Abstract

We review the recent progress of electrically injected and optically pumped mid-IR lasers based on antimonide quantum wells with the type II W configuration. W quantum-well diodes have achieved cw operation up to 195 K at λ = 3.25 µm. Optically pumped devices that employ the diamond pressure bond heat sink have reached 290 K at 3 µm and 210 K at 6 µm. Pulsed power conversion efficiencies of up to 7% at 220 K have been attained by use of an optical pumping injection cavity approach, in which an etalon cavity for the pump beam significantly enhances its absorptance. The angled-grating distributed-feedback configuration has been used to obtain near-diffraction-limited output for an optical pumping stripe width of 50 µm.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Rosman, A. Katzir, P. Norton, K.-H. Bachem, H. M. Preier, “On the performance of selenium rich lead-salt heterostructure lasers with remote p-n junction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 94–102 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Feit, D. Kostyk, R. J. Woods, P. Mak, “Molecular beam epitaxy-grown PbSnTe-PbEuSeTe buried heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 860–862 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Shi, M. Tacke, A. Lambrecht, H. Bottner, “Midinfrared lead salt multiple quantum well diode lasers with 282 K operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2537–2539 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Feit, M. McDonald, R. J. Woods, V. Archambault, P. Mak, “Low threshold PbEuSeTe/PbTe separate confinement buried heterostructure diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 738–740 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U. P. Schliessl, J. Rohr, “60 °C lead salt laser emission near 5-µm wavelength,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 325–328 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844–1846 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, G. Scamarcio, “High-performance superlattice quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 792–807 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat-sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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  18. J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II quantum-well lasers for the mid-wavelength infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 757–759 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. I. Malin, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, J. F. Pinto, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR lasers operating above room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1593–1595 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Continuous-wave type-II “W” lasers emitting at λ = 5.3–7.1 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 964–966 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “High-efficiency mid-IR “W” laser with optical pumping injection cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2876–2878 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Optical-pumping injection cavity (OPIC) mid-IR W lasers with high efficiency and low loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 477–479 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. Pezeshki, M. Hagberg, M. Zelinski, S. D. DeMars, E. Kolev, R. J. Lang, “400-mW single frequency 660-nm semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 791–793 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. J. Lang, K. Dzurko, A. A. Hardy, S. DeMars, A. Schoenfelder, D. F. Welch, “Theory of grating-confined broad-area lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2196–2210 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. E. Bartolo, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Mid-infrared angled-grating distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3164–3166 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. Q. Yang, “Infrared laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 17, 77–83 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  33. B. H. Yang, D. Zhang, R. Q. Yang, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, “Mid-IR interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiencies >200%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2220–2222 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. Q. Yang, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, J. T. Pham, D. E. Wortman, “High-power interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiency >450%,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1254–1255 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  35. L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  36. H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  37. D. Z. Garbuzov, H. Lee, V. Khalfin, R. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, G. L. Belenky, “2.3–2.7 µm room temperature cw operation of InGaAsSb-AlGaAsSb broad waveguide SCH-QW diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 794–796 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  38. H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, “High CW power (>200 mW/facet) at 3.4 µm from InAsSb/InAlAsSb strained quantum well diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1296–1297 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  39. B. Lane, S. Tong, J. Diaz, Z. Wu, M. Razeghi, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP electrical injection laser diodes emitting between 3 and 5 µm,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 52–55 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J. Faist, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “High-power continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 336–343 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (4)

W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Optical-pumping injection cavity (OPIC) mid-IR W lasers with high efficiency and low loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 477–479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bartolo, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Mid-infrared angled-grating distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3164–3166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Lane, S. Tong, J. Diaz, Z. Wu, M. Razeghi, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP electrical injection laser diodes emitting between 3 and 5 µm,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 52–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (13)

