Abstract

A high-frequency-modulation spectrometer with a lead-salt diode laser operating in the ν 4 band of CH4 at 7.8 µm was used as a fast chemical sensor to measure ambient methane concentrations of 2 ppmv (parts in 106 volume-mixing ratio) with a time resolution of 10 Hz for micrometeorological flux measurements. To assess the quality of the data on methane emissions from rice paddy fields, we compared eddy-correlation measurements with simultaneously recorded emission data from the state-of-the-art closed-chamber technique and showed that the closed-chamber measurements were 60%–90% higher than were the eddy-correlation measurements during the campaign. This outcome demonstrates that diode-laser spectroscopy is a valuable tool for quality assurance.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  32. R. T. McMillen, “An eddy correlation technique with extended applicability to nonsimple terrain,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 43, 231–239 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  41. O. A. Folorunso, D. E. Rolston, “Spatial variability of field-measured denitrification gas fluxes,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 1214–1218 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  42. M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M. J. Shearer, R. W. Dalluge, L. Ren, C. L. Duan, “Factors affecting methane emissions from rice fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25219–25231 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1999

1998

See, for example, P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 197–236 (1998), and 183 references therein.

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M. J. Shearer, R. W. Dalluge, L. Ren, C. L. Duan, “Factors affecting methane emissions from rice fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25219–25231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, F. J. Dentener, “Changing concentration, lifetime, and climate forcing of atmospheric methane,” Tellus Part B 50, 128–132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

I. J. Simpson, G. W. Thurtell, G. E. Kidd, M. Lin, T. H. Demertriades-Shah, I. D. Flitcroft, E. T. Kanemasu, D. Nie, K. F. Bronson, H. U. Neue, “Tunable diode laser measurements of methane fluxes from an irrigated rice paddy field in the Philippines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7283–7290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Fowler, K. J. Hargreaves, U. Skiba, R. Milne, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. Moncrieff, I. J. Beverland, M. W. Gallagher, “Measurements of CH4 and N2O fluxes at the landscape scale using micrometeorological methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 351, 363–370 (1995).

D. C. Hovde, T. P. Meyers, A. C. Stanton, D. R. Matt, “Methane emissions from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, “Measurement of trace gas fluxes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 351, 371–382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Foken, R. Dlugi, G. Kramm, “On the determination of dry deposition and emission of gaseous compounds at the biosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meteorol. Z. 4, 91–97 (1995).

1994

F. G. Wienhold, H. Frahm, G. W. Harris, “Measurements of N2O fluxes from fertilized grassland using a fast response tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16557–16563 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, J. Schandl, “Real-time signal-processing concepts for trace-gas analysis by diode-laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093–3108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the northern wetlands study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1511–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–305 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Fan, S. C. Wofsy, P. S. Bakwin, D. J. Jacob, S. M. Anderson, P. L. Kebabian, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Fitzjerald, “Micrometeorological measurements of CH4 and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 16627–16643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M.-J. Wang, L. Ren, “Methane emissions from rice fields in China,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 979–981 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Mosier, D. Schimel, D. Valentine, K. Bronson, W. Parton, “Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in native, fertilized and cultivated grasslands,” Nature 350, 330–332 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, “Atmospheric methane: recent global trends,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 24, 549–553 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Schuepp, M. Y. Leclerc, J. I. McPherson, R. L. Dejardins, “Footprint prediction of scalar fluxes from analytical solutions of the diffusion equation,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 50, 355–359 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. Schütz, W. Seiler, R. Conrad, “Processes involved in formation and emission of CH4 in rice paddies,” Biogeochemistry 7, 33–53 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Graedel, P. J. Crutzen, “The changing atmosphere,” Sci. Am. 257(9), 7–14 (1989).

H. Schütz, A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, H. Rennenberg, W. Seiler, “A 3-year continuous record on the influence of daytime, season, and fertilizer treatment on CH4 emission rates from an Italian rice paddy,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16405–16416 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

R. T. McMillen, “An eddy correlation technique with extended applicability to nonsimple terrain,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 43, 231–239 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

C. J. Moore, “Frequency response corrections for eddy correlation systems,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 37, 17–32 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, W. Seiler, “CH4 emission during a cultivation period from an Italian rice paddy,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 11803–11814 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

W. Seiler, A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, D. Scharffe, “CH4 emission from rice paddies,” J. Atmos. Chem. 1, 241–268 (1984).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Folorunso, D. E. Rolston, “Spatial variability of field-measured denitrification gas fluxes,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 1214–1218 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

