Abstract

The use of compact disc (CD) pickups in optical profilometry is a well-established practice. The instruments currently available on the market are, however, expensive both to purchase and to maintain. This expense is mainly due to the high cost of the scanning system, and it makes the use of low-cost pickups fruitless. Moreover, translation stages are bulky, slow, and in most applications neither necessary nor desirable. We present a one-dimensional profilometer, which uses a CD pickup as both the sensor and the actuator. Beam scanning of the sample is in fact performed by the objective lens tracking motor. The device is cheap, fast, compact, light, and a valuable solution for fluid and hard-to-access surface profiling.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. J. Stout, ed., Three Dimensional Surface Topography: Measurement Interpretation and Application (Penton Press, London, 1994).
  2. D. J. Whitehouse, Handbook of Surface Metrology (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994).
  3. UB16 Precision optical length measurement system, UBM Messtechnik GmbH, Ottostrasse 2, D-7505 Ettlingen, Germany.
  4. A. J. C. Brown, U. Breitmeier, “Industrial applications of an optical profilometer,” in Optical Testing and Metrology II, C. P. Groover, ed., Proc. SPIE954, 200–207 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Rodenstock Model RM600 Laser Stylus, Optische Werke G. Rodenstock, P.O. Box 140440, D-800 München, Germany.
  6. K. Ehrmann, A. Ho, K. Schindhelm, “A 3D optical profilometer using a compact disc reading head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1259–1265 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. C. Pohlmann, Principles of Digital Audio, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).
  8. K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disc: a Handbook of Theory and Use (A-R Editions, Inc., Madison, Wis., 1989), Chap. 4, pp. 90–103.
  9. H. L. Davidson, Troubleshooting and Repairing Compact Disc Players, 2nd ed. (TAB Books, division of McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994). Chap. 3, pp. 51–60.
  10. C. During, S. Andersson, J. Wilkander, “Non-contact absolute position measurement using a compact disc player optical pick-up,” Sens. Actuators A 32, 575–581 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. R. Armstrong, M. P. Fitzgerald, “An autocollimator based on the laser head of a compact disc player,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1072–1076 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Benschop, G. van Rosmalen, “Confocal compact scanning optical microscope based on compact disc technology,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1179–1184 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Quercioli, A. Mannoni, B. Tiribilli, “Correlation optical velocimetry with a compact disk pickup,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6372–6375 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Quercioli, A. Mannoni, B. Tiribilli, “Laser Doppler velocimetry with a compact disc pickup,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5932–5937 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, A. Bartoli, “Interferometry with optical pickups,” Opt. Lett. 24, 670–672 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, C. Ascoli, P. Baschieri, C. Frediani, “Monitoring of an atomic force microscope cantilever with a compact disk pickup,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3620–3624 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. D. Roswell, “Remote measurement of small displacements using a CD pickup head,” Med. Eng. Phys. 17, 459–461 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Braat, “Influence of substrate thickness on optical disk readout,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8056–8062 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Malacara, ed., Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992).

1999 (2)

F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, C. Ascoli, P. Baschieri, C. Frediani, “Monitoring of an atomic force microscope cantilever with a compact disk pickup,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3620–3624 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, A. Bartoli, “Interferometry with optical pickups,” Opt. Lett. 24, 670–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Ehrmann, A. Ho, K. Schindhelm, “A 3D optical profilometer using a compact disc reading head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1259–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Quercioli, A. Mannoni, B. Tiribilli, “Laser Doppler velocimetry with a compact disc pickup,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5932–5937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

T. D. Roswell, “Remote measurement of small displacements using a CD pickup head,” Med. Eng. Phys. 17, 459–461 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

C. During, S. Andersson, J. Wilkander, “Non-contact absolute position measurement using a compact disc player optical pick-up,” Sens. Actuators A 32, 575–581 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Armstrong, M. P. Fitzgerald, “An autocollimator based on the laser head of a compact disc player,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1072–1076 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Andersson, S.

C. During, S. Andersson, J. Wilkander, “Non-contact absolute position measurement using a compact disc player optical pick-up,” Sens. Actuators A 32, 575–581 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, T. R.

T. R. Armstrong, M. P. Fitzgerald, “An autocollimator based on the laser head of a compact disc player,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1072–1076 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ascoli, C.

F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, C. Ascoli, P. Baschieri, C. Frediani, “Monitoring of an atomic force microscope cantilever with a compact disk pickup,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3620–3624 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, A.

Baschieri, P.

F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, C. Ascoli, P. Baschieri, C. Frediani, “Monitoring of an atomic force microscope cantilever with a compact disk pickup,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3620–3624 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benschop, J.

Braat, J.

Breitmeier, U.

