Abstract

We present a new all-optical technique to measure the thermal conductivity of laser crystals. This technique can be used for crystals that are too small for direct measurement of thermal conductivity. We used this technique to measure the thermal conductivities of Nd:LYAB, with the result of 44 ± 6% compared with that of Nd:YAG thermal conductivity.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Pan, P. Wang, X. Fan, R. Wang, B. Lu, “Effects of Lu3+ doping on optical properties and laser performances of NYAB crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 602–605 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Dekker, Y. Huo, J. Dawes, J. A. Piper, P. Wang, B. S. Lu, “Continuous wave and Q-switched diode-pumped neodymium, lutetium:yttrium aluminium borate lasers,” Opt. Commun. 151, 406–412 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Lu, J. Wang, H. Pan, M. Jiang, E. Liu, X. Hou, “Laser self-doubling in neodymium yttrium aluminium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 6052–6054 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Pan, M. Liu, J. Xue, B. Lu, “The spectra and sensitization of laser self-frequency-doubling NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, 4525–4530 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Amano, “Microchip NYAB green laser,” Rev. Laser Eng. 20, 723–727 (1992), in Japanese.
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Hwang, J. T. Lin, “Temperature dependence of second harmonic generation in NYAB crystals,” Opt. Commun. 95, 103–108 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, J. G. Sole, “Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715–9729 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Jaque, J. A. Munoz, F. Cusso, J. G. Sole, “Quantum efficiency of the YAl3(BO3)4:Nd self-frequency-doubling laser material,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 7901–7905 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Omatsu, Y. Kato, M. Shimosegawa, A. Hasegawa, I. Ogura, “Thermal effects in laser diode pumped self-frequency-doubled NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 (NYAB) microchip laser,” Opt. Commun. 118, 302–308 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, “Transient thermal lensing measurement in laser diode pumped NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 laser using holographic shearing interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 140, 237–241 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, P. Wang, J. Dawes, “Quantitative measurement of thermal lens in diode-pumped self-frequency-doubled Nd, Lu:YAl3(BO3)4 laser under lasing and non-lasing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6335–6339 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. J. Parker, R. J. Jenkins, C. P. Butler, G. L. Abbott, “Flash method of determining thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1679–1684 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Blows, J. Dawes, T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2901–2906 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Takeda, H. Ina, S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transfer method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156–160 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Y. Fan, “Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457–1459 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Comaskey, B. D. Moran, G. F. Albrecht, R. J. Beach, “Characterization of the heat loading of Nd:doped YAG, YOS, YLF, and GGG excited at diode pumping wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1261–1264 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Chuang, R. Verdun, “Energy transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79–91 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion, lifetime quenching, and ground-state bleaching in Nd3+:LiYF4,” Opt. Commun. 147, 203–211 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. R. Chinn, H. Y.-P. Hong, “CW laser action in acentric NdAl3(BO3)4 and KNdP4O12,” Opt. Commun. 15, 345–350 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033–1040 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumping solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  25. U. Brauch, “Temperature dependence of efficiency and thermal lensing of diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 397–402 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. Rams, J. G. Sole, “Effects of pump heating on laser and spectroscopic properties of the Nd:[YAl3(BO3)4] self-frequency-doubling crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1042–1048 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076–16092 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Itoh, I. Ogura, “Absorption measurement of the optical materials by real time holographic interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 33, 183–187 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. Rams, J. G. Sole, “Effects of pump heating on laser and spectroscopic properties of the Nd:[YAl3(BO3)4] self-frequency-doubling crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1042–1048 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, P. Wang, J. Dawes, “Quantitative measurement of thermal lens in diode-pumped self-frequency-doubled Nd, Lu:YAl3(BO3)4 laser under lasing and non-lasing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6335–6339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

