Applications to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 392–405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Craxton, R. S.

R. S. Craxton, “High efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 17, 1771–1782 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Craxton, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, “Basic properties of KDP related to the frequency conversion of 1 µm laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1782–1786 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dehaven, M. R.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DeYoreo, J. J.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. C. Burkhardt, S. A. Couture, J. J. DeYoreo, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, L. A. Hackel, “Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Applications to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 392–405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dresser, M. A.

Ehrlich, R. B.

Eimerl, D.

D. Eimerl, J. M. Auerbach, P. W. Milonni, “Paraxial wave theory of second and third harmonic generation in uniaxial crystals. I. Narrowband pump fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1037–1067 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, “Electro-optic, linear, and non-linear optical properties of KDP and its isomorphs,” Ferroelectrics 72, 397–439 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, “High average power harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 575–592 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, M. D. Feit, “Time dependent propagation of high energy laser beams through the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. 10, 129–160 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Fleck, J. A.

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, M. D. Feit, “Time dependent propagation of high energy laser beams through the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. 10, 129–160 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Fujino, Y.

H. Tsuya, Y. Fujino, K. Sugibachi, “Dependence of second harmonic generation on crystal inhomogeneity,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2557–2563 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, G. C.

G. C. Ghosh, G. C. Bhar, “Temperature dispersion in ADP, KDP, and KD*P for non-linear devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 143–145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hackel, L. A.

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. C. Burkhardt, S. A. Couture, J. J. DeYoreo, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, L. A. Hackel, “Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Applications to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 392–405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Henesian, M. A.

Hibbard, R. L.

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. C. Burkhardt, S. A. Couture, J. J. DeYoreo, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, L. A. Hackel, “Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Applications to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 392–405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S. D.

R. S. Craxton, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, “Basic properties of KDP related to the frequency conversion of 1 µm laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1782–1786 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Laumann, C. W.

Lawson, J. K.

Liou, L. W.

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. C. Burkhardt, S. A. Couture, J. J. DeYoreo, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, L. A. Hackel, “Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Applications to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 392–405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McIver, J. K.

Milonni, P. W.

D. Eimerl, J. M. Auerbach, P. W. Milonni, “Paraxial wave theory of second and third harmonic generation in uniaxial crystals. I. Narrowband pump fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1037–1067 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, K. E.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morris, J. R.

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, M. D. Feit, “Time dependent propagation of high energy laser beams through the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. 10, 129–160 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J. R.

J. R. Murray, “Overview of the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE Suppl.3492, 1–10 (1998).

Nash, F. R.

F. R. Nash, G. D. Boyd, M. Sargent, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Effect of optical inhomogeneities on phase matching in non-linear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2564–2576 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Norton, M. A.

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. C. Burkhardt, S. A. Couture, J. J. DeYoreo, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, L. A. Hackel, “Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Applications to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 392–405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pliszka, P.

Richardson, M.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, J. E.

R. S. Craxton, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, “Basic properties of KDP related to the frequency conversion of 1 µm laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1782–1786 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, M.

F. R. Nash, G. D. Boyd, M. Sargent, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Effect of optical inhomogeneities on phase matching in non-linear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2564–2576 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, S.-C.

S.-C. Sheng, A. E. Siegman, “Nonlinear-optical calculations using fast transform methods: second harmonic generation with depletion and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 599–606 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Short, R. W.

R. W. Short, S. Skupsky, “Frequency conversion of broadband laser light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 580–588 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

S.-C. Sheng, A. E. Siegman, “Nonlinear-optical calculations using fast transform methods: second harmonic generation with depletion and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 599–606 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Skupsky, S.

R. W. Short, S. Skupsky, “Frequency conversion of broadband laser light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 580–588 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Speck, D. R.

Sugibachi, K.

H. Tsuya, Y. Fujino, K. Sugibachi, “Dependence of second harmonic generation on crystal inhomogeneity,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2557–2563 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tsuya, H.

H. Tsuya, Y. Fujino, K. Sugibachi, “Dependence of second harmonic generation on crystal inhomogeneity,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2557–2563 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Vital, R. L.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, P. J.

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, D. R. Speck, C. Bibeau, R. B. Ehrlich, C. W. Laumann, J. K. Lawson, T. L. Weiland, “Harmonic conversion of large-aperture 1.05-µm laser beams for inertial-confinement fusion research,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6414–6426 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. C. Burkhardt, S. A. Couture, J. J. DeYoreo, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, L. A. Hackel, “Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Applications to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 392–405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weiland, T. L.

