Abstract

A novel reference phase-encoded joint transform correlation technique is proposed for efficient multiple-target detection. The proposed method employs phase encoding for the reference image and nonlinear Fourier plane apodization to optimize the detection performance. Existing joint transform correlators (JTC’s) require multistep on-line processing to eliminate the false alarms. The proposed reference phase-encoded JTC overcomes false-target detection by eliminating the false correlation peaks while alleviating the effects of noise and other artifacts in just one step, thus ensuring higher processing speed. This technique yields only one peak per target instead of a pair of peaks produced by alternate JTC’s. An all-optical implementation for the reference phase-encoded JTC technique is proposed, and computer simulation results are presented.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programmable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. T. S. Yu, Q. W. Song, Y. S. Cheng, D. A. Gregory, “Comparison of detection efficiencies for VanderLugt and joint transform correlators,” Appl. Opt. 29, 225–232 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Javidi, C. Kuo, “Joint transform image correlation using a binary spatial light modulator at the Fourier plane,” Appl. Opt. 27, 663–665 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Javidi, S. F. Odeh, “Multiple object identification by bipolar joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 27, 295–300 (1988).
  7. B. Javidi, J. Li, A. H. Fazlollahi, J. Horner, “Binary nonlinear joint transform correlator performance with different thresholding methods under unknown illumination,” Appl. Opt. 24, 886–896 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Improved correlation discrimination in a multiobject bipolar joint transform correlator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 24, 45–50 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. B. Hahn, D. L. Flannery, “Design elements of a binary joint transform correlator and selected optimization techniques,” Opt. Eng. 31, 896–905 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. T. S. Yu, F. Cheng, T. Nagata, D. A. Gregory, “Effects of fringe binarization of multi-object joint transform correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2988–2990 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4344–4350 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. S. Alam, “Fractional power fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3208–3216 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Schönleber, G. Cedilnik, H. J. Tisiani, “Joint transform correlator subtracting a modified Fourier spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7532–7537 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. K. Wang, L. Shang, C. R. Chatwin, “Modified fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation subtracting to accommodate noise in the input scene,” Appl. Opt. 35, 286–296 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. T. S. Yu, C. Li, S. Yin, “Comparison of detection efficiency for nonzero-order and conventional joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 28, 52–57 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Joint transform correlation under varying illumination,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4351–4356 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. S. Alam, “Multi-target photorefractive fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation,” J. Opt. Mem. Neural Networks 6, 287–294 (1998).
  19. T. Nomura, “Phase-encoded joint transform correlator to reduce the influence of extraneous signals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3651–3657 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Lu, F. T. S. Yu, “Performance of a phase-transformed input joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 35, 304–313 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. G. Lu, Z. Zhang, S. Wu, F. T. S. Yu, “Implementation of a non-zero-order joint-transform correlator by use of phase-shifting techniques,” Appl. Opt. 36, 470–483 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. E. Michel, A. A. S. Awwal, “Joint Fourier transform correlation with phase thresholding in the Fourier plane,” Opt. Eng. 27, 33–37 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

F. T. S. Yu, C. Li, S. Yin, “Comparison of detection efficiency for nonzero-order and conventional joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 28, 52–57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Alam, “Multi-target photorefractive fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation,” J. Opt. Mem. Neural Networks 6, 287–294 (1998).

H. E. Michel, A. A. S. Awwal, “Joint Fourier transform correlation with phase thresholding in the Fourier plane,” Opt. Eng. 27, 33–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Nomura, “Phase-encoded joint transform correlator to reduce the influence of extraneous signals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3651–3657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1995

M. Schönleber, G. Cedilnik, H. J. Tisiani, “Joint transform correlator subtracting a modified Fourier spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7532–7537 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Alam, “Fractional power fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3208–3216 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, J. Li, A. H. Fazlollahi, J. Horner, “Binary nonlinear joint transform correlator performance with different thresholding methods under unknown illumination,” Appl. Opt. 24, 886–896 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Multiple target detection using a modified fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1610–1617 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Improved correlation discrimination in a multiobject bipolar joint transform correlator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 24, 45–50 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Hahn, D. L. Flannery, “Design elements of a binary joint transform correlator and selected optimization techniques,” Opt. Eng. 31, 896–905 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

1988

B. Javidi, C. Kuo, “Joint transform image correlation using a binary spatial light modulator at the Fourier plane,” Appl. Opt. 27, 663–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, S. F. Odeh, “Multiple object identification by bipolar joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 27, 295–300 (1988).

1984

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programmable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1966

1964

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).

Alam, M. S.

M. S. Alam, “Multi-target photorefractive fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation,” J. Opt. Mem. Neural Networks 6, 287–294 (1998).

M. S. Alam, “Fractional power fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3208–3216 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Multiple target detection using a modified fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1610–1617 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Joint transform correlation under varying illumination,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4351–4356 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4344–4350 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Improved correlation discrimination in a multiobject bipolar joint transform correlator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 24, 45–50 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Awwal, A. A. S.

H. E. Michel, A. A. S. Awwal, “Joint Fourier transform correlation with phase thresholding in the Fourier plane,” Opt. Eng. 27, 33–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cedilnik, G.

Chatwin, C. R.

