Abstract

Distributed-feedback quantum-cascade (QC) lasers are expected to form the heart of the next-generation mid-IR laser absorption spectrometers, especially as they are applied to measurements of trace gases in a variety of environments. The incorporation of room-temperature-operable, single-mode QC lasers should result in highly compact and rugged sensors for real-world applications. We report preliminary results on the performance of a laser absorption spectrometer that uses a QC laser operating at room temperature in a quasi-cw mode in conjunction with balanced ratiometric detection. We have demonstrated sensitivities for N2O [10 parts in 106 volume-mixing ratio for a 1-m path (ppmv-m)] and NO [520 parts in 109 volume-mixing ratio for a 1-m path (ppbv-m)] at 5.4 µm. System improvements are described that are expected to result in a 2 orders of magnitude increase in sensitivity.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1999

1998

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396–1398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. J. Kessler, J. C. Magill, B. L. Upschulte, M. G. Allen, J. D. W. Barrick, “In situ sensing of tropospheric water vapor using an airborne near-IR diode laser hygrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 275–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Compact laser difference frequency spectrometer for multicomponent trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 531–538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. C. D. Hobbs, “Ultrasensitive laser measurements without tears,” Appl. Opt. 36, 903–920 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

1995

1994

J. A. Silver, D. C. Hovde, “Near-infrared diode laser airborne hygrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1691–1694 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Trimble, R. G. Chave, J. Kendall, “Aircraft (ER-2) Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS) for in situ stratospheric measurements of HCl, N2O, CH4, and HNO3,” Appl. Opt. 33, 454–472 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1990

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurement of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10147–10153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast response, high precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977

W. T. Rawlins, F. Kaufman, “Characteristics of O(I) and N(I) resonance line broadening in low pressure helium discharge lamps,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 561–572 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

Anders, J.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Barrick, J. D. W.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. J. Kessler, J. C. Magill, B. L. Upschulte, M. G. Allen, J. D. W. Barrick, “In situ sensing of tropospheric water vapor using an airborne near-IR diode laser hygrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 275–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burney, L. G.

J. E. Collins, G. W. Sachse, L. G. Burney, L. O. Wade, “A novel external path water vapor sensor,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting: NASA Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Cai, S.

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved CW operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, J. Oomens, F. J. M. Harren, D. H. Parker, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 178–180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1762–1764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396–1398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carleton, K. L.

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chave, R. G.

Cho, A. Y.

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1762–1764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, J. Oomens, F. J. M. Harren, D. H. Parker, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 178–180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved CW operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396–1398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S. N. G.

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved CW operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Collins, J. E.

J. E. Collins, G. W. Sachse, L. G. Burney, L. O. Wade, “A novel external path water vapor sensor,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting: NASA Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Curl, R. F.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. J.

Drummond, J. R.

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, H.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved CW operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, J. Oomens, F. J. M. Harren, D. H. Parker, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 178–180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1762–1764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396–1398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grisar, R.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Haller, K. L.

K. L. Haller, P. C. D. Hobbs, “Double-beam laser absorption spectroscopy: shot noise-limited performance at baseband with a novel electronic noise canceller,” in Optical Methods for Ultrasensitive Detection and Analysis: Technique and Applications, B. L. Feurey, ed., Proc. SPIE1435, 298–309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harren, F. J. M.

Harris, G. W.

J. Roths, T. Zenker, U. Parchatka, F. G. Wienhold, G. W. Harris, “Four-laser airborne infrared spectrometer for atmospheric trace-gas measurements,” Appl. Opt. 35, 7075–7084 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurement of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10147–10153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, J. S.

Hastie, D. R.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurement of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10147–10153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Henry, B.

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hill, G. F.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast response, high precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. C. D.

P. C. D. Hobbs, “Ultrasensitive laser measurements without tears,” Appl. Opt. 36, 903–920 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Haller, P. C. D. Hobbs, “Double-beam laser absorption spectroscopy: shot noise-limited performance at baseband with a novel electronic noise canceller,” in Optical Methods for Ultrasensitive Detection and Analysis: Technique and Applications, B. L. Feurey, ed., Proc. SPIE1435, 298–309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hoor, P.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hovde, D. C.

J. A. Silver, D. C. Hovde, “Near-infrared diode laser airborne hygrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1691–1694 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved CW operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, J. Oomens, F. J. M. Harren, D. H. Parker, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 178–180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1762–1764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karecki, D. R.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurement of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10147–10153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, F.

W. T. Rawlins, F. Kaufman, “Characteristics of O(I) and N(I) resonance line broadening in low pressure helium discharge lamps,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 561–572 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. F.

Kendall, J.

