Abstract

Sinusoidal structured illumination is used widely in three-dimensional (3-D) sensing and machine vision. Phase algorithms, for example, in phase-measuring profilometry, are inherently free of errors only with perfect sinusoidal fringe projection. But it is difficult to produce a perfect sinusoidal grating. We propose a new concept, area modulation, to improve the sinusoidality of structured illumination. A binary-coded picture is made up of many micrometer units. An aperture is open in every micrometer unit, and its area is determined by the value of the sinusoidal function. When such a grating is projected onto an object surface, the image of the grating becomes sinusoidal because of the convolution function of an optical system. We have designed and manufactured an area modulation grating for sinusoidal structure illumination using a large-scale integration technique. The area modulation grating has been used in the high-precision phase-measuring profilometry system, and the phase errors caused by the area modulation grating are reduced to 0.1%. The grating guaranteed the entire measuring accuracy to a 1% equivalent wavelength. The experimental results proved that area modulation grating would be of significant help in improving the phase-measurement accuracy of the 3-D sensing system.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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