Abstract

We investigate porous silicon Bragg reflectors in a nondestructive manner using variable angle-of-incidence infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry. In addition to the thickness, volume porosity, inhomogeneity, and optical anisotropy, properties of the solid content of the porous material are investigated in terms of dielectric function and surface chemistry. The material was found to have positive birefringence. The high sensitivity of the technique is employed to detect and identify infrared resonant absorptions related to different Si–H as well as Si–O–Si vibrational modes. The average electrical resistivity of the solid content of the porous material is determined to be 0.03 Ω cm, which is larger than the corresponding bulk value of 0.019 Ω cm. Furthermore the average carrier concentration in the porous material shows a decrease from 6.2 × 1018 cm-3 to 4 × 1018 cm-3.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  3. A. Halimaoui, C. Oules, G. Bomchil, A. Bsiesy, F. Gaspard, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, F. Muller, “Electroluminescence in the visible range during anodic oxidation of porous silicon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 304–306 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Kaltsas, A. G. Nassiopoulos, “Frontside bulk silicon micromachining using porous-silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators A 65, 175–180 (1998).
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  5. S. Zangooie, R. Bjorklund, H. Arwin, “Vapor sensitivity of thin porous silicon layers,” Sens. Actuators B 43, 168–174 (1997).
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  6. T. Laurell, J. Drott, L. Rosengren, K. Lindström, “Enhanced enzyme activity in silicon integrated enzyme reactors utilizing porous silicon as the coupling matrix,” Sens. Actuators B 31, 161–166 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Janshoff, K.-P. S. Dancil, C. Steinem, D. P. Greiner, V. S.-Y. Lin, C. Gurtner, K. Motesharei, M. J. Sailor, M. R. Ghadiri, “Macroporous p-type silicon Fabry-Perot layers. Fabrication, characterization, and applications in biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12108–12116 (1998).
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  10. C. Mazzoleni, L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2983–2985 (1995).
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  11. S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Reversible and irreversible control of optical properties of porous silicon superlattices by thermal oxidation, vapor adsorption, and liquid penetration,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2901–2912 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. U. Rossow, U. Frotscher, M. Thönissen, M. G. Berger, S. Frohnhoff, H. Münder, W. Richter, “Influence of the formation conditions on the microstructure of porous silicon layers studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 255, 5–8 (1995).
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  15. S. Zangooie, R. Bjorklund, H. Arwin, “Water interaction with thermally oxidized porous silicon layers,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 4027–4035 (1997).
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  28. S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Electrochemical tailoring and optical investigation of advanced refractive index profiles in porous silicon layers,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 195–200 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  31. W. Theiss, M. Arntzen, S. Hilbrich, M. Wernke, R. Arens-Fischer, M. G. Berger, “From minutes to months: aging of porous silicon single layers and superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi 190, 15–20 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature (London) 353, 335–337 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. Buttard, D. Bellet, T. Baumbach, “X-ray diffraction investigation of porous silicon superlattices,” Thin Solid Films 276, 69–72 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  34. I. Berbezier, A. Halimoui, “A microstructural study of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5421–5425 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  35. U. Grüning, S. C. Gujrathi, S. Poulin, Y. Diawara, A. Yelon, “Remote oxygen-containing hydrogen plasma treatment of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 8075–8079 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. Ben-Chorin, F. Möller, F. Koch, “Nonlinear electrical transport in porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2981–2984 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1999

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Ellipsometric characterization of anisotropic porous silicon Fabry-Perot filters and investigation of temperature effects on capillary condensation efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 850–858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Electrochemical tailoring and optical investigation of advanced refractive index profiles in porous silicon layers,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 195–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, W. Paulson, R. Hance, “Application of IR variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry to the determination of free carrier concentration depth profiles,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 661–666 (1998).

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Reversible and irreversible control of optical properties of porous silicon superlattices by thermal oxidation, vapor adsorption, and liquid penetration,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2901–2912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Kaltsas, A. G. Nassiopoulos, “Frontside bulk silicon micromachining using porous-silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators A 65, 175–180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Janshoff, K.-P. S. Dancil, C. Steinem, D. P. Greiner, V. S.-Y. Lin, C. Gurtner, K. Motesharei, M. J. Sailor, M. R. Ghadiri, “Macroporous p-type silicon Fabry-Perot layers. Fabrication, characterization, and applications in biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12108–12116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Zangooie, R. Bjorklund, H. Arwin, “Vapor sensitivity of thin porous silicon layers,” Sens. Actuators B 43, 168–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Bjorklund, H. Arwin, “Water interaction with thermally oxidized porous silicon layers,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 4027–4035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Theiss, “Optical properties of porous silicon,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 29, 95–192 (1997).