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Garbuzov, H. Lee, V. Khalfin, R. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, G. L. Belenky, “2.3–2.7 µm room temperature cw operation of InGaAsSb-AlGaAsSb broad waveguide SCH-QW diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 794–796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, J. T. Pham, D. E. Wortman, “High-power interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiency >450%,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1254–1255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Pezeshki, M. Hagberg, M. Zelinski, S. D. DeMars, E. Kolev, R. J. Lang, “400-mW single frequency 660-nm semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 791–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Continuous-wave type-II “W” lasers emitting at λ = 5.3–7.1 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 964–966 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “High-efficiency mid-IR “W” laser with optical pumping injection cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2876–2878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, G. Scamarcio, “High-performance superlattice quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 792–807 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat-sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Flatté, C. H. Grein, T. C. Hasenberg, S. A. Anson, D.-J. Jang, J. T. Olesberg, T. F. Boggess, “Carrier recombination rates in narrow-gap InAs/Ga1-xInxSb-based superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 5745–5750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. P. Schliessl, J. Rohr, “60 °C lead salt laser emission near 5-µm wavelength,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 325–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844–1846 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (7)

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Lang, K. Dzurko, A. A. Hardy, S. DeMars, A. Schoenfelder, D. F. Welch, “Theory of grating-confined broad-area lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2196–2210 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “High-power continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 336–343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Yang, D. Zhang, R. Q. Yang, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, “Mid-IR interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiencies >200%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2220–2222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Hasenberg, R. H. Miles, A. R. Kost, L. West, “Recent advances in Sb-based mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1403–1406 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, M. K. Connors, “175 K cw operation of InAsSb/InAlAsSb quantum well diode lasers emitting at 3.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2936–2938 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, J. F. Pinto, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR lasers operating above room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1593–1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Feit, M. McDonald, R. J. Woods, V. Archambault, P. Mak, “Low threshold PbEuSeTe/PbTe separate confinement buried heterostructure diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 738–740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, “High CW power (>200 mW/facet) at 3.4 µm from InAsSb/InAlAsSb strained quantum well diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1296–1297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

Z. Shi, M. Tacke, A. Lambrecht, H. Bottner, “Midinfrared lead salt multiple quantum well diode lasers with 282 K operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2537–2539 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, “Infrared laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 17, 77–83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, G. W. Turner, H. K. Choi, “Auger lifetime in InAs, InAsSb, and InAsSb-InAlAsSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3153–3155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, “InAsSb/InAlAsSb strained quantum well diode lasers emitting at 3.9 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 332–334 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II quantum-well lasers for the mid-wavelength infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 757–759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. H. Grein, P. M. Young, H. Ehrenreich, “Theoretical performance of InAs/GaInSb superlattice based mid-wave infrared lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1940–1942 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Z. Feit, D. Kostyk, R. J. Woods, P. Mak, “Molecular beam epitaxy-grown PbSnTe-PbEuSeTe buried heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 860–862 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Rosman, A. Katzir, P. Norton, K.-H. Bachem, H. M. Preier, “On the performance of selenium rich lead-salt heterostructure lasers with remote p-n junction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 94–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

N. Menyuk, A. S. Pine, A. Mooradian, “Efficient InSb laser with resonant longitudinal optical pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 477–481 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Aifer, E. H.

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Continuous-wave type-II “W” lasers emitting at λ = 5.3–7.1 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 964–966 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anson, S. A.

M. E. Flatté, C. H. Grein, T. C. Hasenberg, S. A. Anson, D.-J. Jang, J. T. Olesberg, T. F. Boggess, “Carrier recombination rates in narrow-gap InAs/Ga1-xInxSb-based superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 5745–5750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, V.

Z. Feit, M. McDonald, R. J. Woods, V. Archambault, P. Mak, “Low threshold PbEuSeTe/PbTe separate confinement buried heterostructure diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 738–740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bachem, K.-H.

R. Rosman, A. Katzir, P. Norton, K.-H. Bachem, H. M. Preier, “On the performance of selenium rich lead-salt heterostructure lasers with remote p-n junction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 94–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat-sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844–1846 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “High-power continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 336–343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F. J.

