Abstract

X-ray telescopes (XRT’s) of nested thin foil mirrors are developed for Astro-E, the fifth Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite. Although the launch was not successful, the design concept, fabrication, and alignment procedure are summarized. The main purpose of the Astro-E XRT is to collect hard x rays up to 10 keV with high efficiency and to provide medium spatial resolution in limited weight and volume. Compared with the previous mission, Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), a slightly longer focal length of 4.5–4.75 m and a larger diameter of 40 cm yields an effective area of 1750 cm2 at 8 keV with five telescopes. The image quality is also improved to 2-arc min half-power diameter by introduction of a replication process. Platinum is used instead of gold for the reflectors of one of the five telescopes to enhance the high-energy response. The fabrication and alignment procedure is also summarized. Several methods for improvement are suggested for the reflight Astro-E II mission and for other future missions. Preflight calibration results will be described in a forthcoming second paper, and a detailed study of images will be presented in a third paper.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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1996 (1)

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space. Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

Y. Tanaka, H. Inoue, S. S. Holt, “The x-ray astronomy satellite ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, L37–L41 (1994).

1993 (1)

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1981 (1)

P. de Korte, “The X-ray imaging telescopes on EXOSAT,” Space Sci. Rev. 30, 495–511 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Asakura, R.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aschenbach, B.

B. Aschenbach, “Design, construction, and performance of the ROSAT high-resolution x-ray mirror assembly,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1404–1413 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Aschenbach, H. Braeuninger, “Grazing incidence for ESA’s x-ray astronomy mission XMM,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, L. Golub, ed., Proc. SPIE982, 10–15 (1988).

Aschenbach, B. R.

P. Gondoin, B. R. Aschenbach, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. A. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J.-P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. I. Image quality,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Audley, M. D.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Awaki, H.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bautz, M. W.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

P. Gondoin, B. R. Aschenbach, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. A. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J.-P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. I. Image quality,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boyce, K. R.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Braeuninger, H.

B. Aschenbach, H. Braeuninger, “Grazing incidence for ESA’s x-ray astronomy mission XMM,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, L. Golub, ed., Proc. SPIE982, 10–15 (1988).

Breon, S. R.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K.-W.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

de Korte, P.

P. de Korte, “The X-ray imaging telescopes on EXOSAT,” Space Sci. Rev. 30, 495–511 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dotani, T.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doty, J. P.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Egger, R.

P. Gondoin, B. R. Aschenbach, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. A. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J.-P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. I. Image quality,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

K. Misaki, Y. Hidaka, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Imamura, M. Ishida, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, H. Mori, R. Shibata are preparing a manuscript on the measured results and modeling of the image blur in thin foil mirror telescopes.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Foster, R. F.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, R.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Furuzawa, A.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Gendreau, K. C.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gondoin, P.

P. Gondoin, B. R. Aschenbach, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. A. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J.-P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. I. Image quality,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hashimotodani, K.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hatsukade, I.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hayashida, K.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hidaka, Y.

K. Misaki, Y. Hidaka, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Imamura, M. Ishida, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, H. Mori, R. Shibata are preparing a manuscript on the measured results and modeling of the image blur in thin foil mirror telescopes.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Holt, S. S.

Y. Tanaka, H. Inoue, S. S. Holt, “The x-ray astronomy satellite ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, L37–L41 (1994).

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Honda, H.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

K. Misaki, Y. Hidaka, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Imamura, M. Ishida, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, H. Mori, R. Shibata are preparing a manuscript on the measured results and modeling of the image blur in thin foil mirror telescopes.

Imamura, K.

K. Misaki, Y. Hidaka, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Imamura, M. Ishida, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, H. Mori, R. Shibata are preparing a manuscript on the measured results and modeling of the image blur in thin foil mirror telescopes.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Inoue, H.

Y. Tanaka, H. Inoue, S. S. Holt, “The x-ray astronomy satellite ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, L37–L41 (1994).

Ishida, J.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Ishida, M.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

K. Misaki, Y. Hidaka, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Imamura, M. Ishida, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, H. Mori, R. Shibata are preparing a manuscript on the measured results and modeling of the image blur in thin foil mirror telescopes.

Ishisaki, Y.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

K. Misaki, Y. Hidaka, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Imamura, M. Ishida, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, H. Mori, R. Shibata are preparing a manuscript on the measured results and modeling of the image blur in thin foil mirror telescopes.

Itoh, M.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jalota, L.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Jansen, F. A.

P. Gondoin, B. R. Aschenbach, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. A. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J.-P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. I. Image quality,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, H.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, K.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, R. L.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kii, T.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kissel, S. E.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kitamoto, S.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kohmura, T.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, K.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kunieda, H.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, Y. Hidaka, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Imamura, M. Ishida, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, H. Mori, R. Shibata are preparing a manuscript on the measured results and modeling of the image blur in thin foil mirror telescopes.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Maeda, M.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Makino, F.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McCammon, D.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mihara, T.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Misaki, K.

