Abstract

Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 over the past century has altered significantly the global carbon cycle. Our understanding of the long-term climatic effects of these emissions would be improved greatly by satellite-based remote sounding of CO2. We provide an initial analysis of a simple satellite-based filter radiometer tuned to the spectral region around 6300 cm-1 (≈1.6 µm) to measure the atmospheric column of CO2 from space. We find that such an instrument has potential and that the sensitivity would be limited by our knowledge of the tropospheric temperature and water-vapor profiles.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  22. A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1999

S. A. Zimov, S. P. Davidov, G. M. Zimova, A. I. Davidova, F. S. Chapin, M. C. Chapin, F. J. Reynolds, “Contributions of disturbance to increasing seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2,” Science 284, 1973–1976 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Tolton, J. R. Drummond, “Measurements of the atmospheric carbon monoxide column with a ground-based length-modulated radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1897–1909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

J. T. Randerson, M. V. Thompson, T. J. Conway, I. Y. Fung, C. B. Field, “The contribution of terrestrial sources and sinks to trends in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 11, 535–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, “Atmospheric CO2 monitoring from space,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2701–2712 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

C. D. Keeling, J. F. S. Chin, T. P. Whorf, “Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements,” Nature (London) 382, 146–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. J. Francey, P. P. Tans, C. E. Allison, I. G. Enting, J. W. C. White, M. Trolier, “Changes in oceanic and terrestrial carbon uptake since 1982,” Nature (London) 373, 326–330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Ciais, P. P. Tans, M. Trolier, J. W. C. White, R. J. Francey, “A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2,” Science 269, 1098–1102 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Denning, I. Y. Fung, D. Randall, “Latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 due to seasonal exchange with land biota,” Nature (London) 376, 240–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

P. P. Tans, I. Y. Fung, T. Takahashi, “Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget,” Science 247, 1431–1438 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

W. D. Komhyr, R. H. Gammon, T. B. Harris, L. S. Waterman, T. J. Conway, W. R. Taylor, K. W. Thoning, “Global atmospheric CO2 distributions and variations from 1968–1982 NOAA/GMCC CO2 flask sample data,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5567–5596 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972

1970

P. G. Abel, P. J. Ellis, J. T. Houghton, G. Peckman, C. D. Rodgers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from Satellites II. The selective chopper radiometer for Nimbus D,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 320, 35–55 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Abel, P. G.

P. G. Abel, P. J. Ellis, J. T. Houghton, G. Peckman, C. D. Rodgers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from Satellites II. The selective chopper radiometer for Nimbus D,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 320, 35–55 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, V. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Allison, C. E.

R. J. Francey, P. P. Tans, C. E. Allison, I. G. Enting, J. W. C. White, M. Trolier, “Changes in oceanic and terrestrial carbon uptake since 1982,” Nature (London) 373, 326–330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bacastow, R. B.

C. D. Keeling, R. B. Bacastow, A. F. Carter, S. C. Piper, T. P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W. G. Mook, H. Roeloffzen, “A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds. 1. Analysis of observational data,” in Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union55, 165–236 (1989).

Camy-Peyrey, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A. F.

C. D. Keeling, R. B. Bacastow, A. F. Carter, S. C. Piper, T. P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W. G. Mook, H. Roeloffzen, “A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds. 1. Analysis of observational data,” in Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union55, 165–236 (1989).

Chapin, F. S.

S. A. Zimov, S. P. Davidov, G. M. Zimova, A. I. Davidova, F. S. Chapin, M. C. Chapin, F. J. Reynolds, “Contributions of disturbance to increasing seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2,” Science 284, 1973–1976 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapin, M. C.

S. A. Zimov, S. P. Davidov, G. M. Zimova, A. I. Davidova, F. S. Chapin, M. C. Chapin, F. J. Reynolds, “Contributions of disturbance to increasing seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2,” Science 284, 1973–1976 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, J. F. S.