Whitman, P. K.

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. C. Burkhardt, S. A. Couture, J. J. DeYoreo, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, L. A. Hackel, “Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Applications to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 392–405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zaitseva, N. P.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

J. A. Fleck, J. R. Morris, M. D. Feit, “Time dependent propagation of high energy laser beams through the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. 10, 129–160 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

D. Eimerl, “Electro-optic, linear, and non-linear optical properties of KDP and its isomorphs,” Ferroelectrics 72, 397–439 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

G. C. Ghosh, G. C. Bhar, “Temperature dispersion in ADP, KDP, and KD*P for non-linear devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 143–145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Craxton, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, “Basic properties of KDP related to the frequency conversion of 1 µm laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1782–1786 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Short, S. Skupsky, “Frequency conversion of broadband laser light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 580–588 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, “High average power harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 575–592 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

R. S. Craxton, “High efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 17, 1771–1782 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

F. R. Nash, G. D. Boyd, M. Sargent, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Effect of optical inhomogeneities on phase matching in non-linear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2564–2576 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuya, Y. Fujino, K. Sugibachi, “Dependence of second harmonic generation on crystal inhomogeneity,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2557–2563 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4,” J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. Eimerl, J. M. Auerbach, P. W. Milonni, “Paraxial wave theory of second and third harmonic generation in uniaxial crystals. I. Narrowband pump fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1037–1067 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S.-C. Sheng, A. E. Siegman, “Nonlinear-optical calculations using fast transform methods: second harmonic generation with depletion and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 599–606 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. C. Burkhardt, S. A. Couture, J. J. DeYoreo, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, L. A. Hackel, “Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Applications to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 392–405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Murray, “Overview of the National Ignition Facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE Suppl.3492, 1–10 (1998).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Orientation of the type II converter plate in the boule. (b) Orientation of the converter plates and electric fields configured for cascade sum-frequency generation by type I doubling and type II tripling. SHG, second-harmonic generation; THG, third-harmonic generation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gray-scale plot of the measured δn distribution for a RG KDP type I doubling crystal. To our knowledge, this is the second RG doubler ever produced at this size. An earlier model interferometer that operates at 0.6328-µm wavelength was used to obtain this δn distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histogram of the δn distribution of Fig. 2 expressed in terms of an equivalent internal detuning angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured (a) x profile and (b) y profile of the 1ω fluence distribution used for the modeling.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gray-scale plots of (a) measured and (b) calculated 2ω fluence distribution for a Beamlet doubling experiment with the RG doubler.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Gray-scale plot of the measured δn distribution for a RG KD*P type II tripler crystal. To our knowledge, this is the first RG tripler ever produced at this size. An earlier model interferometer that operates at 0.6328-µm wavelength was used to obtain this δn distribution.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histogram of the δn distribution of Fig. 6 expressed in terms of an equivalent internal detuning angle.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Gray-scale plots of (a) measured and (b) calculated 3ω fluence distribution for a Beamlet tripling experiment with the RG KDP doubler and the RG KD*P tripler.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Gray-scale plots of (a) measured and (b) calculated 2ω residual fluence distribution for a Beamlet tripling experiment with the RG KDP doubler and the RG KD*P tripler.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Calculated and Measured Doubling Efficiencies

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Calculated and Measured Tripling Efficiencies

Equations (17)

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Δk=k3-k2-k1=0,
k=nω/c,
Δk=4π/λ1ωne2ω, θ-no1ω,
Δk=2π/λ1ω3ne3ω, θ-ne1ω, θ-2no2ω.
ϕx, y=nx, yLx, y/λp.
δϕx, y=naδLx, y+Laδnx, y/λp,
Δϕ=ϕo-ϕe=nao-naeδL+δno-neL/λp.
δLδno-ne/nao-naeL.
δno-ne=λpΔϕ/L.
δno-neδne=ne/θλpΔθ.
Δkx, y=4π/λne/θ2ωΔθx, y;
Δkx, y=2π/λ2ne/θ2ω-ne/θ1ωΔθx, y;
Δkx, y=2π/λ3ne/θ3ω-ne/θ1ωΔθx, y.
E3/z+vg3-1E3/t=iCE1E2* exp-iΔkz-ρ3E3/y-i/2k32E3-0.5α3+β2pI3E3+ikλ/λ3FI1, I2, I3E3.
F=2γ31I1+2γ32I2+γ33I3.
Ex, y, z, t=n Enx, y, zδt-nΔt.
dA/dz=-iρ3κyA+iκx2+κy2/2kA,

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