Abstract

Reverse saturable absorption and fluorescence in liquid solutions of mesoionic compounds are reported. Intensity-dependent transmittance and anti-Stokes fluorescence were observed when the samples were excited with radiation at 532 nm. The results are attributed to excited-state absorption, and the process is understood based on quantum-chemistry calculations that allow the energy levels that correspond to the relevant transitions to be located. A phenomenological description of the nonlinear beam propagation inside the samples is presented, and the nonlinear absorption coefficient as well as the saturation intensity is determined.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. See, for example, P. N. Prasad, D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991).
  2. See, for example, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörscheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).
  3. A. Lewis, Y. Albeck, Z. Lange, J. Benchowsky, G. Weizman, “Optical computation with negative light intensity with a plastic bacteriorhodopsin film,” Science 275, 1462–1464 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. N. Rao, Z. Chen, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, M. Nakashima, “All-optical logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin films,” Opt. Commun. 127, 193–199 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum. Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. D. Oilis, S. P. Stanforth, C. A. Ramsden, “The concepts of conjugation, cross-conjugation, and pseudo-cross-conjugation in heterocyclic molecules,” Tetrahedron 41, 2239–2329 (1985).
  7. G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, J. Miller, “Mesoionic rings as efficient asymmetric bridges for the design of compounds with large optical nonlinearities,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 639–646 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. B. Oliveira, J. Miller, A. B. Pereira, S. E. Galembeck, G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic 2-n-cycloalkylamino-5-alkyl-1,3-dithiolium-4-thiolates,” Phosphorous Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem. 108, 75–84 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. G. Bezerra, A. S. L. Gomes, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic rings as third-order nonlinear optical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 421–426 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, A. G. Bezerra, D. A. da Silva-Filho, C. P. de Melo, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in 3rd Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 6th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Their Applications, A. M. Guzman, ed., Proc. SPIE3572, 12–20 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. G. Bezerra, “Optical properties of retinal derivatives and mesoionic compounds,” D.Sc. dissertation (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil, 1999).
  12. R. Huisgen, E. Funke, F. C. Schaefer, H. Gotthardt, E. Brunn, “Cycloaddition mesoionischer oxazol-5-one an einige heteromehrfachbindungen,” Tetrahedron Lett. 19, 1809–1814 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and upconverted luminescence in metalloporphyrin-doped sol-gels,” Solid State Commun. 107, 101–106 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. G. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Ji, S. Shi, H. J. Du, P. Ge, S. H. Tang, “Optical power limiting with solutions of hexagonal prisms cage shaped transition-metal cluster Mo2Ag4S8,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17,297–17,301 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Nakashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,507–17,512 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. Borissevitch, N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, “Nonlinear absorption of meso-tetrakis (4-N-methyl-pyridiniumyl) porphyrin interacting with DNA,” Nonlinear Opt. (to be published).
  18. M. J. S. Dewar, E. G. Zoebish, E. F. Healy, J. J. P. Stewart, “AM1: a new general purpose quantum mechanical molecular model,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 3902–3909 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. J. P. Stewart, MOPAC 93.00 Manual (Fujitsu, Tokyo, 1993).
  20. J. E. Ridley, M. C. Zerner, “An intermediate neglect of differential overlap technique for spectroscopy: pirrole and the azines,” Theor. Chim. Acta 32, 111–134 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. E. Ridley, M. C. Zerner, “Triplet states via intermediate neglect of differential overlap: benzene, pyridine and the diozines,” Theor. Chim. Acta 42, 223–236 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. C. Zerner, ZINDO Manual, Quantum Theory Project (University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., 1990).
  23. K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1004–1014 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Kandasamy, P. N. Puntambekar, B. P. Singh, S. J. Shetty, T. S. Srivastava, “Resonant nonlinear optical studies on porphyrin derivatives,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 361–375 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Song, C. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Fang, C. Duan, S. Liu, X. Xin, H. Ye, “Optical nonlinearity and optical limiting properties of new metal cluster [WOS3Cu3I(2-MePy)3],” Opt. Commun. 168, 131–134 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (3)