1996

M. Schubert, “Polarization-dependent optical parameters of arbitrarily anisotropic homogeneous layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265–4274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, B. Reinländer, J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, “Extension of rotating-analyzer ellipsometry to generalized ellipsometry: determination of the dielectric function tensor from uniaxial TiO2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 875–883 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Buttard, D. Bellet, T. Baumbach, “X-ray diffraction investigation of porous silicon superlattices,” Thin Solid Films 276, 69–72 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Parisini, N. Brunetto, G. Amato, “TEM and photoluminescence characterization of porous-silicon layers from 〈111〉-oriented p+ silicon substrates,” Nuovo Cimento D 18, 1233–1239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Laurell, J. Drott, L. Rosengren, K. Lindström, “Enhanced enzyme activity in silicon integrated enzyme reactors utilizing porous silicon as the coupling matrix,” Sens. Actuators B 31, 161–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, S. T. Frohnhoff, C. Dieker, K. Winz, H. Münder, H. Lüth, M. Arntzen, W. Theiss, “Formation and properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 358, 327–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Mazzoleni, L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2983–2985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Rossow, U. Frotscher, M. Thönissen, M. G. Berger, S. Frohnhoff, H. Münder, W. Richter, “Influence of the formation conditions on the microstructure of porous silicon layers studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 255, 5–8 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Theiss, M. Arntzen, S. Hilbrich, M. Wernke, R. Arens-Fischer, M. G. Berger, “From minutes to months: aging of porous silicon single layers and superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi 190, 15–20 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

U. Grüning, S. C. Gujrathi, S. Poulin, Y. Diawara, A. Yelon, “Remote oxygen-containing hydrogen plasma treatment of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 8075–8079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ben-Chorin, F. Möller, F. Koch, “Nonlinear electrical transport in porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2981–2984 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Vincent, “Optical properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2367–2369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. Pickering, L. T. Canham, D. Brumhead, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of light-emitting porous silicon structures,” Appl. Sur. Sci. 63, 22–26 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Berbezier, A. Halimoui, “A microstructural study of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5421–5425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Anderson, R. S. Muller, C. W. Tobias, “Chemical surface modification of porous silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 1393–1396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. L. Smith, S. D. Collins, “Porous silicon formation mechanism,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, R1–R22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. Halimaoui, C. Oules, G. Bomchil, A. Bsiesy, F. Gaspard, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, F. Muller, “Electroluminescence in the visible range during anodic oxidation of porous silicon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 304–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature (London) 353, 335–337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

L. T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046–1048 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

S.-F. Chuang, S. D. Collins, R. L. Smith, “Preferential propagation of pores during the formation of porous silicon: a transmission electron microscopy study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 675–677 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

H. Unno, K. Imai, S. Muramoto, “Dissolution reaction effect on porous-silicon density,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 134, 645–648 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1956

A. Uhlir, “Electrolytic shaping of germanium and silicon,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 35, 333–347 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Amato, G.

A. Parisini, N. Brunetto, G. Amato, “TEM and photoluminescence characterization of porous-silicon layers from 〈111〉-oriented p+ silicon substrates,” Nuovo Cimento D 18, 1233–1239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. C.

R. C. Anderson, R. S. Muller, C. W. Tobias, “Chemical surface modification of porous silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 1393–1396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arens-Fischer, R.

W. Theiss, M. Arntzen, S. Hilbrich, M. Wernke, R. Arens-Fischer, M. G. Berger, “From minutes to months: aging of porous silicon single layers and superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi 190, 15–20 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, S. T. Frohnhoff, C. Dieker, K. Winz, H. Münder, H. Lüth, M. Arntzen, W. Theiss, “Formation and properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 358, 327–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arntzen, M.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, S. T. Frohnhoff, C. Dieker, K. Winz, H. Münder, H. Lüth, M. Arntzen, W. Theiss, “Formation and properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 358, 327–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Theiss, M. Arntzen, S. Hilbrich, M. Wernke, R. Arens-Fischer, M. G. Berger, “From minutes to months: aging of porous silicon single layers and superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi 190, 15–20 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arwin, H.