Kessler, W. J.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. J. Kessler, J. C. Magill, B. L. Upschulte, M. G. Allen, J. D. W. Barrick, “In situ sensing of tropospheric water vapor using an airborne near-IR diode laser hygrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 275–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Allen, K. L. Carleton, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, C. E. Otis, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Ultrasensitive dual-beam absorption and gain spectroscopy: applications for near-IR and visible diode laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3240–3249 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knothe, M.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Konigstedt, R.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

Loewenstein, M.

Lubken, F. J.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, G. I.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurement of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10147–10153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Magill, J. C.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. J. Kessler, J. C. Magill, B. L. Upschulte, M. G. Allen, J. D. W. Barrick, “In situ sensing of tropospheric water vapor using an airborne near-IR diode laser hygrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 275–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

May, R. D.

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A. C. G.

A. C. G. Mitchell, M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1934).

Namjou, K.

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oomens, J.

Otis, C. E.

Paldus, B. A.

Palombo, D. A.

Parchatka, U.

Parker, D. H.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. G.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast response, high precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, K. P.

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Compact laser difference frequency spectrometer for multicomponent trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 531–538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Podolske, J.

Rawlins, W. T.

W. T. Rawlins, F. Kaufman, “Characteristics of O(I) and N(I) resonance line broadening in low pressure helium discharge lamps,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 561–572 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, W. J.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roths, J.

Sachse, G. W.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast response, high precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Collins, G. W. Sachse, L. G. Burney, L. O. Wade, “A novel external path water vapor sensor,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting: NASA Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Sartori, C.

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, H. I.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurement of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10147–10153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, T.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sergent, A. M.

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved CW operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, S.

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, S. W.

Silver, J. A.

J. A. Silver, D. C. Hovde, “Near-infrared diode laser airborne hygrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1691–1694 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved CW operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1762–1764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, J. Oomens, F. J. M. Harren, D. H. Parker, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 178–180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396–1398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

Spence, T. G.

Tittel, F. K.

Tredicucci, A.

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved CW operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trimble, C. A.

Upschulte, B. L.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. J. Kessler, J. C. Magill, B. L. Upschulte, M. G. Allen, J. D. W. Barrick, “In situ sensing of tropospheric water vapor using an airborne near-IR diode laser hygrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 275–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wade, L. O.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast response, high precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Collins, G. W. Sachse, L. G. Burney, L. O. Wade, “A novel external path water vapor sensor,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting: NASA Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Wagner, V.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. R.

Wert, B.

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

Wienhold, F. G.

J. Roths, T. Zenker, U. Parchatka, F. G. Wienhold, G. W. Harris, “Four-laser airborne infrared spectrometer for atmospheric trace-gas measurements,” Appl. Opt. 35, 7075–7084 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

Zemansky, M. W.

A. C. G. Mitchell, M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1934).

Zenker, T.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Konigstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F. J. Lubken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, B. Henry, B. Wert, S. Sewell, J. R. Drummond, “Laboratory, ground-based, and airborne tunable diode laser systems: performance characteristics and applications in atmospheric studies,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 317–330 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Compact laser difference frequency spectrometer for multicomponent trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 531–538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. J. Kessler, J. C. Magill, B. L. Upschulte, M. G. Allen, J. D. W. Barrick, “In situ sensing of tropospheric water vapor using an airborne near-IR diode laser hygrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 275–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed-feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved CW operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast response, high precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

QC laser-mount housing. AR, antireflection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the electronics for driving QC lasers in the pulsed mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

General experimental arrangement of a laser absorption spectrometer with BRD. AR, antireflection.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Current waveform from the inductive probe and the optical waveform from the fast HgCdTe detector. (b) Rescaled current waveform overlaid on the optical waveform [waveforms from (a)].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

N2O number density as determined by the laser spectrometer plotted versus the manometer-determined number density.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrum of the P24E line of the 1110 band for 48.4 Torr of N2O. The spectrum represents an average of 100 scans.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

NO number density as determined by the laser spectrometer plotted versus the manometer-determined number density.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BRD-determined N2O number density plotted versus the manometer-determined number density.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Observed and predicted peak fractional absorption at 1859.3 cm-1 plotted versus the N2O optical depth. The data are from Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Model-corrected laser-determined optical depth plotted versus the calculated optical depth for the sample. The line represents the least-squares fit, as described in the text.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental spectrum of Fig. 6 compared with the HITRAN absorption spectrum and the laser spectral intensity.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectra of the P5.5e and the P5.5f lines of the fundamental band for 0.032 Torr of NO. The spectrum represents an average of 200 scans.

Equations (3)

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Aνlaser= fν1-exp-kνdν fνdν,
Aα=-exp-ω/α21-exp-k0 exp-ω2dω-exp-ω/α2dω,
Aα=n=1-1n-1k0nn!1+nα21/2,

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