A. G. Bezerra, A. S. L. Gomes, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic rings as third-order nonlinear optical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 421–426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1004–1014 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, C. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Fang, C. Duan, S. Liu, X. Xin, H. Ye, “Optical nonlinearity and optical limiting properties of new metal cluster [WOS3Cu3I(2-MePy)3],” Opt. Commun. 168, 131–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and upconverted luminescence in metalloporphyrin-doped sol-gels,” Solid State Commun. 107, 101–106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. G. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. Kandasamy, P. N. Puntambekar, B. P. Singh, S. J. Shetty, T. S. Srivastava, “Resonant nonlinear optical studies on porphyrin derivatives,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 361–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, Y. Albeck, Z. Lange, J. Benchowsky, G. Weizman, “Optical computation with negative light intensity with a plastic bacteriorhodopsin film,” Science 275, 1462–1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. N. Rao, Z. Chen, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, M. Nakashima, “All-optical logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin films,” Opt. Commun. 127, 193–199 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, J. Miller, “Mesoionic rings as efficient asymmetric bridges for the design of compounds with large optical nonlinearities,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 639–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Oliveira, J. Miller, A. B. Pereira, S. E. Galembeck, G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic 2-n-cycloalkylamino-5-alkyl-1,3-dithiolium-4-thiolates,” Phosphorous Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem. 108, 75–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Nakashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,507–17,512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. Ji, S. Shi, H. J. Du, P. Ge, S. H. Tang, “Optical power limiting with solutions of hexagonal prisms cage shaped transition-metal cluster Mo2Ag4S8,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17,297–17,301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum. Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

W. D. Oilis, S. P. Stanforth, C. A. Ramsden, “The concepts of conjugation, cross-conjugation, and pseudo-cross-conjugation in heterocyclic molecules,” Tetrahedron 41, 2239–2329 (1985).

M. J. S. Dewar, E. G. Zoebish, E. F. Healy, J. J. P. Stewart, “AM1: a new general purpose quantum mechanical molecular model,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 3902–3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. E. Ridley, M. C. Zerner, “Triplet states via intermediate neglect of differential overlap: benzene, pyridine and the diozines,” Theor. Chim. Acta 42, 223–236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. E. Ridley, M. C. Zerner, “An intermediate neglect of differential overlap technique for spectroscopy: pirrole and the azines,” Theor. Chim. Acta 32, 111–134 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

R. Huisgen, E. Funke, F. C. Schaefer, H. Gotthardt, E. Brunn, “Cycloaddition mesoionischer oxazol-5-one an einige heteromehrfachbindungen,” Tetrahedron Lett. 19, 1809–1814 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Akkara, J. A.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. N. Rao, Z. Chen, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, M. Nakashima, “All-optical logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin films,” Opt. Commun. 127, 193–199 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alabran, D. M.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Nakashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,507–17,512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Albeck, Y.

A. Lewis, Y. Albeck, Z. Lange, J. Benchowsky, G. Weizman, “Optical computation with negative light intensity with a plastic bacteriorhodopsin film,” Science 275, 1462–1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aranda, F. J.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. N. Rao, Z. Chen, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, M. Nakashima, “All-optical logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin films,” Opt. Commun. 127, 193–199 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Athayde-Filho, P. F.

A. G. Bezerra, A. S. L. Gomes, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic rings as third-order nonlinear optical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 421–426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, A. G. Bezerra, D. A. da Silva-Filho, C. P. de Melo, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in 3rd Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 6th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Their Applications, A. M. Guzman, ed., Proc. SPIE3572, 12–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benchowsky, J.

A. Lewis, Y. Albeck, Z. Lange, J. Benchowsky, G. Weizman, “Optical computation with negative light intensity with a plastic bacteriorhodopsin film,” Science 275, 1462–1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bezerra, A. G.

A. G. Bezerra, A. S. L. Gomes, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic rings as third-order nonlinear optical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 421–426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, A. G. Bezerra, D. A. da Silva-Filho, C. P. de Melo, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in 3rd Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 6th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Their Applications, A. M. Guzman, ed., Proc. SPIE3572, 12–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Bezerra, “Optical properties of retinal derivatives and mesoionic compounds,” D.Sc. dissertation (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil, 1999).

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum. Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Borissevitch, I.