E. Othaki, T. Matsui, “Infrared device for simultaneous measurement of fluctuations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 24, 109–114 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Craig, C. C. Chou, “Methane: the record in polar ice cores,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 1221–1224 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

R. J. Cicerone, J. D. Shetter, “Sources of atmospheric CH4: measurements in rice paddies and a discussion,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7203–7209 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

E. K. Webb, G. I. Pearman, R. Leuning, “Correction of flux measurements for chemistry effects due to heat and water vapour transfer,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 85–100 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972

J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, O. R. Coté, “Spectral characteristics of surface-layer turbulence,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 563–589 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S. M.

S. M. Fan, S. C. Wofsy, P. S. Bakwin, D. J. Jacob, S. M. Anderson, P. L. Kebabian, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Fitzjerald, “Micrometeorological measurements of CH4 and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 16627–16643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bakwin, P. S.

S. M. Fan, S. C. Wofsy, P. S. Bakwin, D. J. Jacob, S. M. Anderson, P. L. Kebabian, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Fitzjerald, “Micrometeorological measurements of CH4 and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 16627–16643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Beever, D.

D. Beever, O. van Cleemput, J. W. Czerkawski, M. Gibbs, K. Johnson, R. Leng, A. Mosier, W. H. Patric, J. Rowe, K. A. Smith, J. Wallace, R. Wassmann, “Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture,” (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1992).

Beverland, I. J.

D. Fowler, K. J. Hargreaves, U. Skiba, R. Milne, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. Moncrieff, I. J. Beverland, M. W. Gallagher, “Measurements of CH4 and N2O fluxes at the landscape scale using micrometeorological methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 351, 363–370 (1995).

Billesbach, D.

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–305 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Braatz, B. V.

B. V. Braatz, K. B. Hogan, “Sustainable rice productivity and CH4 reduction plan” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 1991).

Bronson, K.

A. Mosier, D. Schimel, D. Valentine, K. Bronson, W. Parton, “Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in native, fertilized and cultivated grasslands,” Nature 350, 330–332 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bronson, K. F.

I. J. Simpson, G. W. Thurtell, G. E. Kidd, M. Lin, T. H. Demertriades-Shah, I. D. Flitcroft, E. T. Kanemasu, D. Nie, K. F. Bronson, H. U. Neue, “Tunable diode laser measurements of methane fluxes from an irrigated rice paddy field in the Philippines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7283–7290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. C.

H. Craig, C. C. Chou, “Methane: the record in polar ice cores,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 1221–1224 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cicerone, R. J.

R. J. Cicerone, J. D. Shetter, “Sources of atmospheric CH4: measurements in rice paddies and a discussion,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7203–7209 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Clement, R. J.

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–305 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, R.

H. Schütz, A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, H. Rennenberg, W. Seiler, “A 3-year continuous record on the influence of daytime, season, and fertilizer treatment on CH4 emission rates from an Italian rice paddy,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16405–16416 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Schütz, W. Seiler, R. Conrad, “Processes involved in formation and emission of CH4 in rice paddies,” Biogeochemistry 7, 33–53 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. Seiler, A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, D. Scharffe, “CH4 emission from rice paddies,” J. Atmos. Chem. 1, 241–268 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Coté, O. R.

J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, O. R. Coté, “Spectral characteristics of surface-layer turbulence,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 563–589 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Craig, H.

H. Craig, C. C. Chou, “Methane: the record in polar ice cores,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 1221–1224 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P. J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, F. J. Dentener, “Changing concentration, lifetime, and climate forcing of atmospheric methane,” Tellus Part B 50, 128–132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Graedel, P. J. Crutzen, “The changing atmosphere,” Sci. Am. 257(9), 7–14 (1989).

Czerkawski, J. W.

D. Beever, O. van Cleemput, J. W. Czerkawski, M. Gibbs, K. Johnson, R. Leng, A. Mosier, W. H. Patric, J. Rowe, K. A. Smith, J. Wallace, R. Wassmann, “Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture,” (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1992).

Dalluge, R. W.

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M. J. Shearer, R. W. Dalluge, L. Ren, C. L. Duan, “Factors affecting methane emissions from rice fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25219–25231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dejardins, R. L.

P. Schuepp, M. Y. Leclerc, J. I. McPherson, R. L. Dejardins, “Footprint prediction of scalar fluxes from analytical solutions of the diffusion equation,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 50, 355–359 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Demertriades-Shah, T. H.