J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, G. W. Turner, H. K. Choi, “Auger lifetime in InAs, InAsSb, and InAsSb-InAlAsSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3153–3155 (1995).
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J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II quantum-well lasers for the mid-wavelength infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 757–759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bartolo, R. E.

R. E. Bartolo, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Mid-infrared angled-grating distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3164–3166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Belenky, G. L.

D. Z. Garbuzov, H. Lee, V. Khalfin, R. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, G. L. Belenky, “2.3–2.7 µm room temperature cw operation of InGaAsSb-AlGaAsSb broad waveguide SCH-QW diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 794–796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bewley, W. W.

W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Optical-pumping injection cavity (OPIC) mid-IR W lasers with high efficiency and low loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 477–479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bartolo, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Mid-infrared angled-grating distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3164–3166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “High-efficiency mid-IR “W” laser with optical pumping injection cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2876–2878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Continuous-wave type-II “W” lasers emitting at λ = 5.3–7.1 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 964–966 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

M. E. Flatté, C. H. Grein, T. C. Hasenberg, S. A. Anson, D.-J. Jang, J. T. Olesberg, T. F. Boggess, “Carrier recombination rates in narrow-gap InAs/Ga1-xInxSb-based superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 5745–5750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bottner, H.

Z. Shi, M. Tacke, A. Lambrecht, H. Bottner, “Midinfrared lead salt multiple quantum well diode lasers with 282 K operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2537–2539 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bradshaw, J. L.

R. Q. Yang, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, J. T. Pham, D. E. Wortman, “High-power interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiency >450%,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1254–1255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, J. D.

R. Q. Yang, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, J. T. Pham, D. E. Wortman, “High-power interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiency >450%,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1254–1255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cai, S.

Capasso, F.

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844–1846 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat-sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, G. Scamarcio, “High-performance superlattice quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 792–807 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “High-power continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 336–343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P. C.

J. I. Malin, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, J. F. Pinto, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR lasers operating above room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1593–1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, G. Scamarcio, “High-performance superlattice quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 792–807 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat-sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844–1846 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “High-power continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 336–343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. K.

H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, “High CW power (>200 mW/facet) at 3.4 µm from InAsSb/InAlAsSb strained quantum well diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1296–1297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, M. K. Connors, “175 K cw operation of InAsSb/InAlAsSb quantum well diode lasers emitting at 3.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2936–2938 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, G. W. Turner, H. K. Choi, “Auger lifetime in InAs, InAsSb, and InAsSb-InAlAsSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3153–3155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, “InAsSb/InAlAsSb strained quantum well diode lasers emitting at 3.9 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 332–334 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. N. G.

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat-sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, J. C.

W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Garbuzov, H. Lee, V. Khalfin, R. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, G. L. Belenky, “2.3–2.7 µm room temperature cw operation of InGaAsSb-AlGaAsSb broad waveguide SCH-QW diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 794–796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Connors, M. K.

H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, M. K. Connors, “175 K cw operation of InAsSb/InAlAsSb quantum well diode lasers emitting at 3.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2936–2938 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeMars, S.

R. J. Lang, K. Dzurko, A. A. Hardy, S. DeMars, A. Schoenfelder, D. F. Welch, “Theory of grating-confined broad-area lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2196–2210 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeMars, S. D.

B. Pezeshki, M. Hagberg, M. Zelinski, S. D. DeMars, E. Kolev, R. J. Lang, “400-mW single frequency 660-nm semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 791–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, J.

B. Lane, S. Tong, J. Diaz, Z. Wu, M. Razeghi, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP electrical injection laser diodes emitting between 3 and 5 µm,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 52–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dzurko, K.

R. J. Lang, K. Dzurko, A. A. Hardy, S. DeMars, A. Schoenfelder, D. F. Welch, “Theory of grating-confined broad-area lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2196–2210 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ehrenreich, H.

C. H. Grein, P. M. Young, H. Ehrenreich, “Theoretical performance of InAs/GaInSb superlattice based mid-wave infrared lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1940–1942 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “High-power continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 336–343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feit, Z.