I. Borissevitch, N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, “Nonlinear absorption of meso-tetrakis (4-N-methyl-pyridiniumyl) porphyrin interacting with DNA,” Nonlinear Opt. (to be published).

Bosshard, Ch.

See, for example, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörscheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Brunn, E.

R. Huisgen, E. Funke, F. C. Schaefer, H. Gotthardt, E. Brunn, “Cycloaddition mesoionischer oxazol-5-one an einige heteromehrfachbindungen,” Tetrahedron Lett. 19, 1809–1814 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, C. C.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. G. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Nakashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,507–17,512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. N. Rao, Z. Chen, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, M. Nakashima, “All-optical logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin films,” Opt. Commun. 127, 193–199 (1996).
[CrossRef]

da Rocha, G. B.

A. G. Bezerra, A. S. L. Gomes, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic rings as third-order nonlinear optical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 421–426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, A. G. Bezerra, D. A. da Silva-Filho, C. P. de Melo, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in 3rd Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 6th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Their Applications, A. M. Guzman, ed., Proc. SPIE3572, 12–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

da Silva-Filho, D. A.

C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, A. G. Bezerra, D. A. da Silva-Filho, C. P. de Melo, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in 3rd Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 6th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Their Applications, A. M. Guzman, ed., Proc. SPIE3572, 12–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, A. G. Bezerra, D. A. da Silva-Filho, C. P. de Melo, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in 3rd Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 6th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Their Applications, A. M. Guzman, ed., Proc. SPIE3572, 12–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Borissevitch, N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, “Nonlinear absorption of meso-tetrakis (4-N-methyl-pyridiniumyl) porphyrin interacting with DNA,” Nonlinear Opt. (to be published).

de Melo, C. P.

C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, A. G. Bezerra, D. A. da Silva-Filho, C. P. de Melo, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in 3rd Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 6th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Their Applications, A. M. Guzman, ed., Proc. SPIE3572, 12–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dewar, M. J. S.

M. J. S. Dewar, E. G. Zoebish, E. F. Healy, J. J. P. Stewart, “AM1: a new general purpose quantum mechanical molecular model,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 3902–3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dou, K.

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1004–1014 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and upconverted luminescence in metalloporphyrin-doped sol-gels,” Solid State Commun. 107, 101–106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Du, H. J.

W. Ji, S. Shi, H. J. Du, P. Ge, S. H. Tang, “Optical power limiting with solutions of hexagonal prisms cage shaped transition-metal cluster Mo2Ag4S8,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17,297–17,301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Duan, C.

Y. Song, C. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Fang, C. Duan, S. Liu, X. Xin, H. Ye, “Optical nonlinearity and optical limiting properties of new metal cluster [WOS3Cu3I(2-MePy)3],” Opt. Commun. 168, 131–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dvornikov, A. S.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Nakashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,507–17,512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fang, G.

Y. Song, C. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Fang, C. Duan, S. Liu, X. Xin, H. Ye, “Optical nonlinearity and optical limiting properties of new metal cluster [WOS3Cu3I(2-MePy)3],” Opt. Commun. 168, 131–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flörscheimer, M.

See, for example, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörscheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Funke, E.

R. Huisgen, E. Funke, F. C. Schaefer, H. Gotthardt, E. Brunn, “Cycloaddition mesoionischer oxazol-5-one an einige heteromehrfachbindungen,” Tetrahedron Lett. 19, 1809–1814 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Galembeck, S. E.

M. B. Oliveira, J. Miller, A. B. Pereira, S. E. Galembeck, G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic 2-n-cycloalkylamino-5-alkyl-1,3-dithiolium-4-thiolates,” Phosphorous Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem. 108, 75–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ge, P.

W. Ji, S. Shi, H. J. Du, P. Ge, S. H. Tang, “Optical power limiting with solutions of hexagonal prisms cage shaped transition-metal cluster Mo2Ag4S8,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17,297–17,301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

A. G. Bezerra, A. S. L. Gomes, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic rings as third-order nonlinear optical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 421–426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, A. G. Bezerra, D. A. da Silva-Filho, C. P. de Melo, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in 3rd Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 6th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Their Applications, A. M. Guzman, ed., Proc. SPIE3572, 12–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gotthardt, H.

