Abstract

A hybrid method that combines experimental and numerical approaches for determining the material properties of Nd:YVO4 is reported. In the experimental investigations a laser interferometer is proposed for measuring the physical deformation of lasing materials at the end-pump surface. By matching with the measured end bulging, we have implemented a numerical solution with finite-element analyses to determine the Poisson ratio and Young’s modulus of the crystal. The accuracy interval of the evaluated Poisson ratio of 0.33 and Young’s modulus of 133 GPa is discussed numerically. Based on the mechanical properties obtained, the end effect is separated from thermal effects, and it shows that the end effect results in an approximate equal thermal lensing effect compared with the index parts for end-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, C. E. Hamilton, C. H. Muller, D. D. Lowenthal, “Efficient, 15-W output power, diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 584–586 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Golla, M. Bode, S. Knoke, W. Schone, G. Ernst, A. Tunnermann, “62-W CW TEM00 Nd:YAG laser side-pumped by fiber-coupled diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 201–212 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. L. Nighan, D. Dudley, M. S. Keirstead, “Diode-bar-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers with >13-W TEM00 output at >50% efficiency,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 17–18.
  5. J. Zhang, M. Quade, K. M. Du, Y. Liao, S. Falter, M. Baumann, P. Loosen, R. Poprawe, “Efficient TEM00 operatin of Nd:YVO4 laser and end pumped by fiber-coupled diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 775–777 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234–239 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kaamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–19 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992), pp. 388–392.
  9. T. M. Baer, W. L. Nighan, M. S. Keirstead, “Modeling of end-pumped, solid-state lasers,” in Conference in Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 638.
  10. K. R. F. Kleine, L. P. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, L. R. Marshall, D. G. Matthews, “High brightness Nd:YVO4 laser for nonlinear optics,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 157–158.
  11. T. S. Rose, B. Nighan, D. Dudley, R. A. Fields, D. Gilmore, E. Hall, “Thermal lens reduction in longitudinally pumped diffusion bonded Nd:YVO4,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 285.
  12. L. R. Marshall, L. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, K. Kleine, D. G. Matthews, “Diode pumped lasers for the visible and ultraviolet,” in SOQUE Proceedings of Lasers ’98, Tucson, Ariz. (Society of Optics and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1998).
  13. R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Macdonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Kreis, Holographic Interferometry Principles and Methods (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 78–82.
  15. Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. C. Kohnke, ANSYS: Engineering Analysis System Theoretical Manual (Swanson Analysis Systems, Houston, Pa., 1986).
  17. S. S. Rao, The Finite Element Method in Engineering (Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 1999).
  18. B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (Wiley, New York, 1960).
  19. R. S. Sirohi, F. S. Chau, Optical Methods of Measurement: Wholefield Techniques (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999).
  20. J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Macdonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

J. Zhang, M. Quade, K. M. Du, Y. Liao, S. Falter, M. Baumann, P. Loosen, R. Poprawe, “Efficient TEM00 operatin of Nd:YVO4 laser and end pumped by fiber-coupled diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 775–777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kaamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baer, T. M.

T. M. Baer, W. L. Nighan, M. S. Keirstead, “Modeling of end-pumped, solid-state lasers,” in Conference in Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 638.

Baumann, M.

J. Zhang, M. Quade, K. M. Du, Y. Liao, S. Falter, M. Baumann, P. Loosen, R. Poprawe, “Efficient TEM00 operatin of Nd:YVO4 laser and end pumped by fiber-coupled diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 775–777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, R.

L. R. Marshall, L. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, K. Kleine, D. G. Matthews, “Diode pumped lasers for the visible and ultraviolet,” in SOQUE Proceedings of Lasers ’98, Tucson, Ariz. (Society of Optics and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1998).

K. R. F. Kleine, L. P. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, L. R. Marshall, D. G. Matthews, “High brightness Nd:YVO4 laser for nonlinear optics,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 157–158.

Blows, J. L.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bode, M.

Boley, B. A.

B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (Wiley, New York, 1960).

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chau, F. S.

R. S. Sirohi, F. S. Chau, Optical Methods of Measurement: Wholefield Techniques (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999).

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, J.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Du, K. M.

J. Zhang, M. Quade, K. M. Du, Y. Liao, S. Falter, M. Baumann, P. Loosen, R. Poprawe, “Efficient TEM00 operatin of Nd:YVO4 laser and end pumped by fiber-coupled diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 775–777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, D.

T. S. Rose, B. Nighan, D. Dudley, R. A. Fields, D. Gilmore, E. Hall, “Thermal lens reduction in longitudinally pumped diffusion bonded Nd:YVO4,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 285.

W. L. Nighan, D. Dudley, M. S. Keirstead, “Diode-bar-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers with >13-W TEM00 output at >50% efficiency,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 17–18.

Ernst, G.

Falter, S.

J. Zhang, M. Quade, K. M. Du, Y. Liao, S. Falter, M. Baumann, P. Loosen, R. Poprawe, “Efficient TEM00 operatin of Nd:YVO4 laser and end pumped by fiber-coupled diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 775–777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R. A.