J. Blows, J. Dawes, T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2901–2906 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Dekker, Y. Huo, J. Dawes, J. A. Piper, P. Wang, B. S. Lu, “Continuous wave and Q-switched diode-pumped neodymium, lutetium:yttrium aluminium borate lasers,” Opt. Commun. 151, 406–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, J. A. Munoz, F. Cusso, J. G. Sole, “Quantum efficiency of the YAl3(BO3)4:Nd self-frequency-doubling laser material,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 7901–7905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion, lifetime quenching, and ground-state bleaching in Nd3+:LiYF4,” Opt. Commun. 147, 203–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, J. G. Sole, “Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715–9729 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, “Transient thermal lensing measurement in laser diode pumped NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 laser using holographic shearing interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 140, 237–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

H. Pan, P. Wang, X. Fan, R. Wang, B. Lu, “Effects of Lu3+ doping on optical properties and laser performances of NYAB crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 602–605 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Chuang, R. Verdun, “Energy transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79–91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

B. Comaskey, B. D. Moran, G. F. Albrecht, R. J. Beach, “Characterization of the heat loading of Nd:doped YAG, YOS, YLF, and GGG excited at diode pumping wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1261–1264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033–1040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Omatsu, Y. Kato, M. Shimosegawa, A. Hasegawa, I. Ogura, “Thermal effects in laser diode pumped self-frequency-doubled NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 (NYAB) microchip laser,” Opt. Commun. 118, 302–308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Brauch, “Temperature dependence of efficiency and thermal lensing of diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 397–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

T. Y. Fan, “Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Hwang, J. T. Lin, “Temperature dependence of second harmonic generation in NYAB crystals,” Opt. Commun. 95, 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Amano, “Microchip NYAB green laser,” Rev. Laser Eng. 20, 723–727 (1992), in Japanese.
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

H. Pan, M. Liu, J. Xue, B. Lu, “The spectra and sensitization of laser self-frequency-doubling NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, 4525–4530 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumping solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

B. Lu, J. Wang, H. Pan, M. Jiang, E. Liu, X. Hou, “Laser self-doubling in neodymium yttrium aluminium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 6052–6054 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

M. Itoh, I. Ogura, “Absorption measurement of the optical materials by real time holographic interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 33, 183–187 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

S. R. Chinn, H. Y.-P. Hong, “CW laser action in acentric NdAl3(BO3)4 and KNdP4O12,” Opt. Commun. 15, 345–350 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

W. J. Parker, R. J. Jenkins, C. P. Butler, G. L. Abbott, “Flash method of determining thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1679–1684 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, G. L.

W. J. Parker, R. J. Jenkins, C. P. Butler, G. L. Abbott, “Flash method of determining thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1679–1684 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, G. F.

B. Comaskey, B. D. Moran, G. F. Albrecht, R. J. Beach, “Characterization of the heat loading of Nd:doped YAG, YOS, YLF, and GGG excited at diode pumping wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1261–1264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Amano, S.

S. Amano, “Microchip NYAB green laser,” Rev. Laser Eng. 20, 723–727 (1992), in Japanese.
[CrossRef]

Beach, R. J.

B. Comaskey, B. D. Moran, G. F. Albrecht, R. J. Beach, “Characterization of the heat loading of Nd:doped YAG, YOS, YLF, and GGG excited at diode pumping wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1261–1264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blows, J.

J. Blows, J. Dawes, T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2901–2906 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brauch, U.

U. Brauch, “Temperature dependence of efficiency and thermal lensing of diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 397–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Butler, C. P.

W. J. Parker, R. J. Jenkins, C. P. Butler, G. L. Abbott, “Flash method of determining thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1679–1684 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. Rams, J. G. Sole, “Effects of pump heating on laser and spectroscopic properties of the Nd:[YAl3(BO3)4] self-frequency-doubling crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1042–1048 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, J. G. Sole, “Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715–9729 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chinn, S. R.

S. R. Chinn, H. Y.-P. Hong, “CW laser action in acentric NdAl3(BO3)4 and KNdP4O12,” Opt. Commun. 15, 345–350 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, T.

T. Chuang, R. Verdun, “Energy transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79–91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion, lifetime quenching, and ground-state bleaching in Nd3+:LiYF4,” Opt. Commun. 147, 203–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Comaskey, B.