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Electrochemical tailoring and optical investigation of advanced refractive index profiles in porous silicon layers,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 195–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Ellipsometric characterization of anisotropic porous silicon Fabry-Perot filters and investigation of temperature effects on capillary condensation efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 850–858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Reversible and irreversible control of optical properties of porous silicon superlattices by thermal oxidation, vapor adsorption, and liquid penetration,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2901–2912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Bjorklund, H. Arwin, “Water interaction with thermally oxidized porous silicon layers,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 4027–4035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Bjorklund, H. Arwin, “Vapor sensitivity of thin porous silicon layers,” Sens. Actuators B 43, 168–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Wongmanerod, S. Zangooie, H. Arwin, “Nondestructive determination of pore size distribution and specific surface area in thin porous silicon films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. (to be published).

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, New York, 1987).

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, New York, 1987).

Baumbach, T.

D. Buttard, D. Bellet, T. Baumbach, “X-ray diffraction investigation of porous silicon superlattices,” Thin Solid Films 276, 69–72 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bellet, D.

D. Buttard, D. Bellet, T. Baumbach, “X-ray diffraction investigation of porous silicon superlattices,” Thin Solid Films 276, 69–72 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Chorin, M.

M. Ben-Chorin, F. Möller, F. Koch, “Nonlinear electrical transport in porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2981–2984 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berbezier, I.

I. Berbezier, A. Halimoui, “A microstructural study of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5421–5425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Berger, M. G.

W. Theiss, M. Arntzen, S. Hilbrich, M. Wernke, R. Arens-Fischer, M. G. Berger, “From minutes to months: aging of porous silicon single layers and superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi 190, 15–20 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Rossow, U. Frotscher, M. Thönissen, M. G. Berger, S. Frohnhoff, H. Münder, W. Richter, “Influence of the formation conditions on the microstructure of porous silicon layers studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 255, 5–8 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, S. T. Frohnhoff, C. Dieker, K. Winz, H. Münder, H. Lüth, M. Arntzen, W. Theiss, “Formation and properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 358, 327–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, R.

S. Zangooie, R. Bjorklund, H. Arwin, “Vapor sensitivity of thin porous silicon layers,” Sens. Actuators B 43, 168–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Bjorklund, H. Arwin, “Water interaction with thermally oxidized porous silicon layers,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 4027–4035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bomchil, G.

A. Halimaoui, C. Oules, G. Bomchil, A. Bsiesy, F. Gaspard, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, F. Muller, “Electroluminescence in the visible range during anodic oxidation of porous silicon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 304–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brumhead, D.

C. Pickering, L. T. Canham, D. Brumhead, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of light-emitting porous silicon structures,” Appl. Sur. Sci. 63, 22–26 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brunetto, N.

A. Parisini, N. Brunetto, G. Amato, “TEM and photoluminescence characterization of porous-silicon layers from 〈111〉-oriented p+ silicon substrates,” Nuovo Cimento D 18, 1233–1239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bsiesy, A.

A. Halimaoui, C. Oules, G. Bomchil, A. Bsiesy, F. Gaspard, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, F. Muller, “Electroluminescence in the visible range during anodic oxidation of porous silicon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 304–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Buttard, D.

D. Buttard, D. Bellet, T. Baumbach, “X-ray diffraction investigation of porous silicon superlattices,” Thin Solid Films 276, 69–72 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Canham, L. T.

C. Pickering, L. T. Canham, D. Brumhead, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of light-emitting porous silicon structures,” Appl. Sur. Sci. 63, 22–26 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature (London) 353, 335–337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046–1048 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

P. Y. Yu, M. Cardona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), Chap. 6.
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S.-F.

S.-F. Chuang, S. D. Collins, R. L. Smith, “Preferential propagation of pores during the formation of porous silicon: a transmission electron microscopy study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 675–677 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Collins, S. D.

