Abstract

Optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) signals of step-index plastic optical fibers (POF’s) and graded-index POF’s were measured with a laser diode and an avalanche photodiode. When bent step-index and graded-index POF’s were used, the OTDR signal behavior differed. The OTDR signal of the bent graded-index POF’s had a step that corresponds to a curvature loss, but the step-index POF’s had a spike signal at a bend, which indicated the occurrence of backscattering. The peak intensity was proportional to the square of the curvature. The refractive-index variation of the bent step-index POF’s was measured, and the dependence of the peak intensity on the curvature was shown to agree with that predicted by the scattering from the refractive-index perturbation.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Koike, “Progress of plastic optical fiber technology,” in Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, 1996), pp. 1.41–1.47.
  3. S. Mohr, “Characterization of plastic optical fibers by optical time-domain reflectometry,” in Specialty Fiber Optic Systems for Mobile Platforms and Plastic Optical Fibers, L. Figueroa, M. Kitazawa, N. E. Lewis, R. E. Steele, D. Varshneya, eds., Proc. SPIE1799, 38–47 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Nowodzinski, P. Jucker, M. V. Uffelen, V. Despres, “OTDR for plastic optical fibers,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 290–295.
  5. S. Zedler, W. Daum, “Damage detection in POF cables by high resolution OTDR,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 258–259.
  6. L. M. Boggs, H. M. Presby, D. Marcuse, “Rapid automatic index profiling of whole-fiber sample: part I,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 58, 867–882 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. J. S. Bates, S. D. Walker, “Evaluation of all-plastic optical fibre computer data link dispersion limits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 996–998 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Gloge, “Impulse response of clad optical multimode fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 801–815 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. W. Snyder, “Excitation and scattering of modes on a dielectric or optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-17, 1138–1144 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Furuya, Y. Suematsu, “Random-bend loss in single-mode and parabolic-index multimode optical fiber cables,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1493–1500 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Sunagawa, Denjikigaku (Electromagnetics) (Iwanami-shoten, Tokyo, 1977), p. 294, in Japanese.
  12. D. Gloge, “Bending loss in multimode fibers with graded and ungraded core index,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2506–2513 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. A. P. Boechat, D. Su, D. R. Hall, D. C. Jones, “Bend loss in large core multimode optical fiber beam delivery systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 321–327 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Giet, M. Odenwald, K.-F. Klein, M. Loch, H. Poisel, G. S. Ohm, O. Ziemann, “Characterization of polymer fibers by using different farfield methods,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 254–255.

1995 (1)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. J. S. Bates, S. D. Walker, “Evaluation of all-plastic optical fibre computer data link dispersion limits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 996–998 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

L. M. Boggs, H. M. Presby, D. Marcuse, “Rapid automatic index profiling of whole-fiber sample: part I,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 58, 867–882 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

D. Gloge, “Impulse response of clad optical multimode fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 801–815 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1969 (1)

A. W. Snyder, “Excitation and scattering of modes on a dielectric or optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-17, 1138–1144 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bates, R. J. S.

R. J. S. Bates, S. D. Walker, “Evaluation of all-plastic optical fibre computer data link dispersion limits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 996–998 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boechat, A. A. P.

Boggs, L. M.

L. M. Boggs, H. M. Presby, D. Marcuse, “Rapid automatic index profiling of whole-fiber sample: part I,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 58, 867–882 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Daum, W.

S. Zedler, W. Daum, “Damage detection in POF cables by high resolution OTDR,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 258–259.

Despres, V.

A. Nowodzinski, P. Jucker, M. V. Uffelen, V. Despres, “OTDR for plastic optical fibers,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 290–295.

Furuya, K.

Giet, S.

S. Giet, M. Odenwald, K.-F. Klein, M. Loch, H. Poisel, G. S. Ohm, O. Ziemann, “Characterization of polymer fibers by using different farfield methods,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 254–255.

Gloge, D.

D. Gloge, “Impulse response of clad optical multimode fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 801–815 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. Gloge, “Bending loss in multimode fibers with graded and ungraded core index,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2506–2513 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, D. R.

Ishigure, T.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. C.

Jucker, P.

A. Nowodzinski, P. Jucker, M. V. Uffelen, V. Despres, “OTDR for plastic optical fibers,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 290–295.

Klein, K.-F.

S. Giet, M. Odenwald, K.-F. Klein, M. Loch, H. Poisel, G. S. Ohm, O. Ziemann, “Characterization of polymer fibers by using different farfield methods,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 254–255.

Koike, Y.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, “Progress of plastic optical fiber technology,” in Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, 1996), pp. 1.41–1.47.

Loch, M.

S. Giet, M. Odenwald, K.-F. Klein, M. Loch, H. Poisel, G. S. Ohm, O. Ziemann, “Characterization of polymer fibers by using different farfield methods,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 254–255.

Marcuse, D.

L. M. Boggs, H. M. Presby, D. Marcuse, “Rapid automatic index profiling of whole-fiber sample: part I,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 58, 867–882 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, S.

S. Mohr, “Characterization of plastic optical fibers by optical time-domain reflectometry,” in Specialty Fiber Optic Systems for Mobile Platforms and Plastic Optical Fibers, L. Figueroa, M. Kitazawa, N. E. Lewis, R. E. Steele, D. Varshneya, eds., Proc. SPIE1799, 38–47 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nihei, E.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nowodzinski, A.

A. Nowodzinski, P. Jucker, M. V. Uffelen, V. Despres, “OTDR for plastic optical fibers,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 290–295.

Odenwald, M.

S. Giet, M. Odenwald, K.-F. Klein, M. Loch, H. Poisel, G. S. Ohm, O. Ziemann, “Characterization of polymer fibers by using different farfield methods,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 254–255.