B. Comaskey, B. D. Moran, G. F. Albrecht, R. J. Beach, “Characterization of the heat loading of Nd:doped YAG, YOS, YLF, and GGG excited at diode pumping wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1261–1264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cusso, F.

D. Jaque, J. A. Munoz, F. Cusso, J. G. Sole, “Quantum efficiency of the YAl3(BO3)4:Nd self-frequency-doubling laser material,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 7901–7905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, J.

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, P. Wang, J. Dawes, “Quantitative measurement of thermal lens in diode-pumped self-frequency-doubled Nd, Lu:YAl3(BO3)4 laser under lasing and non-lasing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6335–6339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Blows, J. Dawes, T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2901–2906 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Dekker, Y. Huo, J. Dawes, J. A. Piper, P. Wang, B. S. Lu, “Continuous wave and Q-switched diode-pumped neodymium, lutetium:yttrium aluminium borate lasers,” Opt. Commun. 151, 406–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, P.

P. Dekker, Y. Huo, J. Dawes, J. A. Piper, P. Wang, B. S. Lu, “Continuous wave and Q-switched diode-pumped neodymium, lutetium:yttrium aluminium borate lasers,” Opt. Commun. 151, 406–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, “Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

H. Pan, P. Wang, X. Fan, R. Wang, B. Lu, “Effects of Lu3+ doping on optical properties and laser performances of NYAB crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 602–605 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R. A.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumping solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. L.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumping solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, R.

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion, lifetime quenching, and ground-state bleaching in Nd3+:LiYF4,” Opt. Commun. 147, 203–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hardman, P. J.

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion, lifetime quenching, and ground-state bleaching in Nd3+:LiYF4,” Opt. Commun. 147, 203–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, A.

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, P. Wang, J. Dawes, “Quantitative measurement of thermal lens in diode-pumped self-frequency-doubled Nd, Lu:YAl3(BO3)4 laser under lasing and non-lasing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6335–6339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, “Transient thermal lensing measurement in laser diode pumped NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 laser using holographic shearing interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 140, 237–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Omatsu, Y. Kato, M. Shimosegawa, A. Hasegawa, I. Ogura, “Thermal effects in laser diode pumped self-frequency-doubled NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 (NYAB) microchip laser,” Opt. Commun. 118, 302–308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hong, H. Y.-P.

S. R. Chinn, H. Y.-P. Hong, “CW laser action in acentric NdAl3(BO3)4 and KNdP4O12,” Opt. Commun. 15, 345–350 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

B. Lu, J. Wang, H. Pan, M. Jiang, E. Liu, X. Hou, “Laser self-doubling in neodymium yttrium aluminium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 6052–6054 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

P. Dekker, Y. Huo, J. Dawes, J. A. Piper, P. Wang, B. S. Lu, “Continuous wave and Q-switched diode-pumped neodymium, lutetium:yttrium aluminium borate lasers,” Opt. Commun. 151, 406–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, M.

M. Hwang, J. T. Lin, “Temperature dependence of second harmonic generation in NYAB crystals,” Opt. Commun. 95, 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ikesue, A.

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033–1040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ina, H.

Innocenzi, M. E.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumping solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

M. Itoh, I. Ogura, “Absorption measurement of the optical materials by real time holographic interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 33, 183–187 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. Rams, J. G. Sole, “Effects of pump heating on laser and spectroscopic properties of the Nd:[YAl3(BO3)4] self-frequency-doubling crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1042–1048 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, J. A. Munoz, F. Cusso, J. G. Sole, “Quantum efficiency of the YAl3(BO3)4:Nd self-frequency-doubling laser material,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 7901–7905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, J. G. Sole, “Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715–9729 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, R. J.

W. J. Parker, R. J. Jenkins, C. P. Butler, G. L. Abbott, “Flash method of determining thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1679–1684 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

B. Lu, J. Wang, H. Pan, M. Jiang, E. Liu, X. Hou, “Laser self-doubling in neodymium yttrium aluminium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 6052–6054 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kamata, K.