R. L. Smith, S. D. Collins, “Porous silicon formation mechanism,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, R1–R22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S.-F. Chuang, S. D. Collins, R. L. Smith, “Preferential propagation of pores during the formation of porous silicon: a transmission electron microscopy study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 675–677 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cullis, A. G.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature (London) 353, 335–337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dancil, K.-P. S.

A. Janshoff, K.-P. S. Dancil, C. Steinem, D. P. Greiner, V. S.-Y. Lin, C. Gurtner, K. Motesharei, M. J. Sailor, M. R. Ghadiri, “Macroporous p-type silicon Fabry-Perot layers. Fabrication, characterization, and applications in biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12108–12116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diawara, Y.

U. Grüning, S. C. Gujrathi, S. Poulin, Y. Diawara, A. Yelon, “Remote oxygen-containing hydrogen plasma treatment of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 8075–8079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dieker, C.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, S. T. Frohnhoff, C. Dieker, K. Winz, H. Münder, H. Lüth, M. Arntzen, W. Theiss, “Formation and properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 358, 327–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Drott, J.

T. Laurell, J. Drott, L. Rosengren, K. Lindström, “Enhanced enzyme activity in silicon integrated enzyme reactors utilizing porous silicon as the coupling matrix,” Sens. Actuators B 31, 161–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frohnhoff, S.

U. Rossow, U. Frotscher, M. Thönissen, M. G. Berger, S. Frohnhoff, H. Münder, W. Richter, “Influence of the formation conditions on the microstructure of porous silicon layers studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 255, 5–8 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frohnhoff, S. T.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, S. T. Frohnhoff, C. Dieker, K. Winz, H. Münder, H. Lüth, M. Arntzen, W. Theiss, “Formation and properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 358, 327–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frotscher, U.

U. Rossow, U. Frotscher, M. Thönissen, M. G. Berger, S. Frohnhoff, H. Münder, W. Richter, “Influence of the formation conditions on the microstructure of porous silicon layers studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 255, 5–8 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gaspard, F.

A. Halimaoui, C. Oules, G. Bomchil, A. Bsiesy, F. Gaspard, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, F. Muller, “Electroluminescence in the visible range during anodic oxidation of porous silicon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 304–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ghadiri, M. R.

A. Janshoff, K.-P. S. Dancil, C. Steinem, D. P. Greiner, V. S.-Y. Lin, C. Gurtner, K. Motesharei, M. J. Sailor, M. R. Ghadiri, “Macroporous p-type silicon Fabry-Perot layers. Fabrication, characterization, and applications in biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12108–12116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, D. P.

A. Janshoff, K.-P. S. Dancil, C. Steinem, D. P. Greiner, V. S.-Y. Lin, C. Gurtner, K. Motesharei, M. J. Sailor, M. R. Ghadiri, “Macroporous p-type silicon Fabry-Perot layers. Fabrication, characterization, and applications in biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12108–12116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grüning, U.

U. Grüning, S. C. Gujrathi, S. Poulin, Y. Diawara, A. Yelon, “Remote oxygen-containing hydrogen plasma treatment of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 8075–8079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gujrathi, S. C.

U. Grüning, S. C. Gujrathi, S. Poulin, Y. Diawara, A. Yelon, “Remote oxygen-containing hydrogen plasma treatment of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 8075–8079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gurtner, C.

A. Janshoff, K.-P. S. Dancil, C. Steinem, D. P. Greiner, V. S.-Y. Lin, C. Gurtner, K. Motesharei, M. J. Sailor, M. R. Ghadiri, “Macroporous p-type silicon Fabry-Perot layers. Fabrication, characterization, and applications in biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12108–12116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Halimaoui, A.

A. Halimaoui, C. Oules, G. Bomchil, A. Bsiesy, F. Gaspard, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, F. Muller, “Electroluminescence in the visible range during anodic oxidation of porous silicon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 304–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Halimoui, A.

I. Berbezier, A. Halimoui, “A microstructural study of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5421–5425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hance, R.

T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, W. Paulson, R. Hance, “Application of IR variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry to the determination of free carrier concentration depth profiles,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 661–666 (1998).

Herino, R.

A. Halimaoui, C. Oules, G. Bomchil, A. Bsiesy, F. Gaspard, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, F. Muller, “Electroluminescence in the visible range during anodic oxidation of porous silicon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 304–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herzinger, C. M.