C. D. Keeling, J. F. S. Chin, T. P. Whorf, “Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements,” Nature (London) 382, 146–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ciais, P.

P. Ciais, P. P. Tans, M. Trolier, J. W. C. White, R. J. Francey, “A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2,” Science 269, 1098–1102 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conway, T. J.

J. T. Randerson, M. V. Thompson, T. J. Conway, I. Y. Fung, C. B. Field, “The contribution of terrestrial sources and sinks to trends in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 11, 535–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Komhyr, R. H. Gammon, T. B. Harris, L. S. Waterman, T. J. Conway, W. R. Taylor, K. W. Thoning, “Global atmospheric CO2 distributions and variations from 1968–1982 NOAA/GMCC CO2 flask sample data,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5567–5596 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davidov, S. P.

S. A. Zimov, S. P. Davidov, G. M. Zimova, A. I. Davidova, F. S. Chapin, M. C. Chapin, F. J. Reynolds, “Contributions of disturbance to increasing seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2,” Science 284, 1973–1976 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidova, A. I.

S. A. Zimov, S. P. Davidov, G. M. Zimova, A. I. Davidova, F. S. Chapin, M. C. Chapin, F. J. Reynolds, “Contributions of disturbance to increasing seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2,” Science 284, 1973–1976 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denning, A. S.

A. S. Denning, I. Y. Fung, D. Randall, “Latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 due to seasonal exchange with land biota,” Nature (London) 376, 240–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, M. E.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J. R.

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, P. J.

P. G. Abel, P. J. Ellis, J. T. Houghton, G. Peckman, C. D. Rodgers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from Satellites II. The selective chopper radiometer for Nimbus D,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 320, 35–55 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ely, G. A.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Enting, I. G.

R. J. Francey, P. P. Tans, C. E. Allison, I. G. Enting, J. W. C. White, M. Trolier, “Changes in oceanic and terrestrial carbon uptake since 1982,” Nature (London) 373, 326–330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Field, C. B.

J. T. Randerson, M. V. Thompson, T. J. Conway, I. Y. Fung, C. B. Field, “The contribution of terrestrial sources and sinks to trends in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 11, 535–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Francey, R. J.

P. Ciais, P. P. Tans, M. Trolier, J. W. C. White, R. J. Francey, “A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2,” Science 269, 1098–1102 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Francey, P. P. Tans, C. E. Allison, I. G. Enting, J. W. C. White, M. Trolier, “Changes in oceanic and terrestrial carbon uptake since 1982,” Nature (London) 373, 326–330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fung, I. Y.

J. T. Randerson, M. V. Thompson, T. J. Conway, I. Y. Fung, C. B. Field, “The contribution of terrestrial sources and sinks to trends in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 11, 535–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Denning, I. Y. Fung, D. Randall, “Latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 due to seasonal exchange with land biota,” Nature (London) 376, 240–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Tans, I. Y. Fung, T. Takahashi, “Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget,” Science 247, 1431–1438 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gammon, R. H.

W. D. Komhyr, R. H. Gammon, T. B. Harris, L. S. Waterman, T. J. Conway, W. R. Taylor, K. W. Thoning, “Global atmospheric CO2 distributions and variations from 1968–1982 NOAA/GMCC CO2 flask sample data,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5567–5596 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gell, D. A.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gloor, M.

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. B.

W. D. Komhyr, R. H. Gammon, T. B. Harris, L. S. Waterman, T. J. Conway, W. R. Taylor, K. W. Thoning, “Global atmospheric CO2 distributions and variations from 1968–1982 NOAA/GMCC CO2 flask sample data,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5567–5596 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heimann, M.

C. D. Keeling, R. B. Bacastow, A. F. Carter, S. C. Piper, T. P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W. G. Mook, H. Roeloffzen, “A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds. 1. Analysis of observational data,” in Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union55, 165–236 (1989).

Houghton, J. T.