I. J. Simpson, G. W. Thurtell, G. E. Kidd, M. Lin, T. H. Demertriades-Shah, I. D. Flitcroft, E. T. Kanemasu, D. Nie, K. F. Bronson, H. U. Neue, “Tunable diode laser measurements of methane fluxes from an irrigated rice paddy field in the Philippines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7283–7290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

den Hartog, G.

G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the northern wetlands study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1511–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dentener, F. J.

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, F. J. Dentener, “Changing concentration, lifetime, and climate forcing of atmospheric methane,” Tellus Part B 50, 128–132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dlugi, R.

T. Foken, R. Dlugi, G. Kramm, “On the determination of dry deposition and emission of gaseous compounds at the biosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meteorol. Z. 4, 91–97 (1995).

Duan, C. L.

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M. J. Shearer, R. W. Dalluge, L. Ren, C. L. Duan, “Factors affecting methane emissions from rice fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25219–25231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, G. C.

G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the northern wetlands study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1511–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. M.

S. M. Fan, S. C. Wofsy, P. S. Bakwin, D. J. Jacob, S. M. Anderson, P. L. Kebabian, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Fitzjerald, “Micrometeorological measurements of CH4 and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 16627–16643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fitzjerald, D. R.

S. M. Fan, S. C. Wofsy, P. S. Bakwin, D. J. Jacob, S. M. Anderson, P. L. Kebabian, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Fitzjerald, “Micrometeorological measurements of CH4 and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 16627–16643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1988).

Flitcroft, I. D.

I. J. Simpson, G. W. Thurtell, G. E. Kidd, M. Lin, T. H. Demertriades-Shah, I. D. Flitcroft, E. T. Kanemasu, D. Nie, K. F. Bronson, H. U. Neue, “Tunable diode laser measurements of methane fluxes from an irrigated rice paddy field in the Philippines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7283–7290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Foken, T.

T. Foken, R. Dlugi, G. Kramm, “On the determination of dry deposition and emission of gaseous compounds at the biosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meteorol. Z. 4, 91–97 (1995).

Foken, Th.

P. Werle, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, Th. Foken, G. Kramm, H. Müller, “Analysis of time series data: a time domain stability criterion for stationarity tests,” in Proceedings of the EUROTRAC Symposium 1996, P. M. Borrell, P. Borel, T. Cvitas, K. Kelly, W. Seiler, eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southampton, UK, 1996), pp. 703–707.

Folorunso, O. A.

O. A. Folorunso, D. E. Rolston, “Spatial variability of field-measured denitrification gas fluxes,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 1214–1218 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, D.

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D. Fowler, K. J. Hargreaves, U. Skiba, R. Milne, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. Moncrieff, I. J. Beverland, M. W. Gallagher, “Measurements of CH4 and N2O fluxes at the landscape scale using micrometeorological methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 351, 363–370 (1995).

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D. Beever, O. van Cleemput, J. W. Czerkawski, M. Gibbs, K. Johnson, R. Leng, A. Mosier, W. H. Patric, J. Rowe, K. A. Smith, J. Wallace, R. Wassmann, “Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture,” (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1992).

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D. Fowler, K. J. Hargreaves, U. Skiba, R. Milne, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. Moncrieff, I. J. Beverland, M. W. Gallagher, “Measurements of CH4 and N2O fluxes at the landscape scale using micrometeorological methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 351, 363–370 (1995).

Harris, G. W.

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H. Schütz, A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, H. Rennenberg, W. Seiler, “A 3-year continuous record on the influence of daytime, season, and fertilizer treatment on CH4 emission rates from an Italian rice paddy,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16405–16416 (1989).
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A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, W. Seiler, “CH4 emission during a cultivation period from an Italian rice paddy,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 11803–11814 (1986).
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D. C. Hovde, T. P. Meyers, A. C. Stanton, D. R. Matt, “Methane emissions from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
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D. Beever, O. van Cleemput, J. W. Czerkawski, M. Gibbs, K. Johnson, R. Leng, A. Mosier, W. H. Patric, J. Rowe, K. A. Smith, J. Wallace, R. Wassmann, “Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture,” (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1992).