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033–1040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

T. Omatsu, Y. Kato, M. Shimosegawa, A. Hasegawa, I. Ogura, “Thermal effects in laser diode pumped self-frequency-doubled NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 (NYAB) microchip laser,” Opt. Commun. 118, 302–308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kern, M. A.

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, T.

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033–1040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. T.

M. Hwang, J. T. Lin, “Temperature dependence of second harmonic generation in NYAB crystals,” Opt. Commun. 95, 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liu, E.

B. Lu, J. Wang, H. Pan, M. Jiang, E. Liu, X. Hou, “Laser self-doubling in neodymium yttrium aluminium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 6052–6054 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

H. Pan, M. Liu, J. Xue, B. Lu, “The spectra and sensitization of laser self-frequency-doubling NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, 4525–4530 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lu, B.

H. Pan, P. Wang, X. Fan, R. Wang, B. Lu, “Effects of Lu3+ doping on optical properties and laser performances of NYAB crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 602–605 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, M. Liu, J. Xue, B. Lu, “The spectra and sensitization of laser self-frequency-doubling NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, 4525–4530 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Lu, J. Wang, H. Pan, M. Jiang, E. Liu, X. Hou, “Laser self-doubling in neodymium yttrium aluminium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 6052–6054 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lu, B. S.

P. Dekker, Y. Huo, J. Dawes, J. A. Piper, P. Wang, B. S. Lu, “Continuous wave and Q-switched diode-pumped neodymium, lutetium:yttrium aluminium borate lasers,” Opt. Commun. 151, 406–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z. D.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, J. G. Sole, “Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715–9729 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Merazzi, S.

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moran, B. D.

B. Comaskey, B. D. Moran, G. F. Albrecht, R. J. Beach, “Characterization of the heat loading of Nd:doped YAG, YOS, YLF, and GGG excited at diode pumping wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1261–1264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, J. A.

D. Jaque, J. A. Munoz, F. Cusso, J. G. Sole, “Quantum efficiency of the YAl3(BO3)4:Nd self-frequency-doubling laser material,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 7901–7905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, I.

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, P. Wang, J. Dawes, “Quantitative measurement of thermal lens in diode-pumped self-frequency-doubled Nd, Lu:YAl3(BO3)4 laser under lasing and non-lasing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6335–6339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, “Transient thermal lensing measurement in laser diode pumped NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 laser using holographic shearing interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 140, 237–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Omatsu, Y. Kato, M. Shimosegawa, A. Hasegawa, I. Ogura, “Thermal effects in laser diode pumped self-frequency-doubled NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 (NYAB) microchip laser,” Opt. Commun. 118, 302–308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Itoh, I. Ogura, “Absorption measurement of the optical materials by real time holographic interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 33, 183–187 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Omatsu, T.

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, P. Wang, J. Dawes, “Quantitative measurement of thermal lens in diode-pumped self-frequency-doubled Nd, Lu:YAl3(BO3)4 laser under lasing and non-lasing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6335–6339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Blows, J. Dawes, T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2901–2906 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, “Transient thermal lensing measurement in laser diode pumped NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 laser using holographic shearing interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 140, 237–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Omatsu, Y. Kato, M. Shimosegawa, A. Hasegawa, I. Ogura, “Thermal effects in laser diode pumped self-frequency-doubled NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 (NYAB) microchip laser,” Opt. Commun. 118, 302–308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pan, H.

H. Pan, P. Wang, X. Fan, R. Wang, B. Lu, “Effects of Lu3+ doping on optical properties and laser performances of NYAB crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 602–605 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, M. Liu, J. Xue, B. Lu, “The spectra and sensitization of laser self-frequency-doubling NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, 4525–4530 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Lu, J. Wang, H. Pan, M. Jiang, E. Liu, X. Hou, “Laser self-doubling in neodymium yttrium aluminium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 6052–6054 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Parker, W. J.

W. J. Parker, R. J. Jenkins, C. P. Butler, G. L. Abbott, “Flash method of determining thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1679–1684 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Pask, H.

J. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pfistner, C.