F. W. Taylor, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, E. J. Williamson, “Radiometer for remote sounding of the upper atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 11, 135–141 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Abel, P. J. Ellis, J. T. Houghton, G. Peckman, C. D. Rodgers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from Satellites II. The selective chopper radiometer for Nimbus D,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 320, 35–55 (1970).
[CrossRef]

James, T. C.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Keeling, C. D.

C. D. Keeling, J. F. S. Chin, T. P. Whorf, “Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements,” Nature (London) 382, 146–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Keeling, R. B. Bacastow, A. F. Carter, S. C. Piper, T. P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W. G. Mook, H. Roeloffzen, “A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds. 1. Analysis of observational data,” in Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union55, 165–236 (1989).

Komhyr, W. D.

W. D. Komhyr, R. H. Gammon, T. B. Harris, L. S. Waterman, T. J. Conway, W. R. Taylor, K. W. Thoning, “Global atmospheric CO2 distributions and variations from 1968–1982 NOAA/GMCC CO2 flask sample data,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5567–5596 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kumer, J. B.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mahlman, J.

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mergenthaler, J. L.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mook, W. G.

C. D. Keeling, R. B. Bacastow, A. F. Carter, S. C. Piper, T. P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W. G. Mook, H. Roeloffzen, “A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds. 1. Analysis of observational data,” in Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union55, 165–236 (1989).

Pacala, S.

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. H.

Peckman, G.

P. G. Abel, P. J. Ellis, J. T. Houghton, G. Peckman, C. D. Rodgers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from Satellites II. The selective chopper radiometer for Nimbus D,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 320, 35–55 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peskett, G. D.

Piper, S. C.

C. D. Keeling, R. B. Bacastow, A. F. Carter, S. C. Piper, T. P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W. G. Mook, H. Roeloffzen, “A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds. 1. Analysis of observational data,” in Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union55, 165–236 (1989).

Potter, J. F.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Randall, D.

A. S. Denning, I. Y. Fung, D. Randall, “Latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 due to seasonal exchange with land biota,” Nature (London) 376, 240–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Randerson, J. T.

J. T. Randerson, M. V. Thompson, T. J. Conway, I. Y. Fung, C. B. Field, “The contribution of terrestrial sources and sinks to trends in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 11, 535–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, F. J.

S. A. Zimov, S. P. Davidov, G. M. Zimova, A. I. Davidova, F. S. Chapin, M. C. Chapin, F. J. Reynolds, “Contributions of disturbance to increasing seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2,” Science 284, 1973–1976 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roche, A. E.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

F. W. Taylor, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, E. J. Williamson, “Radiometer for remote sounding of the upper atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 11, 135–141 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Abel, P. J. Ellis, J. T. Houghton, G. Peckman, C. D. Rodgers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from Satellites II. The selective chopper radiometer for Nimbus D,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 320, 35–55 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Roeloffzen, H.

C. D. Keeling, R. B. Bacastow, A. F. Carter, S. C. Piper, T. P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W. G. Mook, H. Roeloffzen, “A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds. 1. Analysis of observational data,” in Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union55, 165–236 (1989).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sarmiento, J.

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, W. R.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

P. G. Abel, P. J. Ellis, J. T. Houghton, G. Peckman, C. D. Rodgers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from Satellites II. The selective chopper radiometer for Nimbus D,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 320, 35–55 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sterritt, L. W.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Tans, I. Y. Fung, T. Takahashi, “Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget,” Science 247, 1431–1438 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tans, P.

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tans, P. P.

P. Ciais, P. P. Tans, M. Trolier, J. W. C. White, R. J. Francey, “A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2,” Science 269, 1098–1102 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Francey, P. P. Tans, C. E. Allison, I. G. Enting, J. W. C. White, M. Trolier, “Changes in oceanic and terrestrial carbon uptake since 1982,” Nature (London) 373, 326–330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Tans, I. Y. Fung, T. Takahashi, “Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget,” Science 247, 1431–1438 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, F. W.