Z. Feit, M. McDonald, R. J. Woods, V. Archambault, P. Mak, “Low threshold PbEuSeTe/PbTe separate confinement buried heterostructure diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 738–740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Feit, D. Kostyk, R. J. Woods, P. Mak, “Molecular beam epitaxy-grown PbSnTe-PbEuSeTe buried heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 860–862 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Felix, C. L.

W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Optical-pumping injection cavity (OPIC) mid-IR W lasers with high efficiency and low loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 477–479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bartolo, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Mid-infrared angled-grating distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3164–3166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “High-efficiency mid-IR “W” laser with optical pumping injection cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2876–2878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Continuous-wave type-II “W” lasers emitting at λ = 5.3–7.1 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 964–966 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, J. F. Pinto, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR lasers operating above room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1593–1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flatté, M. E.

M. E. Flatté, C. H. Grein, T. C. Hasenberg, S. A. Anson, D.-J. Jang, J. T. Olesberg, T. F. Boggess, “Carrier recombination rates in narrow-gap InAs/Ga1-xInxSb-based superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 5745–5750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D. Z.

W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Garbuzov, H. Lee, V. Khalfin, R. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, G. L. Belenky, “2.3–2.7 µm room temperature cw operation of InGaAsSb-AlGaAsSb broad waveguide SCH-QW diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 794–796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat-sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, G. Scamarcio, “High-performance superlattice quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 792–807 (1999).
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J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
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J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, G. W. Turner, H. K. Choi, “Auger lifetime in InAs, InAsSb, and InAsSb-InAlAsSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3153–3155 (1995).
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D. Z. Garbuzov, H. Lee, V. Khalfin, R. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, G. L. Belenky, “2.3–2.7 µm room temperature cw operation of InGaAsSb-AlGaAsSb broad waveguide SCH-QW diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 794–796 (1999).
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B. Pezeshki, M. Hagberg, M. Zelinski, S. D. DeMars, E. Kolev, R. J. Lang, “400-mW single frequency 660-nm semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 791–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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T. C. Hasenberg, R. H. Miles, A. R. Kost, L. West, “Recent advances in Sb-based mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1403–1406 (1997).
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Z. Feit, D. Kostyk, R. J. Woods, P. Mak, “Molecular beam epitaxy-grown PbSnTe-PbEuSeTe buried heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 860–862 (1990).
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B. Pezeshki, M. Hagberg, M. Zelinski, S. D. DeMars, E. Kolev, R. J. Lang, “400-mW single frequency 660-nm semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 791–793 (1999).
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R. J. Lang, K. Dzurko, A. A. Hardy, S. DeMars, A. Schoenfelder, D. F. Welch, “Theory of grating-confined broad-area lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2196–2210 (1998).
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W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Optical-pumping injection cavity (OPIC) mid-IR W lasers with high efficiency and low loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 477–479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Garbuzov, H. Lee, V. Khalfin, R. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, G. L. Belenky, “2.3–2.7 µm room temperature cw operation of InGaAsSb-AlGaAsSb broad waveguide SCH-QW diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 794–796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
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J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
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J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
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L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
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C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, J. F. Pinto, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR lasers operating above room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1593–1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, G. W. Turner, H. K. Choi, “Auger lifetime in InAs, InAsSb, and InAsSb-InAlAsSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3153–3155 (1995).
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W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
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Mak, P.

Z. Feit, M. McDonald, R. J. Woods, V. Archambault, P. Mak, “Low threshold PbEuSeTe/PbTe separate confinement buried heterostructure diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 738–740 (1996).
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Z. Feit, D. Kostyk, R. J. Woods, P. Mak, “Molecular beam epitaxy-grown PbSnTe-PbEuSeTe buried heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 860–862 (1990).
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J. I. Malin, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, J. F. Pinto, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR lasers operating above room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1593–1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
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H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, “High CW power (>200 mW/facet) at 3.4 µm from InAsSb/InAlAsSb strained quantum well diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1296–1297 (1996).
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H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, M. K. Connors, “175 K cw operation of InAsSb/InAlAsSb quantum well diode lasers emitting at 3.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2936–2938 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, R.