T. S. Rose, B. Nighan, D. Dudley, R. A. Fields, D. Gilmore, E. Hall, “Thermal lens reduction in longitudinally pumped diffusion bonded Nd:YVO4,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 285.

Gilmore, D.

T. S. Rose, B. Nighan, D. Dudley, R. A. Fields, D. Gilmore, E. Hall, “Thermal lens reduction in longitudinally pumped diffusion bonded Nd:YVO4,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 285.

Golla, D.

Gonzalez, L.

L. R. Marshall, L. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, K. Kleine, D. G. Matthews, “Diode pumped lasers for the visible and ultraviolet,” in SOQUE Proceedings of Lasers ’98, Tucson, Ariz. (Society of Optics and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1998).

Gonzalez, L. P.

K. R. F. Kleine, L. P. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, L. R. Marshall, D. G. Matthews, “High brightness Nd:YVO4 laser for nonlinear optics,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 157–158.

Hall, E.

T. S. Rose, B. Nighan, D. Dudley, R. A. Fields, D. Gilmore, E. Hall, “Thermal lens reduction in longitudinally pumped diffusion bonded Nd:YVO4,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 285.

Hamilton, C. E.

Huang, T. M.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kaamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaamatsu, T.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kaamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. F.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Keirstead, M. S.

T. M. Baer, W. L. Nighan, M. S. Keirstead, “Modeling of end-pumped, solid-state lasers,” in Conference in Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 638.

W. L. Nighan, D. Dudley, M. S. Keirstead, “Diode-bar-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers with >13-W TEM00 output at >50% efficiency,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 17–18.

Kleine, K.

L. R. Marshall, L. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, K. Kleine, D. G. Matthews, “Diode pumped lasers for the visible and ultraviolet,” in SOQUE Proceedings of Lasers ’98, Tucson, Ariz. (Society of Optics and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1998).

Kleine, K. R. F.

K. R. F. Kleine, L. P. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, L. R. Marshall, D. G. Matthews, “High brightness Nd:YVO4 laser for nonlinear optics,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 157–158.

Knoke, S.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992), pp. 388–392.

Kohnke, P. C.

P. C. Kohnke, ANSYS: Engineering Analysis System Theoretical Manual (Swanson Analysis Systems, Houston, Pa., 1986).

Kreis, T.

T. Kreis, Holographic Interferometry Principles and Methods (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 78–82.

Liao, Y.

J. Zhang, M. Quade, K. M. Du, Y. Liao, S. Falter, M. Baumann, P. Loosen, R. Poprawe, “Efficient TEM00 operatin of Nd:YVO4 laser and end pumped by fiber-coupled diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 775–777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Loosen, P.

J. Zhang, M. Quade, K. M. Du, Y. Liao, S. Falter, M. Baumann, P. Loosen, R. Poprawe, “Efficient TEM00 operatin of Nd:YVO4 laser and end pumped by fiber-coupled diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 775–777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lowenthal, D. D.

Macdonald, M.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Macdonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, L. R.

L. R. Marshall, L. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, K. Kleine, D. G. Matthews, “Diode pumped lasers for the visible and ultraviolet,” in SOQUE Proceedings of Lasers ’98, Tucson, Ariz. (Society of Optics and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1998).

K. R. F. Kleine, L. P. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, L. R. Marshall, D. G. Matthews, “High brightness Nd:YVO4 laser for nonlinear optics,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 157–158.

Matthews, D. G.

K. R. F. Kleine, L. P. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, L. R. Marshall, D. G. Matthews, “High brightness Nd:YVO4 laser for nonlinear optics,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 157–158.

L. R. Marshall, L. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, K. Kleine, D. G. Matthews, “Diode pumped lasers for the visible and ultraviolet,” in SOQUE Proceedings of Lasers ’98, Tucson, Ariz. (Society of Optics and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1998).

Muller, C. H.

Neuenschwander, B.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Macdonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nighan, B.

T. S. Rose, B. Nighan, D. Dudley, R. A. Fields, D. Gilmore, E. Hall, “Thermal lens reduction in longitudinally pumped diffusion bonded Nd:YVO4,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 285.

Nighan, W. L.

T. M. Baer, W. L. Nighan, M. S. Keirstead, “Modeling of end-pumped, solid-state lasers,” in Conference in Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 638.

W. L. Nighan, D. Dudley, M. S. Keirstead, “Diode-bar-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers with >13-W TEM00 output at >50% efficiency,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 17–18.

Omatsu, T.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pask, H.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poprawe, R.

J. Zhang, M. Quade, K. M. Du, Y. Liao, S. Falter, M. Baumann, P. Loosen, R. Poprawe, “Efficient TEM00 operatin of Nd:YVO4 laser and end pumped by fiber-coupled diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 775–777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quade, M.

J. Zhang, M. Quade, K. M. Du, Y. Liao, S. Falter, M. Baumann, P. Loosen, R. Poprawe, “Efficient TEM00 operatin of Nd:YVO4 laser and end pumped by fiber-coupled diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 775–777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rao, S. S.