Hilbrich, S.

W. Theiss, M. Arntzen, S. Hilbrich, M. Wernke, R. Arens-Fischer, M. G. Berger, “From minutes to months: aging of porous silicon single layers and superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi 190, 15–20 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Imai, K.

H. Unno, K. Imai, S. Muramoto, “Dissolution reaction effect on porous-silicon density,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 134, 645–648 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Janshoff, A.

A. Janshoff, K.-P. S. Dancil, C. Steinem, D. P. Greiner, V. S.-Y. Lin, C. Gurtner, K. Motesharei, M. J. Sailor, M. R. Ghadiri, “Macroporous p-type silicon Fabry-Perot layers. Fabrication, characterization, and applications in biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12108–12116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jansson, R.

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Ellipsometric characterization of anisotropic porous silicon Fabry-Perot filters and investigation of temperature effects on capillary condensation efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 850–858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Electrochemical tailoring and optical investigation of advanced refractive index profiles in porous silicon layers,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 195–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Reversible and irreversible control of optical properties of porous silicon superlattices by thermal oxidation, vapor adsorption, and liquid penetration,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2901–2912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johs, B.

Kaltsas, G.

G. Kaltsas, A. G. Nassiopoulos, “Frontside bulk silicon micromachining using porous-silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators A 65, 175–180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koch, F.

M. Ben-Chorin, F. Möller, F. Koch, “Nonlinear electrical transport in porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2981–2984 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, T.

T. Laurell, J. Drott, L. Rosengren, K. Lindström, “Enhanced enzyme activity in silicon integrated enzyme reactors utilizing porous silicon as the coupling matrix,” Sens. Actuators B 31, 161–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ligeon, M.

A. Halimaoui, C. Oules, G. Bomchil, A. Bsiesy, F. Gaspard, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, F. Muller, “Electroluminescence in the visible range during anodic oxidation of porous silicon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 304–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lin, V. S.-Y.

A. Janshoff, K.-P. S. Dancil, C. Steinem, D. P. Greiner, V. S.-Y. Lin, C. Gurtner, K. Motesharei, M. J. Sailor, M. R. Ghadiri, “Macroporous p-type silicon Fabry-Perot layers. Fabrication, characterization, and applications in biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12108–12116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lindström, K.

T. Laurell, J. Drott, L. Rosengren, K. Lindström, “Enhanced enzyme activity in silicon integrated enzyme reactors utilizing porous silicon as the coupling matrix,” Sens. Actuators B 31, 161–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lüth, H.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, S. T. Frohnhoff, C. Dieker, K. Winz, H. Münder, H. Lüth, M. Arntzen, W. Theiss, “Formation and properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 358, 327–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, C.

C. Mazzoleni, L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2983–2985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Möller, F.

M. Ben-Chorin, F. Möller, F. Koch, “Nonlinear electrical transport in porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2981–2984 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Motesharei, K.

A. Janshoff, K.-P. S. Dancil, C. Steinem, D. P. Greiner, V. S.-Y. Lin, C. Gurtner, K. Motesharei, M. J. Sailor, M. R. Ghadiri, “Macroporous p-type silicon Fabry-Perot layers. Fabrication, characterization, and applications in biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12108–12116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muller, F.

A. Halimaoui, C. Oules, G. Bomchil, A. Bsiesy, F. Gaspard, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, F. Muller, “Electroluminescence in the visible range during anodic oxidation of porous silicon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 304–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R. S.

R. C. Anderson, R. S. Muller, C. W. Tobias, “Chemical surface modification of porous silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 1393–1396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Münder, H.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, S. T. Frohnhoff, C. Dieker, K. Winz, H. Münder, H. Lüth, M. Arntzen, W. Theiss, “Formation and properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 358, 327–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Rossow, U. Frotscher, M. Thönissen, M. G. Berger, S. Frohnhoff, H. Münder, W. Richter, “Influence of the formation conditions on the microstructure of porous silicon layers studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 255, 5–8 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Muramoto, S.

H. Unno, K. Imai, S. Muramoto, “Dissolution reaction effect on porous-silicon density,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 134, 645–648 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nassiopoulos, A. G.

G. Kaltsas, A. G. Nassiopoulos, “Frontside bulk silicon micromachining using porous-silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators A 65, 175–180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oules, C.