D. Z. Garbuzov, H. Lee, V. Khalfin, R. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, G. L. Belenky, “2.3–2.7 µm room temperature cw operation of InGaAsSb-AlGaAsSb broad waveguide SCH-QW diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 794–796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, R. U.

W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Optical-pumping injection cavity (OPIC) mid-IR W lasers with high efficiency and low loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 477–479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, M.

Z. Feit, M. McDonald, R. J. Woods, V. Archambault, P. Mak, “Low threshold PbEuSeTe/PbTe separate confinement buried heterostructure diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 738–740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Menna, R. J.

W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
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N. Menyuk, A. S. Pine, A. Mooradian, “Efficient InSb laser with resonant longitudinal optical pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 477–481 (1975).
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Meyer, J. R.

W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Optical-pumping injection cavity (OPIC) mid-IR W lasers with high efficiency and low loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 477–479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bartolo, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Mid-infrared angled-grating distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3164–3166 (2000).
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W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “High-efficiency mid-IR “W” laser with optical pumping injection cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2876–2878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Continuous-wave type-II “W” lasers emitting at λ = 5.3–7.1 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 964–966 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, J. F. Pinto, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR lasers operating above room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1593–1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II quantum-well lasers for the mid-wavelength infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 757–759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, G. W. Turner, H. K. Choi, “Auger lifetime in InAs, InAsSb, and InAsSb-InAlAsSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3153–3155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. H.

J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Hasenberg, R. H. Miles, A. R. Kost, L. West, “Recent advances in Sb-based mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1403–1406 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

N. Menyuk, A. S. Pine, A. Mooradian, “Efficient InSb laser with resonant longitudinal optical pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 477–481 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Murry, S. J.

B. H. Yang, D. Zhang, R. Q. Yang, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, “Mid-IR interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiencies >200%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2220–2222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, J. F. Pinto, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR lasers operating above room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1593–1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Namjou, K.

Norton, P.

R. Rosman, A. Katzir, P. Norton, K.-H. Bachem, H. M. Preier, “On the performance of selenium rich lead-salt heterostructure lasers with remote p-n junction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 94–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Olafsen, L. J.

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Continuous-wave type-II “W” lasers emitting at λ = 5.3–7.1 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 964–966 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “High-efficiency mid-IR “W” laser with optical pumping injection cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2876–2878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
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M. E. Flatté, C. H. Grein, T. C. Hasenberg, S. A. Anson, D.-J. Jang, J. T. Olesberg, T. F. Boggess, “Carrier recombination rates in narrow-gap InAs/Ga1-xInxSb-based superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 5745–5750 (1999).
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W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pei, S. S.

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Yang, D. Zhang, R. Q. Yang, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, “Mid-IR interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiencies >200%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2220–2222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pei, S.-S.

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, J. F. Pinto, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR lasers operating above room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1593–1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pezeshki, B.

B. Pezeshki, M. Hagberg, M. Zelinski, S. D. DeMars, E. Kolev, R. J. Lang, “400-mW single frequency 660-nm semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 791–793 (1999).
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R. Q. Yang, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, J. T. Pham, D. E. Wortman, “High-power interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiency >450%,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1254–1255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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N. Menyuk, A. S. Pine, A. Mooradian, “Efficient InSb laser with resonant longitudinal optical pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 477–481 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, J. F.

J. I. Malin, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, J. F. Pinto, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR lasers operating above room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1593–1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Preier, H. M.

R. Rosman, A. Katzir, P. Norton, K.-H. Bachem, H. M. Preier, “On the performance of selenium rich lead-salt heterostructure lasers with remote p-n junction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 94–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ram-Mohan, L. R.