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M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M. J. Shearer, R. W. Dalluge, L. Ren, C. L. Duan, “Factors affecting methane emissions from rice fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25219–25231 (1998).
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J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, O. R. Coté, “Spectral characteristics of surface-layer turbulence,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 563–589 (1972).
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I. J. Simpson, G. W. Thurtell, G. E. Kidd, M. Lin, T. H. Demertriades-Shah, I. D. Flitcroft, E. T. Kanemasu, D. Nie, K. F. Bronson, H. U. Neue, “Tunable diode laser measurements of methane fluxes from an irrigated rice paddy field in the Philippines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7283–7290 (1995).
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M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, “Measurement of trace gas fluxes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 351, 371–382 (1995).
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G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the northern wetlands study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1511–1517 (1994).
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I. J. Simpson, G. W. Thurtell, G. E. Kidd, M. Lin, T. H. Demertriades-Shah, I. D. Flitcroft, E. T. Kanemasu, D. Nie, K. F. Bronson, H. U. Neue, “Tunable diode laser measurements of methane fluxes from an irrigated rice paddy field in the Philippines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7283–7290 (1995).
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S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–305 (1992).
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S. M. Fan, S. C. Wofsy, P. S. Bakwin, D. J. Jacob, S. M. Anderson, P. L. Kebabian, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Fitzjerald, “Micrometeorological measurements of CH4 and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 16627–16643 (1992).
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P. Werle, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, Th. Foken, G. Kramm, H. Müller, “Analysis of time series data: a time domain stability criterion for stationarity tests,” in Proceedings of the EUROTRAC Symposium 1996, P. M. Borrell, P. Borel, T. Cvitas, K. Kelly, W. Seiler, eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southampton, UK, 1996), pp. 703–707.

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P. Werle, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, Th. Foken, G. Kramm, H. Müller, “Analysis of time series data: a time domain stability criterion for stationarity tests,” in Proceedings of the EUROTRAC Symposium 1996, P. M. Borrell, P. Borel, T. Cvitas, K. Kelly, W. Seiler, eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southampton, UK, 1996), pp. 703–707.

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P. Schuepp, M. Y. Leclerc, J. I. McPherson, R. L. Dejardins, “Footprint prediction of scalar fluxes from analytical solutions of the diffusion equation,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 50, 355–359 (1990).
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Leuning, R.

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Lin, M.

I. J. Simpson, G. W. Thurtell, G. E. Kidd, M. Lin, T. H. Demertriades-Shah, I. D. Flitcroft, E. T. Kanemasu, D. Nie, K. F. Bronson, H. U. Neue, “Tunable diode laser measurements of methane fluxes from an irrigated rice paddy field in the Philippines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7283–7290 (1995).
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E. Othaki, T. Matsui, “Infrared device for simultaneous measurement of fluctuations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 24, 109–114 (1982).
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D. C. Hovde, T. P. Meyers, A. C. Stanton, D. R. Matt, “Methane emissions from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, “Measurement of trace gas fluxes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 351, 371–382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Fan, S. C. Wofsy, P. S. Bakwin, D. J. Jacob, S. M. Anderson, P. L. Kebabian, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Fitzjerald, “Micrometeorological measurements of CH4 and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 16627–16643 (1992).
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[CrossRef]

Meyers, T. P.

D. C. Hovde, T. P. Meyers, A. C. Stanton, D. R. Matt, “Methane emissions from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Milne, R.

D. Fowler, K. J. Hargreaves, U. Skiba, R. Milne, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. Moncrieff, I. J. Beverland, M. W. Gallagher, “Measurements of CH4 and N2O fluxes at the landscape scale using micrometeorological methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 351, 363–370 (1995).

Minami, K.

H. P. Patrick, K. Minami, R. L. Suss, “Report of the External Advisory Committee on an interregional research program on methane emission from rice fields” (International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, 1994).

Moncrieff, J. B.

D. Fowler, K. J. Hargreaves, U. Skiba, R. Milne, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. Moncrieff, I. J. Beverland, M. W. Gallagher, “Measurements of CH4 and N2O fluxes at the landscape scale using micrometeorological methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 351, 363–370 (1995).

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[CrossRef]

D. Beever, O. van Cleemput, J. W. Czerkawski, M. Gibbs, K. Johnson, R. Leng, A. Mosier, W. H. Patric, J. Rowe, K. A. Smith, J. Wallace, R. Wassmann, “Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture,” (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1992).

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P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, Th. Foken, G. Kramm, H. Müller, “Analysis of time series data: a time domain stability criterion for stationarity tests,” in Proceedings of the EUROTRAC Symposium 1996, P. M. Borrell, P. Borel, T. Cvitas, K. Kelly, W. Seiler, eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southampton, UK, 1996), pp. 703–707.