Cheng, F.

Cheng, Y. S.

Fazlollahi, A. H.

B. Javidi, J. Li, A. H. Fazlollahi, J. Horner, “Binary nonlinear joint transform correlator performance with different thresholding methods under unknown illumination,” Appl. Opt. 24, 886–896 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, D. L.

W. B. Hahn, D. L. Flannery, “Design elements of a binary joint transform correlator and selected optimization techniques,” Opt. Eng. 31, 896–905 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

Gregory, D. A.

Hahn, W. B.

W. B. Hahn, D. L. Flannery, “Design elements of a binary joint transform correlator and selected optimization techniques,” Opt. Eng. 31, 896–905 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Horner, J.

B. Javidi, J. Li, A. H. Fazlollahi, J. Horner, “Binary nonlinear joint transform correlator performance with different thresholding methods under unknown illumination,” Appl. Opt. 24, 886–896 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

B. Javidi, J. Li, A. H. Fazlollahi, J. Horner, “Binary nonlinear joint transform correlator performance with different thresholding methods under unknown illumination,” Appl. Opt. 24, 886–896 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, C. Kuo, “Joint transform image correlation using a binary spatial light modulator at the Fourier plane,” Appl. Opt. 27, 663–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, S. F. Odeh, “Multiple object identification by bipolar joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 27, 295–300 (1988).

Karim, M. A.

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Multiple target detection using a modified fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1610–1617 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Joint transform correlation under varying illumination,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4351–4356 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4344–4350 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Improved correlation discrimination in a multiobject bipolar joint transform correlator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 24, 45–50 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.

Li, C.

F. T. S. Yu, C. Li, S. Yin, “Comparison of detection efficiency for nonzero-order and conventional joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 28, 52–57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

B. Javidi, J. Li, A. H. Fazlollahi, J. Horner, “Binary nonlinear joint transform correlator performance with different thresholding methods under unknown illumination,” Appl. Opt. 24, 886–896 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lu, G.

Lu, X. J.

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programmable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Michel, H. E.

H. E. Michel, A. A. S. Awwal, “Joint Fourier transform correlation with phase thresholding in the Fourier plane,” Opt. Eng. 27, 33–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, T.

Nomura, T.

Odeh, S. F.

B. Javidi, S. F. Odeh, “Multiple object identification by bipolar joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 27, 295–300 (1988).

Schönleber, M.

Shang, L.

Song, Q. W.

Tisiani, H. J.

VanderLugt, A.

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).

Wang, R. K.

Weaver, C. S.

Wu, S.

Yin, S.

F. T. S. Yu, C. Li, S. Yin, “Comparison of detection efficiency for nonzero-order and conventional joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 28, 52–57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. T. S.

Zhang, Z.

Appl. Opt.

C. S. Weaver, J. W. Goodman, “A technique for optically convolving two functions,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1248–1249 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. S. Yu, Q. W. Song, Y. S. Cheng, D. A. Gregory, “Comparison of detection efficiencies for VanderLugt and joint transform correlators,” Appl. Opt. 29, 225–232 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, C. Kuo, “Joint transform image correlation using a binary spatial light modulator at the Fourier plane,” Appl. Opt. 27, 663–665 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, J. Li, A. H. Fazlollahi, J. Horner, “Binary nonlinear joint transform correlator performance with different thresholding methods under unknown illumination,” Appl. Opt. 24, 886–896 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, F. Cheng, T. Nagata, D. A. Gregory, “Effects of fringe binarization of multi-object joint transform correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2988–2990 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4344–4350 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schönleber, G. Cedilnik, H. J. Tisiani, “Joint transform correlator subtracting a modified Fourier spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7532–7537 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. Shang, C. R. Chatwin, “Modified fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation subtracting to accommodate noise in the input scene,” Appl. Opt. 35, 286–296 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Joint transform correlation under varying illumination,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4351–4356 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nomura, “Phase-encoded joint transform correlator to reduce the influence of extraneous signals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3651–3657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Lu, F. T. S. Yu, “Performance of a phase-transformed input joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 35, 304–313 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lu, Z. Zhang, S. Wu, F. T. S. Yu, “Implementation of a non-zero-order joint-transform correlator by use of phase-shifting techniques,” Appl. Opt. 36, 470–483 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).

J. Opt. Mem. Neural Networks

M. S. Alam, “Multi-target photorefractive fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation,” J. Opt. Mem. Neural Networks 6, 287–294 (1998).

Opt. Commun.

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programmable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

B. Javidi, S. F. Odeh, “Multiple object identification by bipolar joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 27, 295–300 (1988).

W. B. Hahn, D. L. Flannery, “Design elements of a binary joint transform correlator and selected optimization techniques,” Opt. Eng. 31, 896–905 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, C. Li, S. Yin, “Comparison of detection efficiency for nonzero-order and conventional joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 28, 52–57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Alam, “Fractional power fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3208–3216 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Multiple target detection using a modified fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1610–1617 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Michel, A. A. S. Awwal, “Joint Fourier transform correlation with phase thresholding in the Fourier plane,” Opt. Eng. 27, 33–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol.

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Improved correlation discrimination in a multiobject bipolar joint transform correlator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 24, 45–50 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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