R. Huisgen, E. Funke, F. C. Schaefer, H. Gotthardt, E. Brunn, “Cycloaddition mesoionischer oxazol-5-one an einige heteromehrfachbindungen,” Tetrahedron Lett. 19, 1809–1814 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Gray, G. G.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. G. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

See, for example, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörscheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Guo, Y.

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1004–1014 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and upconverted luminescence in metalloporphyrin-doped sol-gels,” Solid State Commun. 107, 101–106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Healy, E. F.

M. J. S. Dewar, E. G. Zoebish, E. F. Healy, J. J. P. Stewart, “AM1: a new general purpose quantum mechanical molecular model,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 3902–3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Huisgen, R.

R. Huisgen, E. Funke, F. C. Schaefer, H. Gotthardt, E. Brunn, “Cycloaddition mesoionischer oxazol-5-one an einige heteromehrfachbindungen,” Tetrahedron Lett. 19, 1809–1814 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hullinger, J.

See, for example, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörscheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Ji, W.

W. Ji, S. Shi, H. J. Du, P. Ge, S. H. Tang, “Optical power limiting with solutions of hexagonal prisms cage shaped transition-metal cluster Mo2Ag4S8,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17,297–17,301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaatz, P.

See, for example, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörscheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Kandasamy, K.

K. Kandasamy, P. N. Puntambekar, B. P. Singh, S. J. Shetty, T. S. Srivastava, “Resonant nonlinear optical studies on porphyrin derivatives,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 361–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, D. L.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. N. Rao, Z. Chen, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, M. Nakashima, “All-optical logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin films,” Opt. Commun. 127, 193–199 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knobbe, E. T.

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1004–1014 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and upconverted luminescence in metalloporphyrin-doped sol-gels,” Solid State Commun. 107, 101–106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lange, Z.

A. Lewis, Y. Albeck, Z. Lange, J. Benchowsky, G. Weizman, “Optical computation with negative light intensity with a plastic bacteriorhodopsin film,” Science 275, 1462–1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, C. M.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. G. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

A. Lewis, Y. Albeck, Z. Lange, J. Benchowsky, G. Weizman, “Optical computation with negative light intensity with a plastic bacteriorhodopsin film,” Science 275, 1462–1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Y. Song, C. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Fang, C. Duan, S. Liu, X. Xin, H. Ye, “Optical nonlinearity and optical limiting properties of new metal cluster [WOS3Cu3I(2-MePy)3],” Opt. Commun. 168, 131–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maciel, G. S.

I. Borissevitch, N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, “Nonlinear absorption of meso-tetrakis (4-N-methyl-pyridiniumyl) porphyrin interacting with DNA,” Nonlinear Opt. (to be published).

McKerns, M. M.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. G. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J.

A. G. Bezerra, A. S. L. Gomes, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic rings as third-order nonlinear optical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 421–426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Oliveira, J. Miller, A. B. Pereira, S. E. Galembeck, G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic 2-n-cycloalkylamino-5-alkyl-1,3-dithiolium-4-thiolates,” Phosphorous Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem. 108, 75–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, J. Miller, “Mesoionic rings as efficient asymmetric bridges for the design of compounds with large optical nonlinearities,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 639–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, A. G. Bezerra, D. A. da Silva-Filho, C. P. de Melo, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in 3rd Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 6th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Their Applications, A. M. Guzman, ed., Proc. SPIE3572, 12–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moura, G. L. C.

G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, J. Miller, “Mesoionic rings as efficient asymmetric bridges for the design of compounds with large optical nonlinearities,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 639–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Oliveira, J. Miller, A. B. Pereira, S. E. Galembeck, G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic 2-n-cycloalkylamino-5-alkyl-1,3-dithiolium-4-thiolates,” Phosphorous Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem. 108, 75–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, M.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. N. Rao, Z. Chen, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, M. Nakashima, “All-optical logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin films,” Opt. Commun. 127, 193–199 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Nakashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,507–17,512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oilis, W. D.