Müller, H.

P. Werle, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, Th. Foken, G. Kramm, H. Müller, “Analysis of time series data: a time domain stability criterion for stationarity tests,” in Proceedings of the EUROTRAC Symposium 1996, P. M. Borrell, P. Borel, T. Cvitas, K. Kelly, W. Seiler, eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southampton, UK, 1996), pp. 703–707.

R. Kormann, H. Müller, P. Werle, “Eddy flux measurements of methane over the fen Murnauer Moos, 11°11′E, 47°39′N, using a fast tunable diode laser spectrometer,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

Nelson, D. D.

M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, “Measurement of trace gas fluxes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 351, 371–382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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I. J. Simpson, G. W. Thurtell, G. E. Kidd, M. Lin, T. H. Demertriades-Shah, I. D. Flitcroft, E. T. Kanemasu, D. Nie, K. F. Bronson, H. U. Neue, “Tunable diode laser measurements of methane fluxes from an irrigated rice paddy field in the Philippines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7283–7290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the northern wetlands study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1511–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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I. J. Simpson, G. W. Thurtell, G. E. Kidd, M. Lin, T. H. Demertriades-Shah, I. D. Flitcroft, E. T. Kanemasu, D. Nie, K. F. Bronson, H. U. Neue, “Tunable diode laser measurements of methane fluxes from an irrigated rice paddy field in the Philippines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7283–7290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Othaki, E.

E. Othaki, T. Matsui, “Infrared device for simultaneous measurement of fluctuations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 24, 109–114 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Parton, W.

A. Mosier, D. Schimel, D. Valentine, K. Bronson, W. Parton, “Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in native, fertilized and cultivated grasslands,” Nature 350, 330–332 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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D. Beever, O. van Cleemput, J. W. Czerkawski, M. Gibbs, K. Johnson, R. Leng, A. Mosier, W. H. Patric, J. Rowe, K. A. Smith, J. Wallace, R. Wassmann, “Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture,” (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1992).

Patrick, H. P.

H. P. Patrick, K. Minami, R. L. Suss, “Report of the External Advisory Committee on an interregional research program on methane emission from rice fields” (International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, 1994).

Pearman, G. I.

E. K. Webb, G. I. Pearman, R. Leuning, “Correction of flux measurements for chemistry effects due to heat and water vapour transfer,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 85–100 (1980).
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Popov, A.

Press, W. H.

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Rasmussen, R. A.

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M. J. Shearer, R. W. Dalluge, L. Ren, C. L. Duan, “Factors affecting methane emissions from rice fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25219–25231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M.-J. Wang, L. Ren, “Methane emissions from rice fields in China,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 979–981 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, “Atmospheric methane: recent global trends,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 24, 549–553 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ren, L.

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M. J. Shearer, R. W. Dalluge, L. Ren, C. L. Duan, “Factors affecting methane emissions from rice fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25219–25231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M.-J. Wang, L. Ren, “Methane emissions from rice fields in China,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 979–981 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rennenberg, H.

H. Schütz, A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, H. Rennenberg, W. Seiler, “A 3-year continuous record on the influence of daytime, season, and fertilizer treatment on CH4 emission rates from an Italian rice paddy,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16405–16416 (1989).
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D. Beever, O. van Cleemput, J. W. Czerkawski, M. Gibbs, K. Johnson, R. Leng, A. Mosier, W. H. Patric, J. Rowe, K. A. Smith, J. Wallace, R. Wassmann, “Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture,” (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1992).

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Scharffe, D.

W. Seiler, A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, D. Scharffe, “CH4 emission from rice paddies,” J. Atmos. Chem. 1, 241–268 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Scheumann, B.

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, J. Schandl, “Real-time signal-processing concepts for trace-gas analysis by diode-laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093–3108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schimel, D.

A. Mosier, D. Schimel, D. Valentine, K. Bronson, W. Parton, “Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in native, fertilized and cultivated grasslands,” Nature 350, 330–332 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schuepp, P.

P. Schuepp, M. Y. Leclerc, J. I. McPherson, R. L. Dejardins, “Footprint prediction of scalar fluxes from analytical solutions of the diffusion equation,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 50, 355–359 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, H.

H. Schütz, W. Seiler, R. Conrad, “Processes involved in formation and emission of CH4 in rice paddies,” Biogeochemistry 7, 33–53 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Schütz, A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, H. Rennenberg, W. Seiler, “A 3-year continuous record on the influence of daytime, season, and fertilizer treatment on CH4 emission rates from an Italian rice paddy,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16405–16416 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Seiler, W.