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

P. Dekker, Y. Huo, J. Dawes, J. A. Piper, P. Wang, B. S. Lu, “Continuous wave and Q-switched diode-pumped neodymium, lutetium:yttrium aluminium borate lasers,” Opt. Commun. 151, 406–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion, lifetime quenching, and ground-state bleaching in Nd3+:LiYF4,” Opt. Commun. 147, 203–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rams, J.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. Rams, J. G. Sole, “Effects of pump heating on laser and spectroscopic properties of the Nd:[YAl3(BO3)4] self-frequency-doubling crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1042–1048 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shimosegawa, M.

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, P. Wang, J. Dawes, “Quantitative measurement of thermal lens in diode-pumped self-frequency-doubled Nd, Lu:YAl3(BO3)4 laser under lasing and non-lasing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6335–6339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, “Transient thermal lensing measurement in laser diode pumped NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 laser using holographic shearing interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 140, 237–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Omatsu, Y. Kato, M. Shimosegawa, A. Hasegawa, I. Ogura, “Thermal effects in laser diode pumped self-frequency-doubled NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 (NYAB) microchip laser,” Opt. Commun. 118, 302–308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sole, J. G.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. Rams, J. G. Sole, “Effects of pump heating on laser and spectroscopic properties of the Nd:[YAl3(BO3)4] self-frequency-doubling crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1042–1048 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, J. A. Munoz, F. Cusso, J. G. Sole, “Quantum efficiency of the YAl3(BO3)4:Nd self-frequency-doubling laser material,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 7901–7905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, J. G. Sole, “Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715–9729 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Tateda, M.

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, P. Wang, J. Dawes, “Quantitative measurement of thermal lens in diode-pumped self-frequency-doubled Nd, Lu:YAl3(BO3)4 laser under lasing and non-lasing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6335–6339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, “Transient thermal lensing measurement in laser diode pumped NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 laser using holographic shearing interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 140, 237–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verdun, R.

T. Chuang, R. Verdun, “Energy transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79–91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

B. Lu, J. Wang, H. Pan, M. Jiang, E. Liu, X. Hou, “Laser self-doubling in neodymium yttrium aluminium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 6052–6054 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, P. Wang, J. Dawes, “Quantitative measurement of thermal lens in diode-pumped self-frequency-doubled Nd, Lu:YAl3(BO3)4 laser under lasing and non-lasing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6335–6339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Dekker, Y. Huo, J. Dawes, J. A. Piper, P. Wang, B. S. Lu, “Continuous wave and Q-switched diode-pumped neodymium, lutetium:yttrium aluminium borate lasers,” Opt. Commun. 151, 406–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, P. Wang, X. Fan, R. Wang, B. Lu, “Effects of Lu3+ doping on optical properties and laser performances of NYAB crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 602–605 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

H. Pan, P. Wang, X. Fan, R. Wang, B. Lu, “Effects of Lu3+ doping on optical properties and laser performances of NYAB crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 602–605 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R.

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xue, J.

H. Pan, M. Liu, J. Xue, B. Lu, “The spectra and sensitization of laser self-frequency-doubling NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, 4525–4530 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033–1040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yura, H. T.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumping solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

U. Brauch, “Temperature dependence of efficiency and thermal lensing of diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 397–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumping solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Pan, P. Wang, X. Fan, R. Wang, B. Lu, “Effects of Lu3+ doping on optical properties and laser performances of NYAB crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 602–605 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

T. Y. Fan, “Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Comaskey, B. D. Moran, G. F. Albrecht, R. J. Beach, “Characterization of the heat loading of Nd:doped YAG, YOS, YLF, and GGG excited at diode pumping wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1261–1264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Chuang, R. Verdun, “Energy transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79–91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033–1040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. Rams, J. G. Sole, “Effects of pump heating on laser and spectroscopic properties of the Nd:[YAl3(BO3)4] self-frequency-doubling crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1042–1048 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Parker, R. J. Jenkins, C. P. Butler, G. L. Abbott, “Flash method of determining thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1679–1684 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Blows, J. Dawes, T. Omatsu, “Thermal lensing measurements in line-focus end-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet using holographic lateral shearing interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2901–2906 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Lu, J. Wang, H. Pan, M. Jiang, E. Liu, X. Hou, “Laser self-doubling in neodymium yttrium aluminium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 6052–6054 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (3)