J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II quantum-well lasers for the mid-wavelength infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 757–759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

B. Lane, S. Tong, J. Diaz, Z. Wu, M. Razeghi, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP electrical injection laser diodes emitting between 3 and 5 µm,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 52–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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U. P. Schliessl, J. Rohr, “60 °C lead salt laser emission near 5-µm wavelength,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 325–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosman, R.

R. Rosman, A. Katzir, P. Norton, K.-H. Bachem, H. M. Preier, “On the performance of selenium rich lead-salt heterostructure lasers with remote p-n junction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 94–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, G. Scamarcio, “High-performance superlattice quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 792–807 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schliessl, U. P.

U. P. Schliessl, J. Rohr, “60 °C lead salt laser emission near 5-µm wavelength,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 325–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schoenfelder, A.

R. J. Lang, K. Dzurko, A. A. Hardy, S. DeMars, A. Schoenfelder, D. F. Welch, “Theory of grating-confined broad-area lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2196–2210 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sergent, A. M.

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat-sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shanabrook, B. V.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, S. W.

Shi, Z.

Z. Shi, M. Tacke, A. Lambrecht, H. Bottner, “Midinfrared lead salt multiple quantum well diode lasers with 282 K operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2537–2539 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “High-power continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 336–343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, G. Scamarcio, “High-performance superlattice quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 792–807 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat-sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844–1846 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “High-power continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 336–343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, D. W.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Optical-pumping injection cavity (OPIC) mid-IR W lasers with high efficiency and low loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 477–479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “High-efficiency mid-IR “W” laser with optical pumping injection cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2876–2878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Continuous-wave type-II “W” lasers emitting at λ = 5.3–7.1 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 964–966 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugg, A. R.

W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tacke, M.

Z. Shi, M. Tacke, A. Lambrecht, H. Bottner, “Midinfrared lead salt multiple quantum well diode lasers with 282 K operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2537–2539 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M. S.

Tong, S.

B. Lane, S. Tong, J. Diaz, Z. Wu, M. Razeghi, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP electrical injection laser diodes emitting between 3 and 5 µm,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 52–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, G. Scamarcio, “High-performance superlattice quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 792–807 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat-sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “High-power continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 336–343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G. W.

H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, “High CW power (>200 mW/facet) at 3.4 µm from InAsSb/InAlAsSb strained quantum well diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1296–1297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, M. K. Connors, “175 K cw operation of InAsSb/InAlAsSb quantum well diode lasers emitting at 3.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2936–2938 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, G. W. Turner, H. K. Choi, “Auger lifetime in InAs, InAsSb, and InAsSb-InAlAsSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3153–3155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, “InAsSb/InAlAsSb strained quantum well diode lasers emitting at 3.9 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 332–334 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Optical-pumping injection cavity (OPIC) mid-IR W lasers with high efficiency and low loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 477–479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bartolo, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Mid-infrared angled-grating distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3164–3166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “High-efficiency mid-IR “W” laser with optical pumping injection cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2876–2878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Continuous-wave type-II “W” lasers emitting at λ = 5.3–7.1 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 964–966 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D. F.

R. J. Lang, K. Dzurko, A. A. Hardy, S. DeMars, A. Schoenfelder, D. F. Welch, “Theory of grating-confined broad-area lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2196–2210 (1998).
[CrossRef]

West, L.

T. C. Hasenberg, R. H. Miles, A. R. Kost, L. West, “Recent advances in Sb-based mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1403–1406 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

Williams, R. M.

Woods, R. J.

Z. Feit, M. McDonald, R. J. Woods, V. Archambault, P. Mak, “Low threshold PbEuSeTe/PbTe separate confinement buried heterostructure diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 738–740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Feit, D. Kostyk, R. J. Woods, P. Mak, “Molecular beam epitaxy-grown PbSnTe-PbEuSeTe buried heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 860–862 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wortman, D. E.