Ohm, G. S.

S. Giet, M. Odenwald, K.-F. Klein, M. Loch, H. Poisel, G. S. Ohm, O. Ziemann, “Characterization of polymer fibers by using different farfield methods,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 254–255.

Poisel, H.

S. Giet, M. Odenwald, K.-F. Klein, M. Loch, H. Poisel, G. S. Ohm, O. Ziemann, “Characterization of polymer fibers by using different farfield methods,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 254–255.

Presby, H. M.

L. M. Boggs, H. M. Presby, D. Marcuse, “Rapid automatic index profiling of whole-fiber sample: part I,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 58, 867–882 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder, “Excitation and scattering of modes on a dielectric or optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-17, 1138–1144 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Su, D.

Suematsu, Y.

Sunagawa, S.

S. Sunagawa, Denjikigaku (Electromagnetics) (Iwanami-shoten, Tokyo, 1977), p. 294, in Japanese.

Uffelen, M. V.

A. Nowodzinski, P. Jucker, M. V. Uffelen, V. Despres, “OTDR for plastic optical fibers,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 290–295.

Walker, S. D.

R. J. S. Bates, S. D. Walker, “Evaluation of all-plastic optical fibre computer data link dispersion limits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 996–998 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zedler, S.

S. Zedler, W. Daum, “Damage detection in POF cables by high resolution OTDR,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 258–259.

Ziemann, O.

S. Giet, M. Odenwald, K.-F. Klein, M. Loch, H. Poisel, G. S. Ohm, O. Ziemann, “Characterization of polymer fibers by using different farfield methods,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 254–255.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

L. M. Boggs, H. M. Presby, D. Marcuse, “Rapid automatic index profiling of whole-fiber sample: part I,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 58, 867–882 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Gloge, “Impulse response of clad optical multimode fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 801–815 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. J. S. Bates, S. D. Walker, “Evaluation of all-plastic optical fibre computer data link dispersion limits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 996–998 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

A. W. Snyder, “Excitation and scattering of modes on a dielectric or optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-17, 1138–1144 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Y. Koike, “Progress of plastic optical fiber technology,” in Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, 1996), pp. 1.41–1.47.

S. Mohr, “Characterization of plastic optical fibers by optical time-domain reflectometry,” in Specialty Fiber Optic Systems for Mobile Platforms and Plastic Optical Fibers, L. Figueroa, M. Kitazawa, N. E. Lewis, R. E. Steele, D. Varshneya, eds., Proc. SPIE1799, 38–47 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Nowodzinski, P. Jucker, M. V. Uffelen, V. Despres, “OTDR for plastic optical fibers,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 290–295.

S. Zedler, W. Daum, “Damage detection in POF cables by high resolution OTDR,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 258–259.

S. Sunagawa, Denjikigaku (Electromagnetics) (Iwanami-shoten, Tokyo, 1977), p. 294, in Japanese.

S. Giet, M. Odenwald, K.-F. Klein, M. Loch, H. Poisel, G. S. Ohm, O. Ziemann, “Characterization of polymer fibers by using different farfield methods,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 254–255.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for OTDR measurements of a POF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for obtaining the refractive-index distribution of a bent POF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OTDR signal of step-index POF’s. S/N, signal-to-noise ratio.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OTDR signal of graded-index POF’s. S/N, signal-to-noise ratio.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OTDR signal of step-index POF with 15-mm radius of curvature. Five loops, turned 360°, were formed at 2-m intervals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Enlargement of the spikes with several curvatures of bends formed at 10 m from the input edge. Solid curves represent dispersion of the step-index POF’s and the bandwidth limitation of the measurement equipment.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Peak intensity of the OTDR signal (open circles) and curvature loss (filled circles) as a function of the curvature 1/R of the bent step-index POF. Squares represent peak intensity after correction for dispersion of the step-index POF and the measurement equipment.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

OTDR signal of the bent graded-index POF with a loop having a 20-mm radius of curvature.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Curvature loss per loop of the graded-index POF as a function of curvature.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Interference patterns of (a) straight POF and (b) bent POF with 38-mm radius of curvature.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Difference in optical path length of straight POF and bent POF with 38-mm radius of curvature. The solid fitting curve was obtained with Eq. (4).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Refractive-index variation of a bent step-index POF as a function of curvature.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Calculated OTDR signals scattered from various length defects with the same uniform scattering intensity as for Rayleigh scattering.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Angular distributions of normalized output intensity from the step-index (SI) POF and graded-index (GI) POF’s.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Resolution of OTDR signals as a function of step-index POF length.

Equations (12)

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Id=I0αsg Wc2n1exp-2αz,
dσdΩ=π2n2-12Nm2λ4cos2 ϕ cos2 θ + sin2 ϕ,
δn=Δnx/R=ξRx/a -axa=n1-n0 |x|>a,
δφ=-aa δndy=2n1-n0a2-x21/2+2ξRx/aa2-x21/2.
It  0Ldz - αszexp-2αzH2z, ωGω×expiωt-2n0zcdω,
Hz, ω=cosh z/4lc+θl/θs2 sinh z/4lccosh σωz/4lc+σωθl/θs2 sinh σωz/4lc, σω=1+i 2n1lcθsc ln 10 ω1/2,
Jr, t=iωε0ε-εrErexp-iωt,
ε=n2,
Jr, t=-iωε0nδnErexp-ωt,
dpt0dtVJr, t0dr.
dPdΩ=μ04π2cd2pdt221-sin2 φ sin2 θ=-μ0ε0nδn24π2c ω4VErdr21-sin2 φ sin2 θ,
ΔL=c2nW2+0.44LF2+0.44B21/2,

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