K. Misaki, Y. Hidaka, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Imamura, M. Ishida, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, H. Mori, R. Shibata are preparing a manuscript on the measured results and modeling of the image blur in thin foil mirror telescopes.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Mitsuda, K.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, E.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mori, H.

K. Misaki, Y. Hidaka, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Imamura, M. Ishida, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, H. Mori, R. Shibata are preparing a manuscript on the measured results and modeling of the image blur in thin foil mirror telescopes.

Mott, D. B.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nomoto, S.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O’dell, S. L.

M. C. Weisskopf, S. L. O’dell, L. P. van Speybroeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF),” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 2–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ogasaka, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Ogawara, Y.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Okajima, T.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Oseley, S. H.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Porter, F. S.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ricker, G. R.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sakima, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Serlemitsos, P. J.

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space. Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Shibata, R.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

K. Misaki, Y. Hidaka, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Imamura, M. Ishida, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, H. Mori, R. Shibata are preparing a manuscript on the measured results and modeling of the image blur in thin foil mirror telescopes.

Shouho, M.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soong, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space. Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Stahle, C. K.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, Y.

P. Gondoin, B. R. Aschenbach, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. A. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J.-P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. I. Image quality,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Szymkowiak, A. E.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Tanaka, H. Inoue, S. S. Holt, “The x-ray astronomy satellite ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, L37–L41 (1994).

Tawara, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Terashima, Y.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Tock, J.-P.

P. Gondoin, B. R. Aschenbach, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. A. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J.-P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. I. Image quality,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsunemi, H.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsuru, T. G.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsusaka, Y.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uchibori, Y.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

van Speybroeck, L. P.

M. C. Weisskopf, S. L. O’dell, L. P. van Speybroeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF),” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 2–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. P. van Speybroeck, “Einstein observatory HEAO-B mirror design and performance,” in Space Optics Imaging X-Ray Optics Workshop, M. C. Weisskopf, ed., Proc. SPIE184, 2–11 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wada, M.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Weisskopf, M. C.

M. C. Weisskopf, S. L. O’dell, L. P. van Speybroeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF),” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 2–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Yamazaki, T.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Yoshioka, T.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

Yoshita, K.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astrophys. Space. Sci. (1)

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space. Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. (1)

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogawara, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “30 meter x-ray pencil beam line at the institute of space and astronautical science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. (2)

Y. Tanaka, H. Inoue, S. S. Holt, “The x-ray astronomy satellite ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 46, L37–L41 (1994).

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

P. de Korte, “The X-ray imaging telescopes on EXOSAT,” Space Sci. Rev. 30, 495–511 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

L. P. van Speybroeck, “Einstein observatory HEAO-B mirror design and performance,” in Space Optics Imaging X-Ray Optics Workshop, M. C. Weisskopf, ed., Proc. SPIE184, 2–11 (1979).
[CrossRef]

B. Aschenbach, H. Braeuninger, “Grazing incidence for ESA’s x-ray astronomy mission XMM,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, L. Golub, ed., Proc. SPIE982, 10–15 (1988).

P. Gondoin, B. R. Aschenbach, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. A. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J.-P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. I. Image quality,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

URL: http://astro.estec.esa.nl/XEUS/ .

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard ASTRO-E. II. Ground-based characterization with x ray.”

K. Misaki, Y. Hidaka, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Imamura, M. Ishida, K. Itoh, H. Kunieda, H. Mori, R. Shibata are preparing a manuscript on the measured results and modeling of the image blur in thin foil mirror telescopes.