R. Q. Yang, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, J. T. Pham, D. E. Wortman, “High-power interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiency >450%,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1254–1255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

B. Lane, S. Tong, J. Diaz, Z. Wu, M. Razeghi, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP electrical injection laser diodes emitting between 3 and 5 µm,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 52–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B. H.

B. H. Yang, D. Zhang, R. Q. Yang, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, “Mid-IR interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiencies >200%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2220–2222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M. J.

R. E. Bartolo, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Mid-infrared angled-grating distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3164–3166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “High-efficiency mid-IR “W” laser with optical pumping injection cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2876–2878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Continuous-wave type-II “W” lasers emitting at λ = 5.3–7.1 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 964–966 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.-J.

J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R. Q.

R. Q. Yang, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, J. T. Pham, D. E. Wortman, “High-power interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiency >450%,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1254–1255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Yang, D. Zhang, R. Q. Yang, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, “Mid-IR interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiencies >200%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2220–2222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, “Infrared laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 17, 77–83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Young, P. M.

C. H. Grein, P. M. Young, H. Ehrenreich, “Theoretical performance of InAs/GaInSb superlattice based mid-wave infrared lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1940–1942 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zelinski, M.

B. Pezeshki, M. Hagberg, M. Zelinski, S. D. DeMars, E. Kolev, R. J. Lang, “400-mW single frequency 660-nm semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 791–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

B. H. Yang, D. Zhang, R. Q. Yang, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, “Mid-IR interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiencies >200%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2220–2222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (15)

H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, M. K. Connors, “175 K cw operation of InAsSb/InAlAsSb quantum well diode lasers emitting at 3.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2936–2938 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, “InAsSb/InAlAsSb strained quantum well diode lasers emitting at 3.9 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 332–334 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, G. W. Turner, H. K. Choi, “Auger lifetime in InAs, InAsSb, and InAsSb-InAlAsSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3153–3155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Lindle, C. A. Hoffman, M.-J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, R. H. Miles, “Auger coefficients in type-II InAs/Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2857–2859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II quantum-well lasers for the mid-wavelength infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 757–759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Felix, J. R. Lindle, L. Goldberg, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, R. Q. Yang, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2976–2978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, B. V. Shanabrook, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, A. R. Sugg, “High temperature continuous-wave 3-6.1 µm ‘W’ lasers with diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1075–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, H. Lee, I. Vurgaftman, R. J. Menna, C. L. Felix, R. U. Martinelli, D. W. Stokes, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. R. Meyer, M. Maiorov, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Continuous-wave operation of λ = 3.25 µm broadened-waveguide W quantum well diode lasers up to T = 195 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 256–258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, M. J. Yang, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, “Above-room-temperature optically-pumped mid-infrared W-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3833–3835 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “High-efficiency mid-IR “W” laser with optical pumping injection cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2876–2878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bartolo, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Mid-infrared angled-grating distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3164–3166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Yang, D. Zhang, R. Q. Yang, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, “Mid-IR interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiencies >200%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2220–2222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Shi, M. Tacke, A. Lambrecht, H. Bottner, “Midinfrared lead salt multiple quantum well diode lasers with 282 K operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2537–2539 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Feit, M. McDonald, R. J. Woods, V. Archambault, P. Mak, “Low threshold PbEuSeTe/PbTe separate confinement buried heterostructure diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 738–740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

H. Lee, L. J. Olafsen, R. J. Menna, W. W. Bewley, R. U. Martinelli, I. Vurgaftman, D. Z. Garbuzov, C. L. Felix, M. Maiorov, J. R. Meyer, J. C. Connolly, A. R. Sugg, G. H. Olsen, “Room-temperature type-II W quantum well diode laser with broadened waveguide emitting at λ = 3.30 µm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1743–1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, “High CW power (>200 mW/facet) at 3.4 µm from InAsSb/InAlAsSb strained quantum well diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1296–1297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, J. T. Pham, D. E. Wortman, “High-power interband cascade lasers with quantum efficiency >450%,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1254–1255 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Malin, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, J. F. Pinto, C.-H. Lin, P. C. Chang, S. J. Murry, S.-S. Pei, “Type-II mid-IR lasers operating above room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1593–1595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (6)