W. D. Oilis, S. P. Stanforth, C. A. Ramsden, “The concepts of conjugation, cross-conjugation, and pseudo-cross-conjugation in heterocyclic molecules,” Tetrahedron 41, 2239–2329 (1985).

Oliveira, M. B.

M. B. Oliveira, J. Miller, A. B. Pereira, S. E. Galembeck, G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic 2-n-cycloalkylamino-5-alkyl-1,3-dithiolium-4-thiolates,” Phosphorous Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem. 108, 75–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Parkhill, R.

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1004–1014 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and upconverted luminescence in metalloporphyrin-doped sol-gels,” Solid State Commun. 107, 101–106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, A. B.

M. B. Oliveira, J. Miller, A. B. Pereira, S. E. Galembeck, G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic 2-n-cycloalkylamino-5-alkyl-1,3-dithiolium-4-thiolates,” Phosphorous Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem. 108, 75–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

See, for example, P. N. Prasad, D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991).

Prêtre, Ph.

See, for example, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörscheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Puntambekar, P. N.

K. Kandasamy, P. N. Puntambekar, B. P. Singh, S. J. Shetty, T. S. Srivastava, “Resonant nonlinear optical studies on porphyrin derivatives,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 361–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rakov, N.

I. Borissevitch, N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, “Nonlinear absorption of meso-tetrakis (4-N-methyl-pyridiniumyl) porphyrin interacting with DNA,” Nonlinear Opt. (to be published).

Ramsden, C. A.

W. D. Oilis, S. P. Stanforth, C. A. Ramsden, “The concepts of conjugation, cross-conjugation, and pseudo-cross-conjugation in heterocyclic molecules,” Tetrahedron 41, 2239–2329 (1985).

Rao, D. N.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. N. Rao, Z. Chen, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, M. Nakashima, “All-optical logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin films,” Opt. Commun. 127, 193–199 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. N. Rao, Z. Chen, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, M. Nakashima, “All-optical logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin films,” Opt. Commun. 127, 193–199 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rentzepis, P. M.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Nakashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,507–17,512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ridley, J. E.

J. E. Ridley, M. C. Zerner, “Triplet states via intermediate neglect of differential overlap: benzene, pyridine and the diozines,” Theor. Chim. Acta 42, 223–236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ridley, M. C. Zerner, “An intermediate neglect of differential overlap technique for spectroscopy: pirrole and the azines,” Theor. Chim. Acta 32, 111–134 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Roach, J. F.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Nakashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,507–17,512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, F. C.

R. Huisgen, E. Funke, F. C. Schaefer, H. Gotthardt, E. Brunn, “Cycloaddition mesoionischer oxazol-5-one an einige heteromehrfachbindungen,” Tetrahedron Lett. 19, 1809–1814 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Shetty, S. J.

K. Kandasamy, P. N. Puntambekar, B. P. Singh, S. J. Shetty, T. S. Srivastava, “Resonant nonlinear optical studies on porphyrin derivatives,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 361–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

W. Ji, S. Shi, H. J. Du, P. Ge, S. H. Tang, “Optical power limiting with solutions of hexagonal prisms cage shaped transition-metal cluster Mo2Ag4S8,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17,297–17,301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Simas, A. M.

A. G. Bezerra, A. S. L. Gomes, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic rings as third-order nonlinear optical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 421–426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Oliveira, J. Miller, A. B. Pereira, S. E. Galembeck, G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic 2-n-cycloalkylamino-5-alkyl-1,3-dithiolium-4-thiolates,” Phosphorous Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem. 108, 75–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, J. Miller, “Mesoionic rings as efficient asymmetric bridges for the design of compounds with large optical nonlinearities,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 639–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, A. G. Bezerra, D. A. da Silva-Filho, C. P. de Melo, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in 3rd Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 6th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Their Applications, A. M. Guzman, ed., Proc. SPIE3572, 12–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Singh, B. P.

K. Kandasamy, P. N. Puntambekar, B. P. Singh, S. J. Shetty, T. S. Srivastava, “Resonant nonlinear optical studies on porphyrin derivatives,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 361–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

Y. Song, C. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Fang, C. Duan, S. Liu, X. Xin, H. Ye, “Optical nonlinearity and optical limiting properties of new metal cluster [WOS3Cu3I(2-MePy)3],” Opt. Commun. 168, 131–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, T. S.