S. S. Rao, The Finite Element Method in Engineering (Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 1999).

Roos, M. B.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Macdonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rose, T. S.

T. S. Rose, B. Nighan, D. Dudley, R. A. Fields, D. Gilmore, E. Hall, “Thermal lens reduction in longitudinally pumped diffusion bonded Nd:YVO4,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 285.

Schone, W.

Seamans, J. F.

Sirohi, R. S.

R. S. Sirohi, F. S. Chau, Optical Methods of Measurement: Wholefield Techniques (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999).

Taguchi, N.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kaamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tidwell, S. C.

Tsunekane, M.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kaamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

Wang, C. L.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Macdonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Macdonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. H.

B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (Wiley, New York, 1960).

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, M. Quade, K. M. Du, Y. Liao, S. Falter, M. Baumann, P. Loosen, R. Poprawe, “Efficient TEM00 operatin of Nd:YVO4 laser and end pumped by fiber-coupled diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 775–777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Zhang, M. Quade, K. M. Du, Y. Liao, S. Falter, M. Baumann, P. Loosen, R. Poprawe, “Efficient TEM00 operatin of Nd:YVO4 laser and end pumped by fiber-coupled diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 775–777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

Y. F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Macdonald, M. B. Roos, H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kaamatsu, H. Inaba, “Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (11)

W. L. Nighan, D. Dudley, M. S. Keirstead, “Diode-bar-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers with >13-W TEM00 output at >50% efficiency,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 17–18.

T. Kreis, Holographic Interferometry Principles and Methods (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 78–82.

P. C. Kohnke, ANSYS: Engineering Analysis System Theoretical Manual (Swanson Analysis Systems, Houston, Pa., 1986).

S. S. Rao, The Finite Element Method in Engineering (Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 1999).

B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (Wiley, New York, 1960).

R. S. Sirohi, F. S. Chau, Optical Methods of Measurement: Wholefield Techniques (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999).

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992), pp. 388–392.

T. M. Baer, W. L. Nighan, M. S. Keirstead, “Modeling of end-pumped, solid-state lasers,” in Conference in Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 638.

K. R. F. Kleine, L. P. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, L. R. Marshall, D. G. Matthews, “High brightness Nd:YVO4 laser for nonlinear optics,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 157–158.

T. S. Rose, B. Nighan, D. Dudley, R. A. Fields, D. Gilmore, E. Hall, “Thermal lens reduction in longitudinally pumped diffusion bonded Nd:YVO4,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 285.

L. R. Marshall, L. Gonzalez, R. Bhatia, K. Kleine, D. G. Matthews, “Diode pumped lasers for the visible and ultraviolet,” in SOQUE Proceedings of Lasers ’98, Tucson, Ariz. (Society of Optics and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1998).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of the DPSS laser system and the experimental setup of the laser interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Input–output characteristics of the diode-end-pumped edge-cooled Nd:YVO4 laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interferograms of the end effect for an end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at absorbed pump powers of (a) 0 W, (b) 5 W, and (c) 10 W.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

End bulging as a function of absorbed pump power obtained by numerical and experimental approaches.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Three-dimensional FE model of the Nd:YVO4 brick including the copper heat sink and indium foil.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature profiles for the Nd:YVO4 crystal at the pump surface and longitudinal direction: (a) sagittal temperature distributions at the pump surface along two directions of the x and y axes; (b) longitudinal temperature distributions along the z axis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated end bulging of the crystal in the x and y axes at absorbed pump power of 10 W.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated end bulging as a function of the Poisson ratio (E = 133 GPa).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated dioptric power as a function of absorbed pump power; 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6 are total dioptric power, the index part, and the end effect along the x and y axes, respectively.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Thermodynamic Parameters of Nd:YVO4, Copper, and Indium Foil

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Table 2 Measured and Calculated Temperature Values for an End-Pumped Nd:YVO4 Laser

Equations (17)

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ΔϕP=2πλdeP·eP.
ΔϕP=2πλOPD,
deP=λΔϕP4π cosθ,
2Tx, y, z+qx, y, zk=0,
K Tns=hTc-T|s,
qx, y, z=ηheatP0px, y, zαT1-exp-αLexp-αTz,
px, y, z=1πωp2exp-2x2+y2ωp2,
ωp2=ω021+λpz-z0πn0ω022,
σxxx+σxyy+σxzz=0,
σyxx+σyyy+σyzz=0,
σxzx+σyzy+σzzz=0,
εij=12uixj+ujxi,
σxx=2μεxx+δxxξe-3ξ+2μαaTx, y, z, σyy=2μεyy+δyyξe-3ξ+2μαcTx, y, z, σzz=2μεzz+δzzξe-3ξ+2μαaTx, y, z, σxy=2μεxy, σyz=2μεyz, σxz=2μεxz,
ξ=vE1+v1-2v,
μ=E21+v.
R=KσmaxαE,
D=2OPDr-OPD0r2,

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