H. Pan, M. Liu, J. Xue, B. Lu, “The spectra and sensitization of laser self-frequency-doubling NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, 4525–4530 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, J. G. Sole, “Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715–9729 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, J. A. Munoz, F. Cusso, J. G. Sole, “Quantum efficiency of the YAl3(BO3)4:Nd self-frequency-doubling laser material,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 7901–7905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, P. Wang, J. Dawes, “Quantitative measurement of thermal lens in diode-pumped self-frequency-doubled Nd, Lu:YAl3(BO3)4 laser under lasing and non-lasing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6335–6339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (7)

M. Hwang, J. T. Lin, “Temperature dependence of second harmonic generation in NYAB crystals,” Opt. Commun. 95, 103–108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Chinn, H. Y.-P. Hong, “CW laser action in acentric NdAl3(BO3)4 and KNdP4O12,” Opt. Commun. 15, 345–350 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Itoh, I. Ogura, “Absorption measurement of the optical materials by real time holographic interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 33, 183–187 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. Omatsu, Y. Kato, M. Shimosegawa, A. Hasegawa, I. Ogura, “Thermal effects in laser diode pumped self-frequency-doubled NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 (NYAB) microchip laser,” Opt. Commun. 118, 302–308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Shimosegawa, T. Omatsu, A. Hasegawa, M. Tateda, I. Ogura, “Transient thermal lensing measurement in laser diode pumped NdxY1–xAl3(BO3)4 laser using holographic shearing interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 140, 237–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Dekker, Y. Huo, J. Dawes, J. A. Piper, P. Wang, B. S. Lu, “Continuous wave and Q-switched diode-pumped neodymium, lutetium:yttrium aluminium borate lasers,” Opt. Commun. 151, 406–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion, lifetime quenching, and ground-state bleaching in Nd3+:LiYF4,” Opt. Commun. 147, 203–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Laser Eng. (1)

S. Amano, “Microchip NYAB green laser,” Rev. Laser Eng. 20, 723–727 (1992), in Japanese.
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: NL, Nd:LYAB crystal; M1 and M2, mirrors; OC, output mirror; PR, green probe beam; L1 and L2, lenses; HSP, holographic shear plate; PL and IR, polarizer and IR absorption filter, respectively; HM, half-mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Thermal lens and laser output power as a function of absorbed power in Nd:LYAB. The dotted lines are a linear fit to the measured thermal lens. (b) Fundamental laser output power as a function of absorbed power. The slopes of the thermal lens are indicated by filled circles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thermal lens and laser output power as a function of absorbed power in Nd:YAG. The dotted lines represent linear fits to the measured thermal lens. The slopes of the thermal lens are indicated by filled circles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical model of a laser crystal with dimensions of L x × L y × L z . The pump beam has a top-hat intensity profile and is confined to the ab cross section that propagates in the z direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Calculated temperature distribution in the tangential plane at x = L x /2. (b) The total phase change Δϕ(L x /2, y) accumulated by the laser for a single pass through the laser crystal. The solid curve represents the accumulated phase distribution Δϕ(L x /2, y), and the dotted curve represents a parabolic fit to the function Δϕ(L x /2, y).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Thermal Lensing Slopes with and without Laser Action

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

0<1-Lf1-LR<1,
R=1-ηqηs1-ηqηf1-β,
ηs=λpumpλlaser,
ηf=λpumpλf,
β=1/τf-1/τrad1/τf,
ηh=1-ηqηs.
ψ=ξζε.
K2x2+2y2+2z2Tx, y, z=-Fx, y, z,
Fx, y, z=α P0abexp-αz,Lx2-a2  x  Lx2+a2,Ly2-b2yLy2+b20,otherwise,
T0, y, z=TLx, y, z=0, Tx, 0, z=Tx, Ly, z=0, dTx, y, 0dz=0, dTx, y, Lzdz=0.
ΔϕLx/2, y=dndT0Lz TLx/2, y, zdz.

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