K. Kandasamy, P. N. Puntambekar, B. P. Singh, S. J. Shetty, T. S. Srivastava, “Resonant nonlinear optical studies on porphyrin derivatives,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 361–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stanforth, S. P.

W. D. Oilis, S. P. Stanforth, C. A. Ramsden, “The concepts of conjugation, cross-conjugation, and pseudo-cross-conjugation in heterocyclic molecules,” Tetrahedron 41, 2239–2329 (1985).

Stewart, J. J. P.

M. J. S. Dewar, E. G. Zoebish, E. F. Healy, J. J. P. Stewart, “AM1: a new general purpose quantum mechanical molecular model,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 3902–3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. J. P. Stewart, MOPAC 93.00 Manual (Fujitsu, Tokyo, 1993).

Sun, W.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. G. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1004–1014 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and upconverted luminescence in metalloporphyrin-doped sol-gels,” Solid State Commun. 107, 101–106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, K.

See, for example, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörscheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Tang, S. H.

W. Ji, S. Shi, H. J. Du, P. Ge, S. H. Tang, “Optical power limiting with solutions of hexagonal prisms cage shaped transition-metal cluster Mo2Ag4S8,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17,297–17,301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tomov, I. V.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Nakashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,507–17,512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum. Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. G. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1004–1014 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and upconverted luminescence in metalloporphyrin-doped sol-gels,” Solid State Commun. 107, 101–106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Song, C. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Fang, C. Duan, S. Liu, X. Xin, H. Ye, “Optical nonlinearity and optical limiting properties of new metal cluster [WOS3Cu3I(2-MePy)3],” Opt. Commun. 168, 131–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weizman, G.

A. Lewis, Y. Albeck, Z. Lange, J. Benchowsky, G. Weizman, “Optical computation with negative light intensity with a plastic bacteriorhodopsin film,” Science 275, 1462–1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. J.

See, for example, P. N. Prasad, D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991).

Xin, X.

Y. Song, C. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Fang, C. Duan, S. Liu, X. Xin, H. Ye, “Optical nonlinearity and optical limiting properties of new metal cluster [WOS3Cu3I(2-MePy)3],” Opt. Commun. 168, 131–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ye, H.

Y. Song, C. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Fang, C. Duan, S. Liu, X. Xin, H. Ye, “Optical nonlinearity and optical limiting properties of new metal cluster [WOS3Cu3I(2-MePy)3],” Opt. Commun. 168, 131–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zerner, M. C.

J. E. Ridley, M. C. Zerner, “Triplet states via intermediate neglect of differential overlap: benzene, pyridine and the diozines,” Theor. Chim. Acta 42, 223–236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ridley, M. C. Zerner, “An intermediate neglect of differential overlap technique for spectroscopy: pirrole and the azines,” Theor. Chim. Acta 32, 111–134 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Zerner, ZINDO Manual, Quantum Theory Project (University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., 1990).

Zhang, C.

Y. Song, C. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Fang, C. Duan, S. Liu, X. Xin, H. Ye, “Optical nonlinearity and optical limiting properties of new metal cluster [WOS3Cu3I(2-MePy)3],” Opt. Commun. 168, 131–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zoebish, E. G.

M. J. S. Dewar, E. G. Zoebish, E. F. Healy, J. J. P. Stewart, “AM1: a new general purpose quantum mechanical molecular model,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 3902–3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. G. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, J. Miller, “Mesoionic rings as efficient asymmetric bridges for the design of compounds with large optical nonlinearities,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 639–646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Bezerra, A. S. L. Gomes, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic rings as third-order nonlinear optical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 421–426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1004–1014 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. J. S. Dewar, E. G. Zoebish, E. F. Healy, J. J. P. Stewart, “AM1: a new general purpose quantum mechanical molecular model,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 3902–3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

K. Kandasamy, P. N. Puntambekar, B. P. Singh, S. J. Shetty, T. S. Srivastava, “Resonant nonlinear optical studies on porphyrin derivatives,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 361–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