H. Schütz, A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, H. Rennenberg, W. Seiler, “A 3-year continuous record on the influence of daytime, season, and fertilizer treatment on CH4 emission rates from an Italian rice paddy,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16405–16416 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Schütz, W. Seiler, R. Conrad, “Processes involved in formation and emission of CH4 in rice paddies,” Biogeochemistry 7, 33–53 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, W. Seiler, “CH4 emission during a cultivation period from an Italian rice paddy,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 11803–11814 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. Seiler, A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, D. Scharffe, “CH4 emission from rice paddies,” J. Atmos. Chem. 1, 241–268 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shearer, M. J.

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M. J. Shearer, R. W. Dalluge, L. Ren, C. L. Duan, “Factors affecting methane emissions from rice fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25219–25231 (1998).
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Simpson, I. J.

I. J. Simpson, G. W. Thurtell, G. E. Kidd, M. Lin, T. H. Demertriades-Shah, I. D. Flitcroft, E. T. Kanemasu, D. Nie, K. F. Bronson, H. U. Neue, “Tunable diode laser measurements of methane fluxes from an irrigated rice paddy field in the Philippines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7283–7290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Skiba, U.

D. Fowler, K. J. Hargreaves, U. Skiba, R. Milne, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. Moncrieff, I. J. Beverland, M. W. Gallagher, “Measurements of CH4 and N2O fluxes at the landscape scale using micrometeorological methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 351, 363–370 (1995).

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. A.

D. Beever, O. van Cleemput, J. W. Czerkawski, M. Gibbs, K. Johnson, R. Leng, A. Mosier, W. H. Patric, J. Rowe, K. A. Smith, J. Wallace, R. Wassmann, “Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture,” (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1992).

Stanton, A. C.

D. C. Hovde, T. P. Meyers, A. C. Stanton, D. R. Matt, “Methane emissions from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suss, R. L.

H. P. Patrick, K. Minami, R. L. Suss, “Report of the External Advisory Committee on an interregional research program on methane emission from rice fields” (International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, 1994).

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1988).

Thurtell, G. W.

I. J. Simpson, G. W. Thurtell, G. E. Kidd, M. Lin, T. H. Demertriades-Shah, I. D. Flitcroft, E. T. Kanemasu, D. Nie, K. F. Bronson, H. U. Neue, “Tunable diode laser measurements of methane fluxes from an irrigated rice paddy field in the Philippines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7283–7290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the northern wetlands study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1511–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ullman, F. G.

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–305 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, D.

A. Mosier, D. Schimel, D. Valentine, K. Bronson, W. Parton, “Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in native, fertilized and cultivated grasslands,” Nature 350, 330–332 (1991).
[CrossRef]

van Cleemput, O.

D. Beever, O. van Cleemput, J. W. Czerkawski, M. Gibbs, K. Johnson, R. Leng, A. Mosier, W. H. Patric, J. Rowe, K. A. Smith, J. Wallace, R. Wassmann, “Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture,” (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1992).

Verma, S. B.

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–305 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Verry, E. S.

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–305 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1988).

Wallace, J.

D. Beever, O. van Cleemput, J. W. Czerkawski, M. Gibbs, K. Johnson, R. Leng, A. Mosier, W. H. Patric, J. Rowe, K. A. Smith, J. Wallace, R. Wassmann, “Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture,” (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1992).

Wang, M.-J.

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M.-J. Wang, L. Ren, “Methane emissions from rice fields in China,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 979–981 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wassmann, R.

D. Beever, O. van Cleemput, J. W. Czerkawski, M. Gibbs, K. Johnson, R. Leng, A. Mosier, W. H. Patric, J. Rowe, K. A. Smith, J. Wallace, R. Wassmann, “Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture,” (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1992).

Webb, E. K.

E. K. Webb, G. I. Pearman, R. Leuning, “Correction of flux measurements for chemistry effects due to heat and water vapour transfer,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 85–100 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, A. Popov, “Application of antimonide lasers for gas sensing in the 3–4-µm range,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1494–1501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 197–236 (1998), and 183 references therein.