A. Halimaoui, C. Oules, G. Bomchil, A. Bsiesy, F. Gaspard, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, F. Muller, “Electroluminescence in the visible range during anodic oxidation of porous silicon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 304–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Parisini, A.

A. Parisini, N. Brunetto, G. Amato, “TEM and photoluminescence characterization of porous-silicon layers from 〈111〉-oriented p+ silicon substrates,” Nuovo Cimento D 18, 1233–1239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paulson, W.

T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, W. Paulson, R. Hance, “Application of IR variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry to the determination of free carrier concentration depth profiles,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 661–666 (1998).

Pavesi, L.

C. Mazzoleni, L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2983–2985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pickering, C.

C. Pickering, L. T. Canham, D. Brumhead, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of light-emitting porous silicon structures,” Appl. Sur. Sci. 63, 22–26 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poulin, S.

U. Grüning, S. C. Gujrathi, S. Poulin, Y. Diawara, A. Yelon, “Remote oxygen-containing hydrogen plasma treatment of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 8075–8079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reinländer, B.

Richter, W.

U. Rossow, U. Frotscher, M. Thönissen, M. G. Berger, S. Frohnhoff, H. Münder, W. Richter, “Influence of the formation conditions on the microstructure of porous silicon layers studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 255, 5–8 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rosengren, L.

T. Laurell, J. Drott, L. Rosengren, K. Lindström, “Enhanced enzyme activity in silicon integrated enzyme reactors utilizing porous silicon as the coupling matrix,” Sens. Actuators B 31, 161–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rossow, U.

U. Rossow, U. Frotscher, M. Thönissen, M. G. Berger, S. Frohnhoff, H. Münder, W. Richter, “Influence of the formation conditions on the microstructure of porous silicon layers studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 255, 5–8 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sailor, M. J.

A. Janshoff, K.-P. S. Dancil, C. Steinem, D. P. Greiner, V. S.-Y. Lin, C. Gurtner, K. Motesharei, M. J. Sailor, M. R. Ghadiri, “Macroporous p-type silicon Fabry-Perot layers. Fabrication, characterization, and applications in biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12108–12116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

Smith, R. L.

R. L. Smith, S. D. Collins, “Porous silicon formation mechanism,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, R1–R22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S.-F. Chuang, S. D. Collins, R. L. Smith, “Preferential propagation of pores during the formation of porous silicon: a transmission electron microscopy study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 675–677 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Steinem, C.

A. Janshoff, K.-P. S. Dancil, C. Steinem, D. P. Greiner, V. S.-Y. Lin, C. Gurtner, K. Motesharei, M. J. Sailor, M. R. Ghadiri, “Macroporous p-type silicon Fabry-Perot layers. Fabrication, characterization, and applications in biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12108–12116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Theiss, W.

W. Theiss, “Optical properties of porous silicon,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 29, 95–192 (1997).

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, S. T. Frohnhoff, C. Dieker, K. Winz, H. Münder, H. Lüth, M. Arntzen, W. Theiss, “Formation and properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 358, 327–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Theiss, M. Arntzen, S. Hilbrich, M. Wernke, R. Arens-Fischer, M. G. Berger, “From minutes to months: aging of porous silicon single layers and superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi 190, 15–20 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. W.

T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, W. Paulson, R. Hance, “Application of IR variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry to the determination of free carrier concentration depth profiles,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 661–666 (1998).

Thönissen, M.

U. Rossow, U. Frotscher, M. Thönissen, M. G. Berger, S. Frohnhoff, H. Münder, W. Richter, “Influence of the formation conditions on the microstructure of porous silicon layers studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 255, 5–8 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tiwald, T. E.

T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, W. Paulson, R. Hance, “Application of IR variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry to the determination of free carrier concentration depth profiles,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 661–666 (1998).

Tobias, C. W.

R. C. Anderson, R. S. Muller, C. W. Tobias, “Chemical surface modification of porous silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 1393–1396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uhlir, A.

A. Uhlir, “Electrolytic shaping of germanium and silicon,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 35, 333–347 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Unno, H.

H. Unno, K. Imai, S. Muramoto, “Dissolution reaction effect on porous-silicon density,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 134, 645–648 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, G.