Taylor, W. R.

W. D. Komhyr, R. H. Gammon, T. B. Harris, L. S. Waterman, T. J. Conway, W. R. Taylor, K. W. Thoning, “Global atmospheric CO2 distributions and variations from 1968–1982 NOAA/GMCC CO2 flask sample data,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5567–5596 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. V.

J. T. Randerson, M. V. Thompson, T. J. Conway, I. Y. Fung, C. B. Field, “The contribution of terrestrial sources and sinks to trends in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 11, 535–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thoning, K. W.

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Komhyr, R. H. Gammon, T. B. Harris, L. S. Waterman, T. J. Conway, W. R. Taylor, K. W. Thoning, “Global atmospheric CO2 distributions and variations from 1968–1982 NOAA/GMCC CO2 flask sample data,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5567–5596 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tolton, B. T.

Trolier, M.

P. Ciais, P. P. Tans, M. Trolier, J. W. C. White, R. J. Francey, “A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2,” Science 269, 1098–1102 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Francey, P. P. Tans, C. E. Allison, I. G. Enting, J. W. C. White, M. Trolier, “Changes in oceanic and terrestrial carbon uptake since 1982,” Nature (London) 373, 326–330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uplinger, W. G.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Waterman, L. S.

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Komhyr, R. H. Gammon, T. B. Harris, L. S. Waterman, T. J. Conway, W. R. Taylor, K. W. Thoning, “Global atmospheric CO2 distributions and variations from 1968–1982 NOAA/GMCC CO2 flask sample data,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5567–5596 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wattsin, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

White, J. W. C.

R. J. Francey, P. P. Tans, C. E. Allison, I. G. Enting, J. W. C. White, M. Trolier, “Changes in oceanic and terrestrial carbon uptake since 1982,” Nature (London) 373, 326–330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Ciais, P. P. Tans, M. Trolier, J. W. C. White, R. J. Francey, “A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2,” Science 269, 1098–1102 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whorf, T. P.

C. D. Keeling, J. F. S. Chin, T. P. Whorf, “Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements,” Nature (London) 382, 146–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Keeling, R. B. Bacastow, A. F. Carter, S. C. Piper, T. P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W. G. Mook, H. Roeloffzen, “A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds. 1. Analysis of observational data,” in Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union55, 165–236 (1989).

Williamson, E. J.

F. W. Taylor, J. T. Houghton, G. D. Peskett, C. D. Rodgers, E. J. Williamson, “Radiometer for remote sounding of the upper atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 11, 135–141 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Abel, P. J. Ellis, J. T. Houghton, G. Peckman, C. D. Rodgers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from Satellites II. The selective chopper radiometer for Nimbus D,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 320, 35–55 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zimov, S. A.

S. A. Zimov, S. P. Davidov, G. M. Zimova, A. I. Davidova, F. S. Chapin, M. C. Chapin, F. J. Reynolds, “Contributions of disturbance to increasing seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2,” Science 284, 1973–1976 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimova, G. M.

S. A. Zimov, S. P. Davidov, G. M. Zimova, A. I. Davidova, F. S. Chapin, M. C. Chapin, F. J. Reynolds, “Contributions of disturbance to increasing seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2,” Science 284, 1973–1976 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Global Biogeochem. Cycles

J. T. Randerson, M. V. Thompson, T. J. Conway, I. Y. Fung, C. B. Field, “The contribution of terrestrial sources and sinks to trends in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 11, 535–560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

W. D. Komhyr, R. H. Gammon, T. B. Harris, L. S. Waterman, T. J. Conway, W. R. Taylor, K. W. Thoning, “Global atmospheric CO2 distributions and variations from 1968–1982 NOAA/GMCC CO2 flask sample data,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5567–5596 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10763–10775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyrey, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