A. J. C. Brown, U. Breitmeier, “Industrial applications of an optical profilometer,” in Optical Testing and Metrology II, C. P. Groover, ed., Proc. SPIE954, 200–207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. J. C.

A. J. C. Brown, U. Breitmeier, “Industrial applications of an optical profilometer,” in Optical Testing and Metrology II, C. P. Groover, ed., Proc. SPIE954, 200–207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, H. L.

H. L. Davidson, Troubleshooting and Repairing Compact Disc Players, 2nd ed. (TAB Books, division of McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994). Chap. 3, pp. 51–60.

During, C.

C. During, S. Andersson, J. Wilkander, “Non-contact absolute position measurement using a compact disc player optical pick-up,” Sens. Actuators A 32, 575–581 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ehrmann, K.

K. Ehrmann, A. Ho, K. Schindhelm, “A 3D optical profilometer using a compact disc reading head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1259–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, M. P.

T. R. Armstrong, M. P. Fitzgerald, “An autocollimator based on the laser head of a compact disc player,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1072–1076 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Frediani, C.

F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, C. Ascoli, P. Baschieri, C. Frediani, “Monitoring of an atomic force microscope cantilever with a compact disk pickup,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3620–3624 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ho, A.

K. Ehrmann, A. Ho, K. Schindhelm, “A 3D optical profilometer using a compact disc reading head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1259–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mannoni, A.

Pohlmann, K. C.

K. C. Pohlmann, Principles of Digital Audio, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).

K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disc: a Handbook of Theory and Use (A-R Editions, Inc., Madison, Wis., 1989), Chap. 4, pp. 90–103.

Quercioli, F.

Roswell, T. D.

T. D. Roswell, “Remote measurement of small displacements using a CD pickup head,” Med. Eng. Phys. 17, 459–461 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schindhelm, K.

K. Ehrmann, A. Ho, K. Schindhelm, “A 3D optical profilometer using a compact disc reading head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1259–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tiribilli, B.

van Rosmalen, G.

Whitehouse, D. J.

D. J. Whitehouse, Handbook of Surface Metrology (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994).

Wilkander, J.

C. During, S. Andersson, J. Wilkander, “Non-contact absolute position measurement using a compact disc player optical pick-up,” Sens. Actuators A 32, 575–581 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

T. R. Armstrong, M. P. Fitzgerald, “An autocollimator based on the laser head of a compact disc player,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1072–1076 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Ehrmann, A. Ho, K. Schindhelm, “A 3D optical profilometer using a compact disc reading head,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1259–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

T. D. Roswell, “Remote measurement of small displacements using a CD pickup head,” Med. Eng. Phys. 17, 459–461 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, C. Ascoli, P. Baschieri, C. Frediani, “Monitoring of an atomic force microscope cantilever with a compact disk pickup,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3620–3624 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

C. During, S. Andersson, J. Wilkander, “Non-contact absolute position measurement using a compact disc player optical pick-up,” Sens. Actuators A 32, 575–581 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

D. Malacara, ed., Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992).

K. C. Pohlmann, Principles of Digital Audio, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).

K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disc: a Handbook of Theory and Use (A-R Editions, Inc., Madison, Wis., 1989), Chap. 4, pp. 90–103.

H. L. Davidson, Troubleshooting and Repairing Compact Disc Players, 2nd ed. (TAB Books, division of McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994). Chap. 3, pp. 51–60.

K. J. Stout, ed., Three Dimensional Surface Topography: Measurement Interpretation and Application (Penton Press, London, 1994).

D. J. Whitehouse, Handbook of Surface Metrology (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1994).

UB16 Precision optical length measurement system, UBM Messtechnik GmbH, Ottostrasse 2, D-7505 Ettlingen, Germany.

A. J. C. Brown, U. Breitmeier, “Industrial applications of an optical profilometer,” in Optical Testing and Metrology II, C. P. Groover, ed., Proc. SPIE954, 200–207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rodenstock Model RM600 Laser Stylus, Optische Werke G. Rodenstock, P.O. Box 140440, D-800 München, Germany.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a three-beam, astigmatic focus detection pickup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Close-up view of a Sony Model KSS-210A optical pickup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Outline of the beam scanning profilometric setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interferometric test of the objective lens. (a) Fringe pattern of the unmodified objective lens. Typical fringes of spherical aberration can be seen. (b) Straight fringe pattern after a 1.2-mm-thick window was fastened on the objective lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FE signal versus surface height on a mirror.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface profile of a tilted spectroscopic grating (100 lp/mm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Amplitude (a) and phase (b) response of the tracking coil versus the excitation frequency.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Profile of a mechanical piece. Roughness is Ra = 0.4 µm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Surface profile of a drop of glycerine.

Metrics