W. Ji, S. Shi, H. J. Du, P. Ge, S. H. Tang, “Optical power limiting with solutions of hexagonal prisms cage shaped transition-metal cluster Mo2Ag4S8,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17,297–17,301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Nakashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17,507–17,512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. N. Rao, Z. Chen, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, M. Nakashima, “All-optical logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin films,” Opt. Commun. 127, 193–199 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, C. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. Fang, C. Duan, S. Liu, X. Xin, H. Ye, “Optical nonlinearity and optical limiting properties of new metal cluster [WOS3Cu3I(2-MePy)3],” Opt. Commun. 168, 131–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phosphorous Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem. (1)

M. B. Oliveira, J. Miller, A. B. Pereira, S. E. Galembeck, G. L. C. Moura, A. M. Simas, “Mesoionic 2-n-cycloalkylamino-5-alkyl-1,3-dithiolium-4-thiolates,” Phosphorous Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem. 108, 75–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum. Electron. (1)

L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum. Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Lewis, Y. Albeck, Z. Lange, J. Benchowsky, G. Weizman, “Optical computation with negative light intensity with a plastic bacteriorhodopsin film,” Science 275, 1462–1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and upconverted luminescence in metalloporphyrin-doped sol-gels,” Solid State Commun. 107, 101–106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tetrahedron (1)

W. D. Oilis, S. P. Stanforth, C. A. Ramsden, “The concepts of conjugation, cross-conjugation, and pseudo-cross-conjugation in heterocyclic molecules,” Tetrahedron 41, 2239–2329 (1985).

Tetrahedron Lett. (1)

R. Huisgen, E. Funke, F. C. Schaefer, H. Gotthardt, E. Brunn, “Cycloaddition mesoionischer oxazol-5-one an einige heteromehrfachbindungen,” Tetrahedron Lett. 19, 1809–1814 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Theor. Chim. Acta (2)

J. E. Ridley, M. C. Zerner, “An intermediate neglect of differential overlap technique for spectroscopy: pirrole and the azines,” Theor. Chim. Acta 32, 111–134 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ridley, M. C. Zerner, “Triplet states via intermediate neglect of differential overlap: benzene, pyridine and the diozines,” Theor. Chim. Acta 42, 223–236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. C. Zerner, ZINDO Manual, Quantum Theory Project (University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., 1990).

J. J. P. Stewart, MOPAC 93.00 Manual (Fujitsu, Tokyo, 1993).

I. Borissevitch, N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araújo, “Nonlinear absorption of meso-tetrakis (4-N-methyl-pyridiniumyl) porphyrin interacting with DNA,” Nonlinear Opt. (to be published).

See, for example, P. N. Prasad, D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991).

See, for example, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörscheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, A. G. Bezerra, D. A. da Silva-Filho, C. P. de Melo, P. F. Athayde-Filho, G. B. da Rocha, J. Miller, A. M. Simas, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in 3rd Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 6th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Their Applications, A. M. Guzman, ed., Proc. SPIE3572, 12–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Bezerra, “Optical properties of retinal derivatives and mesoionic compounds,” D.Sc. dissertation (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil, 1999).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic structure of type A mesoionic molecules: A, B = S (sulfur), O (oxygen), NH (nitrogen hydrogen); Z = S, O, NH, CH2 (hydrogen carbon hydrogen). R A , electron acceptor group; R D , electron donor group.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Molecular structure of the MIC’s used in this research.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linear absorption spectra: (a) MIC-1 (0.12-mg/mL concentration), (b) MIC-2 (0.24-mg/mL concentration). Sample length, 2 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity-dependent transmittance of the samples: (a) MIC-1 (0.12-mg/mL concentration), (b) MIC-2 (0.24-mg/mL concentration). Sample length, 10 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence spectra: (a), (b) MIC-1; (c), (d) MIC-2. Insets, dependence of the fluorescence signals on the laser intensity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Energy-level scheme for the isolated mesoionic molecules. S i (I = 0–14) and T j (j = 1–21) represent singlet and triplet states, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters Used to Fit Eq. (2) to the Experimental Data Presented in Fig. 5

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dIdz=-α+βI/Is1+I/IsI,
T=T0γ+1-RI0/Isγ+T1-RI0/Isγ-1,

Metrics