G. Vincent, “Optical properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2367–2369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wernke, M.

W. Theiss, M. Arntzen, S. Hilbrich, M. Wernke, R. Arens-Fischer, M. G. Berger, “From minutes to months: aging of porous silicon single layers and superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi 190, 15–20 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Winz, K.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, S. T. Frohnhoff, C. Dieker, K. Winz, H. Münder, H. Lüth, M. Arntzen, W. Theiss, “Formation and properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 358, 327–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wongmanerod, C.

C. Wongmanerod, S. Zangooie, H. Arwin, “Nondestructive determination of pore size distribution and specific surface area in thin porous silicon films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. (to be published).

Woollam, J. A.

T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, W. Paulson, R. Hance, “Application of IR variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry to the determination of free carrier concentration depth profiles,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 661–666 (1998).

M. Schubert, B. Reinländer, J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, “Extension of rotating-analyzer ellipsometry to generalized ellipsometry: determination of the dielectric function tensor from uniaxial TiO2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 875–883 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yelon, A.

U. Grüning, S. C. Gujrathi, S. Poulin, Y. Diawara, A. Yelon, “Remote oxygen-containing hydrogen plasma treatment of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 8075–8079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. Y.

P. Y. Yu, M. Cardona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), Chap. 6.
[CrossRef]

Zangooie, S.

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Electrochemical tailoring and optical investigation of advanced refractive index profiles in porous silicon layers,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 195–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Ellipsometric characterization of anisotropic porous silicon Fabry-Perot filters and investigation of temperature effects on capillary condensation efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 850–858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Reversible and irreversible control of optical properties of porous silicon superlattices by thermal oxidation, vapor adsorption, and liquid penetration,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2901–2912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Bjorklund, H. Arwin, “Water interaction with thermally oxidized porous silicon layers,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 4027–4035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Bjorklund, H. Arwin, “Vapor sensitivity of thin porous silicon layers,” Sens. Actuators B 43, 168–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Wongmanerod, S. Zangooie, H. Arwin, “Nondestructive determination of pore size distribution and specific surface area in thin porous silicon films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. (to be published).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046–1048 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Halimaoui, C. Oules, G. Bomchil, A. Bsiesy, F. Gaspard, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, F. Muller, “Electroluminescence in the visible range during anodic oxidation of porous silicon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 304–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Vincent, “Optical properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2367–2369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Mazzoleni, L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2983–2985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S.-F. Chuang, S. D. Collins, R. L. Smith, “Preferential propagation of pores during the formation of porous silicon: a transmission electron microscopy study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 675–677 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Sur. Sci.

C. Pickering, L. T. Canham, D. Brumhead, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of light-emitting porous silicon structures,” Appl. Sur. Sci. 63, 22–26 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

A. Uhlir, “Electrolytic shaping of germanium and silicon,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 35, 333–347 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

A. Janshoff, K.-P. S. Dancil, C. Steinem, D. P. Greiner, V. S.-Y. Lin, C. Gurtner, K. Motesharei, M. J. Sailor, M. R. Ghadiri, “Macroporous p-type silicon Fabry-Perot layers. Fabrication, characterization, and applications in biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12108–12116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Ellipsometric characterization of anisotropic porous silicon Fabry-Perot filters and investigation of temperature effects on capillary condensation efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 850–858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Smith, S. D. Collins, “Porous silicon formation mechanism,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, R1–R22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Berbezier, A. Halimoui, “A microstructural study of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5421–5425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

U. Grüning, S. C. Gujrathi, S. Poulin, Y. Diawara, A. Yelon, “Remote oxygen-containing hydrogen plasma treatment of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 8075–8079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

R. C. Anderson, R. S. Muller, C. W. Tobias, “Chemical surface modification of porous silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 1393–1396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Unno, K. Imai, S. Muramoto, “Dissolution reaction effect on porous-silicon density,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 134, 645–648 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Bjorklund, H. Arwin, “Water interaction with thermally oxidized porous silicon layers,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 4027–4035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Reversible and irreversible control of optical properties of porous silicon superlattices by thermal oxidation, vapor adsorption, and liquid penetration,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2901–2912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, S. T. Frohnhoff, C. Dieker, K. Winz, H. Münder, H. Lüth, M. Arntzen, W. Theiss, “Formation and properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 358, 327–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Zangooie, R. Jansson, H. Arwin, “Electrochemical tailoring and optical investigation of advanced refractive index profiles in porous silicon layers,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 195–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature (London) 353, 335–337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento D