A. S. Denning, I. Y. Fung, D. Randall, “Latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 due to seasonal exchange with land biota,” Nature (London) 376, 240–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Keeling, J. F. S. Chin, T. P. Whorf, “Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements,” Nature (London) 382, 146–149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Francey, P. P. Tans, C. E. Allison, I. G. Enting, J. W. C. White, M. Trolier, “Changes in oceanic and terrestrial carbon uptake since 1982,” Nature (London) 373, 326–330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

P. G. Abel, P. J. Ellis, J. T. Houghton, G. Peckman, C. D. Rodgers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, “Remote sounding of atmospheric temperature from Satellites II. The selective chopper radiometer for Nimbus D,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 320, 35–55 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. Ciais, P. P. Tans, M. Trolier, J. W. C. White, R. J. Francey, “A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2,” Science 269, 1098–1102 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Tans, I. Y. Fung, T. Takahashi, “Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget,” Science 247, 1431–1438 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Zimov, S. P. Davidov, G. M. Zimova, A. I. Davidova, F. S. Chapin, M. C. Chapin, F. J. Reynolds, “Contributions of disturbance to increasing seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2,” Science 284, 1973–1976 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change, The IPCC Scientific Assessment (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990).

C. D. Keeling, R. B. Bacastow, A. F. Carter, S. C. Piper, T. P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W. G. Mook, H. Roeloffzen, “A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds. 1. Analysis of observational data,” in Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union55, 165–236 (1989).

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Standard Atmosphere, (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976).

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol (1997), http://www.unfccc.de/ .

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Carbon Cycle Group (1999), http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccgg/ .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Monthly atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios at the South Pole; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; and Barrow, Alaska, from 1974 to 1998.11

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plots showing the results of calculations of the atmospheric transmission of (a) CO2; (b) H2O; (c) CH4; (d) CO2, H2O, and CH4; and (e) the transmission profiles of the narrow-bandpass filters. In this calculation, water vapor was assumed to be at 100% relative humidity throughout the troposphere, and the solar zenith angle was 30°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the proposed simple radiometer to measure the atmospheric CO2 column.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fractional change in measured radiance of the four CO2 channels as a function of a 1-ppmv increase in the CO2 concentration in each 1-km layer of the atmosphere, relative to the measured radiance for a 350-ppmv CO2 atmosphere.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fractional change in measured radiance of the four CO2 channels as a function of a 1-molecule/cm2 increase in the CO2 column concentration in each 1-km layer of the atmosphere, relative to the measured radiance for a 350-ppmv CO2 atmosphere.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fractional change in measured radiance of the four CO2 channels as a function of a 1-ppmv increase in the CO2 concentration in each 1-km layer of the atmosphere, normalized to the lowest 1-km layer of the atmosphere.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fractional change in measured radiance of the four CO2 channels as a function of a 1-molecule/cm2 increase in the CO2 concentration in each 1-km layer of the atmosphere, normalized to the lowest 1-km layer of the atmosphere.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fractional change in measured radiance as a function of a 1 K increase in the temperature profile in each 1-km layer of the atmosphere at a constant CO2 mixing ratio, relative to the measured radiance for the standard profile (mid-latitude spring and summer U.S. Standard Atmosphere).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fractional change in measured radiance as a function of a 1% increase in the relative humidity in each 1-km layer of the atmosphere.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fractional change in measured radiance as a function of a 1-molecule/cm2 increase in the water vapor in each 1-km layer of the atmosphere, normalized to the lowest 1-km layer of the atmosphere.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Fractional change in the measured radiance in channel E as a function of the relative humidity of the atmosphere.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters Used in the Calculation of the Response of the Radiometer

Tables Icon

Table 2 Sensitivities of the Proposed Radiometer Channels

Tables Icon

Table 3 Properties of the Atmosphere, the Earth’s Surface, and the Hypothetical Satellite Instrument used in the Calculation of the Instrument Sensitivities

Tables Icon

Table 4 Sensitivities of the Instrument Detectors and Sensitivity to Thermal Noise

Metrics