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Hasenberg, R. H. Miles, A. R. Kost, L. West, “Recent advances in Sb-based mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1403–1406 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Menyuk, A. S. Pine, A. Mooradian, “Efficient InSb laser with resonant longitudinal optical pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 477–481 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “High-power continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 336–343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Rosman, A. Katzir, P. Norton, K.-H. Bachem, H. M. Preier, “On the performance of selenium rich lead-salt heterostructure lasers with remote p-n junction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 94–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Lang, K. Dzurko, A. A. Hardy, S. DeMars, A. Schoenfelder, D. F. Welch, “Theory of grating-confined broad-area lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2196–2210 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, G. Scamarcio, “High-performance superlattice quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 792–807 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

C. Gmachl, A. M. Sergent, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Improved continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with epitaxial-side heat-sinking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1369–1371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, L. J. Olafsen, D. W. Stokes, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, “Continuous-wave type-II “W” lasers emitting at λ = 5.3–7.1 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 964–966 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, D. W. Stokes, J. R. Meyer, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Optical-pumping injection cavity (OPIC) mid-IR W lasers with high efficiency and low loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 477–479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Pezeshki, M. Hagberg, M. Zelinski, S. D. DeMars, E. Kolev, R. J. Lang, “400-mW single frequency 660-nm semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 791–793 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Feit, D. Kostyk, R. J. Woods, P. Mak, “Molecular beam epitaxy-grown PbSnTe-PbEuSeTe buried heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 860–862 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Garbuzov, H. Lee, V. Khalfin, R. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, G. L. Belenky, “2.3–2.7 µm room temperature cw operation of InGaAsSb-AlGaAsSb broad waveguide SCH-QW diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 794–796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

U. P. Schliessl, J. Rohr, “60 °C lead salt laser emission near 5-µm wavelength,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 325–328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. H. Grein, P. M. Young, H. Ehrenreich, “Theoretical performance of InAs/GaInSb superlattice based mid-wave infrared lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1940–1942 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

B. Lane, S. Tong, J. Diaz, Z. Wu, M. Razeghi, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP electrical injection laser diodes emitting between 3 and 5 µm,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 52–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. E. Flatté, C. H. Grein, T. C. Hasenberg, S. A. Anson, D.-J. Jang, J. T. Olesberg, T. F. Boggess, “Carrier recombination rates in narrow-gap InAs/Ga1-xInxSb-based superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 5745–5750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

R. Q. Yang, “Infrared laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 17, 77–83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Maximum cw operating temperatures as a function of wavelength in the 3–8-µm range for optically pumped (OP) W, W quantum well (QW) diode, III–V diode, quantum cascade, and IV–VI diode lasers. QCL, quantum cascade laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the DPB laser heat sink. MQW, multiple quantum well.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cw (solid curve) and quasi-cw [0.47-ms pulse length and 25% duty cycle (DC), dashed curve] light–light curves for an optically pumped W laser emitting at λ = 3.2 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Threshold pump intensity versus temperature for an optically pumped W laser and two W OPIC lasers. Characteristic temperatures (T 0) are indicated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulsed far-field angular profiles for an optically pumped α-DFB laser (filled circles) and a Fabry–Perot laser (open circles) from an unpatterned portion of the same bar at 78 K. The cavity length is 1.44 mm, stripe widths are 50 µm, and the emission wavelength is 3.4 µm. The areas under the two curves reflect the relative output powers for the same pump power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the W QW diode laser with a broadened waveguide. Although only two four-constituent periods of the W active region are shown, the tested devices contained either five or ten periods. CBM, conduction band maximum; VBM, valence band maximum.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cw output power versus injected current at heat sink temperatures of 180 and 195 K for a W QW diode laser with five active periods and a hole-blocking layer. The cw spectrum at 195 K, taken at a resolution of 1 nm and an injection current of 3.5 A, is shown in the inset.

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