A. Parisini, N. Brunetto, G. Amato, “TEM and photoluminescence characterization of porous-silicon layers from 〈111〉-oriented p+ silicon substrates,” Nuovo Cimento D 18, 1233–1239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Ben-Chorin, F. Möller, F. Koch, “Nonlinear electrical transport in porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2981–2984 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, “Polarization-dependent optical parameters of arbitrarily anisotropic homogeneous layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265–4274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi

W. Theiss, M. Arntzen, S. Hilbrich, M. Wernke, R. Arens-Fischer, M. G. Berger, “From minutes to months: aging of porous silicon single layers and superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi 190, 15–20 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A

G. Kaltsas, A. G. Nassiopoulos, “Frontside bulk silicon micromachining using porous-silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators A 65, 175–180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

S. Zangooie, R. Bjorklund, H. Arwin, “Vapor sensitivity of thin porous silicon layers,” Sens. Actuators B 43, 168–174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Laurell, J. Drott, L. Rosengren, K. Lindström, “Enhanced enzyme activity in silicon integrated enzyme reactors utilizing porous silicon as the coupling matrix,” Sens. Actuators B 31, 161–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. Rep.

W. Theiss, “Optical properties of porous silicon,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 29, 95–192 (1997).

Thin Solid Films

T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, W. Paulson, R. Hance, “Application of IR variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry to the determination of free carrier concentration depth profiles,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 661–666 (1998).

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Buttard, D. Bellet, T. Baumbach, “X-ray diffraction investigation of porous silicon superlattices,” Thin Solid Films 276, 69–72 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Rossow, U. Frotscher, M. Thönissen, M. G. Berger, S. Frohnhoff, H. Münder, W. Richter, “Influence of the formation conditions on the microstructure of porous silicon layers studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 255, 5–8 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Wongmanerod, S. Zangooie, H. Arwin, “Nondestructive determination of pore size distribution and specific surface area in thin porous silicon films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. (to be published).

P. Y. Yu, M. Cardona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), Chap. 6.
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986).
[CrossRef]

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, New York, 1987).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope image of a PS Bragg reflector with five periods. The period next to the ambient is not clearly visible because of charging effects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-normal (angle of incidence of 11°) FTIR spectrum of the Bragg reflector shown in Fig. 1. The feature at approximately 1400 cm-1 is an artifact that is due to the Au standard.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (solid curve) and model-generated (dashed curve) ψ spectra at a 50° angle of incidence. Data generated from the isotropic model (dotted curve) are also shown for comparison. For clarity, only the isotropic fit in the spectral range 5000–7000 cm-1 is shown. The features related to the chemical signatures are marked in the image. The peaks situated at 1723, 2816, 3838, and 4736 cm-1 have an interference origin.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured (solid curve) and model-generated (dashed curve) Δ spectra at a 50° angle of incidence. Data generated from the isotropic model (dotted curve) are also shown for comparison. For clarity, only the isotropic fit in the spectral range 5000–7000 cm-1 is shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Volume porosity of the sample along the ordinary and the extraordinary directions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function of the SP of the PS sample. The values corresponding to the center energies of the major resonances are Si2–Si–H2 stretching, 2137 cm-1; Si3–Si–H stretching, 2112 cm-1; Si2–Si–H2 stretching, 2087 cm-1; Si–O–Si stretching, 1070 cm-1; Si2–Si–H2 scissor mode, 906 cm-1; and Si2–Si–H2 wagging mode, 669 cm-1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Best-Fit Parameters and Corresponding Confidence Intervalsa

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ=RpRa=tanψexpiΔ,
fd=A0+n=1An cosn2πP dD+Bn sinn2πP dD+T dD,
fUL100feSP+fevoid+fd=100%,
fUL100foSP+fovoid+fd=100%,
εω=ε+ε0-εωTO2ωTO2 - ω2 - iωγ - ωp2εω2 + iωγD+j=1nPj2ωj2 - ω2 - iωγLj,
n=2πc2ε0εm*ωp2e2,
ρ=γD2πcε0εωp2.

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