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, J. Schandl, “Real-time signal-processing concepts for trace-gas analysis by diode-laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093–3108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, Th. Foken, G. Kramm, H. Müller, “Analysis of time series data: a time domain stability criterion for stationarity tests,” in Proceedings of the EUROTRAC Symposium 1996, P. M. Borrell, P. Borel, T. Cvitas, K. Kelly, W. Seiler, eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southampton, UK, 1996), pp. 703–707.

R. Kormann, H. Müller, P. Werle, “Eddy flux measurements of methane over the fen Murnauer Moos, 11°11′E, 47°39′N, using a fast tunable diode laser spectrometer,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

Wienhold, F. G.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Frahm, G. W. Harris, “Measurements of N2O fluxes from fertilized grassland using a fast response tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16557–16563 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wofsy, S. C.

S. M. Fan, S. C. Wofsy, P. S. Bakwin, D. J. Jacob, S. M. Anderson, P. L. Kebabian, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Fitzjerald, “Micrometeorological measurements of CH4 and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 16627–16643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wyngaard, J. C.

J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, O. R. Coté, “Spectral characteristics of surface-layer turbulence,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 563–589 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, “Measurement of trace gas fluxes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 351, 371–382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Fowler, K. J. Hargreaves, U. Skiba, R. Milne, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. Moncrieff, I. J. Beverland, M. W. Gallagher, “Measurements of CH4 and N2O fluxes at the landscape scale using micrometeorological methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 351, 363–370 (1995).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Biogeochemistry

H. Schütz, W. Seiler, R. Conrad, “Processes involved in formation and emission of CH4 in rice paddies,” Biogeochemistry 7, 33–53 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol.

E. Othaki, T. Matsui, “Infrared device for simultaneous measurement of fluctuations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 24, 109–114 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–305 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol.

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[CrossRef]

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M.-J. Wang, L. Ren, “Methane emissions from rice fields in China,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 979–981 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the northern wetlands study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1511–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Simpson, G. W. Thurtell, G. E. Kidd, M. Lin, T. H. Demertriades-Shah, I. D. Flitcroft, E. T. Kanemasu, D. Nie, K. F. Bronson, H. U. Neue, “Tunable diode laser measurements of methane fluxes from an irrigated rice paddy field in the Philippines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7283–7290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Fan, S. C. Wofsy, P. S. Bakwin, D. J. Jacob, S. M. Anderson, P. L. Kebabian, J. B. McManus, C. E. Kolb, D. R. Fitzjerald, “Micrometeorological measurements of CH4 and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 16627–16643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Wienhold, H. Frahm, G. W. Harris, “Measurements of N2O fluxes from fertilized grassland using a fast response tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16557–16563 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, W. Seiler, “CH4 emission during a cultivation period from an Italian rice paddy,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 11803–11814 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Schütz, A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, H. Rennenberg, W. Seiler, “A 3-year continuous record on the influence of daytime, season, and fertilizer treatment on CH4 emission rates from an Italian rice paddy,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16405–16416 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. A. K. Kahlil, R. A. Rasmussen, M. J. Shearer, R. W. Dalluge, L. Ren, C. L. Duan, “Factors affecting methane emissions from rice fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25219–25231 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meteorol. Z.

T. Foken, R. Dlugi, G. Kramm, “On the determination of dry deposition and emission of gaseous compounds at the biosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meteorol. Z. 4, 91–97 (1995).

Nature

A. Mosier, D. Schimel, D. Valentine, K. Bronson, W. Parton, “Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in native, fertilized and cultivated grasslands,” Nature 350, 330–332 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, J. Schandl, “Real-time signal-processing concepts for trace-gas analysis by diode-laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093–3108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London

D. Fowler, K. J. Hargreaves, U. Skiba, R. Milne, M. S. Zahniser, J. B. Moncrieff, I. J. Beverland, M. W. Gallagher, “Measurements of CH4 and N2O fluxes at the landscape scale using micrometeorological methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 351, 363–370 (1995).

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A

M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, “Measurement of trace gas fluxes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 351, 371–382 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.

J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, O. R. Coté, “Spectral characteristics of surface-layer turbulence,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 563–589 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Webb, G. I. Pearman, R. Leuning, “Correction of flux measurements for chemistry effects due to heat and water vapour transfer,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 85–100 (1980).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A

See, for example, P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 197–236 (1998), and 183 references therein.

Tellus Part B

J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, F. J. Dentener, “Changing concentration, lifetime, and climate forcing of atmospheric methane,” Tellus Part B 50, 128–132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Beever, O. van Cleemput, J. W. Czerkawski, M. Gibbs, K. Johnson, R. Leng, A. Mosier, W. H. Patric, J. Rowe, K. A. Smith, J. Wallace, R. Wassmann, “Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture,” (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1992).