R. L. Kelley, M. D. Audley, K. R. Boyce, S. R. Breon, R. Fujimoto, K. C. Gendreau, S. S. Holt, Y. Ishisaki, D. McCammon, T. Mihara, K. Mitsuda, S. H. Oseley, D. B. Mott, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “ASTRO-E highresolution x-ray spectrometer,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy X, O. H. Siegmund, K. A. Flanagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3765, 114–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Cummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Weisskopf, S. L. O’dell, L. P. van Speybroeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF),” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2805, 2–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Astro-E satellite. Two figures in the lower panel are seen from the +X axis of the satellite. The satellite is folded as is shown in the left-hand panel in the nose fairing. The top part with the telescopes is extended in orbit as is shown in the right-hand panel, to provide 4.5- and 4.75-m focal lengths for XRT-S and XRT-I, respectively. There is one XRS detector in the big neon Dewar on the satellite base plate. Four CCD cameras of the XIS are mounted on the base plate. The HXD is placed on the right-hand side of the base plate. The top view of the satellite is shown in the top panel. Four XRT-I telescopes surround one XRT-S telescope. The satellite is to be controlled to put the +Y axis toward the Sun so that the sunshades are placed on the right-hand side of telescopes to avoid direct solar illumination of the telescopes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sunshade. The subsunshade is designed to block sunlight from the XRT-S on the mirror support. The main sunshade covers the four XRT-I’s and the area below the subsunshade. Here the tilting of the subsunshade is designed so that the scattered solar x rays cannot be seen from the XRT-I’s. The maximum angle of the Sun from the satellite +Y axis (right-hand side in this figure) is assumed to be less than 30 deg.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission of thermal shield. The thermal shield is made of 0.24-µm PET and 30-nm aluminum with a supporting stainless-steel mesh. This graph shows the transmission including the mesh transmission of 93%, which can be recognized at the high-energy end. The edges correspond to carbon, oxygen, and aluminum at 0.28, 0.53, and 1.56 keV, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XRT with thermal shields. The left-hand panel shows one of the four XRT-I telescopes without thermal shields. One hundred seventy-five foil shells are installed in four quadrant housings. The diameter is 40 cm, and the height is 23 cm. On the side walls, heaters and a thermometer are attached with the wire harness. In the right-hand panel the XRT is shown with the thermal shield and the thermal cover around it. Heat loss to the sky is reduced by the thermal shield and that toward the slightly colder satellite body is screened by the aluminized Mylar film on the side wall. The residual heat loss is compensated for by the heaters to keep the XRT temperature at 20 ± 7.5 °C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two-stage conical optics. The Wolter type I optics (paraboloid–hyperboloid) is approximated by two cones. The focal length of F is so much longer than the diameter in grazing optics that the differences between parabolas and hyperbolas and cones are small. Many cones are coaxially nested to enhance the collecting area. The thickness d of each shell is 0.16 mm in the Astro-E XRT. The pitch p of shells at a radius r are approximately 0.3–1 mm for r of 6–20 cm, respectively. The cone angle of the converging beam is four times the incident angle to each reflector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Expected effective area of Astro-E XRT. The top panel (a) is the comparison of the total performance of instrument system of Astro-E and ASCA. Solid curve, area of four XRT-I’s for CCD cameras (XIS). Dotted curve, area of four ASCA XRT’s. Dashed curves, area of one XRT-S telescope. In the lower panel (b) the area of individual telescopes in Astro-E is shown. Solid curve, area of one XRT-I telescope. Dashed curve, area of one XRT-S telescope with platinum. Dotted–dashed curve, area of one XRT telescope with gold.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cone angles of the reflectors. As is shown in Fig. 5, the Astro-E XRT optics is a conical approximation to parabola and hyperbola shells. An incident angle of θ for each reflection is provided by cones with cone (half) angles of θ and 3θ. In other words, shells in the primary and the secondary stages are the parts of cones with heights of 4F/3 and 4F.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Quadrant of Astro-E XRT. The XRT shown in Fig. 4 consists of four quadrants of housings. The top left-hand panel is the top view of a quadrant with 175 coaxial mirror shells and 13 radial spokes, called alignment bars in the text. The bottom left-hand panel is the side view of a housing in two stages. The bottom right-hand panel shows the cross section of a housing, where each conical shell is supported by the grooves of the alignment bars on the top and bottom sides. Parallel x rays enter the telescope from the top and converge to the focal point on the symmetrical axis of the telescope.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Foils in the grooves. This is a close up of Fig. 8. Grooves are cut on the alignment bars with a depth of 1.6 mm and a width of 0.178 mm at the bottom. Foils of 0.16-mm thickness have some margin in the groove. The taper of 3 deg helps to guide foils into the groove. The distance between the bottoms of grooves on the top and the bottom alignment bars is 102.0 mm, whereas the foil length is 101.6 mm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Alignment of telescopes. The optical axes of the telescopes are measured relative to the XRT-S by the autocollimator, which looks into the reflector mounts on the individual telescopes. They can be compared with the alignment cube monitored by a laser theodolite by use of the absolute level. The focal points are confirmed by a TV camera mounted on the telescopes, which looks at the focal plane detectors.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Distribution of the bore sight of four telescopes. Telescope axes are plotted for XRT-S and XRT-I0 through XRT-I3. The origin of the coordinate system is the satellite axis. The scatter from the average axis is less than 1 arc min. The current scatter causes only a few percent loss of total effective area.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Dimensions of X-Ray Telescopes

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Table 2 Comparison of ASCA and Astro-E

Equations (5)

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SeffE=frinroutRE, θ2πrdr,
f=1-dp=1-ndrout-rin,
sin θc=2δ1/2,
θc=1.65E-1×Zρ/A1/2  deg.
tan 4θ=r/F.

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