H. P. Patrick, K. Minami, R. L. Suss, “Report of the External Advisory Committee on an interregional research program on methane emission from rice fields” (International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, 1994).

D. H. Lenschow, B. B. Hicks, eds., Global Tropospheric Chemistry: Chemical Fluxes in the Global Atmosphere (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Co., 1989).

World Rice Statistics 1990 [International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines, 1991].

B. V. Braatz, K. B. Hogan, “Sustainable rice productivity and CH4 reduction plan” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 1991).

J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins, J. J. Ephraums, eds., Climate Change: the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Scientific Assessment (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990).

J. T. Houghton, B. A. Callander, S. K. Varney, eds., Climate Change 1992: The Supplemental Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

P. Werle, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, Th. Foken, G. Kramm, H. Müller, “Analysis of time series data: a time domain stability criterion for stationarity tests,” in Proceedings of the EUROTRAC Symposium 1996, P. M. Borrell, P. Borel, T. Cvitas, K. Kelly, W. Seiler, eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southampton, UK, 1996), pp. 703–707.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1988).

R. Kormann, H. Müller, P. Werle, “Eddy flux measurements of methane over the fen Murnauer Moos, 11°11′E, 47°39′N, using a fast tunable diode laser spectrometer,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Absorption spectrum of CH4 and atmospheric water plotted versus the wavelength. For sensitive detection of methane the spectral ranges at approximately 3.3 µm (for ν 3) and 7.8 µm (for ν 4) are well suited. A lead-salt device operating near 7.8 µm was selected. For injection currents between 400 and 600 mA at temperatures of (b) 85 K, (c) 90 K, and (d) 95 K, single-mode operation with an average power level of 200 µW was ensured.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Signal-processing scheme with the implementation of the single-tone and the two-tone techniques. The main elements in the data processing are signal averaging, filtering, intensity normalization, and line locking. (b) Prior to signal averaging all spectra were drift corrected. (c) The digital filter processes background corrections. REF, reference signal; MEAS, measured signal; MEAS¯, averaged measured signal; BGR, background signal; CAL, calibration signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

High-FM spectrometer for methane sensing with all the control electronics for eddy-correlation trace-gas flux measurements together with the layout of the optical sensor that is based on a small-volume (0.3-l) Herriott cell. The nondispersive IR H2O–CO2 sensor is mounted behind the measurement paths of the ultrasonic anemometer and the gas inlet for the spectrometer. OAP, off-axis parabola.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of the data analysis: Raw data from the sonic anemometer and the spectrometer were detrended, and the covariance and the cospectra were calculated to determine the time lag τ d between the wind and the concentration measurements. An Allan variance analysis38 was used to check the stationary conditions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Setup for the field eddy-correlation and the closed-chamber measurements. 3-D, three dimensional. (b) Measurement mast located in the downwind direction that was north of the closed chambers in the center of the field with several hundred meters of fetch in all southern directions. The distributions of (c) the wind speed and (d) the wind direction at the site. Shown is a pronounced north–south distribution of the wind directions with winds from the Mediterranean sea moving toward the Swiss alps.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time-series data for (a) the horizontal wind direction and (b) the wind direction. (c) A polar plot of both wind directions that illustrates stable conditions. The measurement mast was located in the center of the polar plot. Detrended time-series data of the fluctuations of (d) the vertical wind w′ and (e) the CH4 concentrations c′ as determined at a 10-Hz rate. (f) After a time-lag correction, (g) the corresponding flux cw′ was calculated. (h) Spectra that were analyzed to guarantee that the high-frequency part of the flux was completely measured,36 and (i) an Allan variance analysis after the application of a detrending procedure confirmed the stability for averaging.37,38

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Time-series data of the methane flux plotted versus (b) the wind direction and (c) the corresponding footprint as indicators for the overlap of closed-chamber data and eddy-correlation measurements.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Methane fluxes derived from measurements obtained by use of the closed-chamber (filled squares) and the eddy-correlation, i.e., micrometeorlogic, (filled circles) methods. The straight lines at 11 and 6.5 on the left-hand axis are for orientation only. (b) Decrease in the ratio of the closed-chamber measurements to the eddy correlation with time. This decrease indicates that 60%–90% higher fluxes were obtained with the closed-chamber measurements during the measurement period.

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