Abstract

We study the sensitivities of space infrared interferometers. We formulate the signal-to-noise ratios of infrared images obtained by aperture synthesis in the presence of source shot noise, background shot noise, and detector read noise. We consider the case in which n beams are combined pairwise at n(n - 1)/2 detectors and the case in which all the n beams are combined at a single detector. We apply the results to future missions, Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin. We also discuss the potential of a far-infrared interferometer for a deep galaxy survey.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2000

H. Matsuhara, K. Kawara, Y. Sato, Y. Taniguchi, H. Okuda, T. Matsumoto, Y. Sofue, K. Wakamatsu, L. L. Cowie, R. D. Joseph, D. B. Sanders, “ISO deep far-infrared survey in the Lockman Hole. II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts,” Astron. Astrophys. 361, 407–414 (2000).

1999

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

1998

B. Guiderdoni, E. Hivon, F. R. Bouchet, B. Maffei, “Semi-analytic modelling of galaxy evolution in the IR/submm range,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 877–898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Kelsall, “The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment search for cosmic infrared background. II. Model of the interplanetary dust cloud,” Astrophys. J. 508, 44–73 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989

1973

Aussel, H.

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

Bock, J. J.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bouchet, F. R.

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

B. Guiderdoni, E. Hivon, F. R. Bouchet, B. Maffei, “Semi-analytic modelling of galaxy evolution in the IR/submm range,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 877–898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cesarsky, C.

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

Clements, D. L.

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

Cowie, L. L.

H. Matsuhara, K. Kawara, Y. Sato, Y. Taniguchi, H. Okuda, T. Matsumoto, Y. Sofue, K. Wakamatsu, L. L. Cowie, R. D. Joseph, D. B. Sanders, “ISO deep far-infrared survey in the Lockman Hole. II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts,” Astron. Astrophys. 361, 407–414 (2000).

Desert, F. X.

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

Dole, H.

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

Eiroa, C. L.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J.-M. Mariotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elbaz, D.

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

Fanson, J. L.

J. L. Fanson, G. G. Fazio, J. R. Houck, T. Kelley, G. H. Rieke, D. J. Tenerelli, M. Whitten, “Space Infrared Telescope Facility,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 478–491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fazio, G. G.

J. L. Fanson, G. G. Fazio, J. R. Houck, T. Kelley, G. H. Rieke, D. J. Tenerelli, M. Whitten, “Space Infrared Telescope Facility,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 478–491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Franceschini, A.

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

Fridlund, M.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J.-M. Mariotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

Guiderdoni, B.

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

B. Guiderdoni, E. Hivon, F. R. Bouchet, B. Maffei, “Semi-analytic modelling of galaxy evolution in the IR/submm range,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 877–898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, M.

T. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hivon, E.

B. Guiderdoni, E. Hivon, F. R. Bouchet, B. Maffei, “Semi-analytic modelling of galaxy evolution in the IR/submm range,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 877–898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Houck, J. R.

J. L. Fanson, G. G. Fazio, J. R. Houck, T. Kelley, G. H. Rieke, D. J. Tenerelli, M. Whitten, “Space Infrared Telescope Facility,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 478–491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hristov, V. V.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R. D.

H. Matsuhara, K. Kawara, Y. Sato, Y. Taniguchi, H. Okuda, T. Matsumoto, Y. Sofue, K. Wakamatsu, L. L. Cowie, R. D. Joseph, D. B. Sanders, “ISO deep far-infrared survey in the Lockman Hole. II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts,” Astron. Astrophys. 361, 407–414 (2000).

Kawada, M.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawara, K.

H. Matsuhara, K. Kawara, Y. Sato, Y. Taniguchi, H. Okuda, T. Matsumoto, Y. Sofue, K. Wakamatsu, L. L. Cowie, R. D. Joseph, D. B. Sanders, “ISO deep far-infrared survey in the Lockman Hole. II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts,” Astron. Astrophys. 361, 407–414 (2000).

Kelley, T.

J. L. Fanson, G. G. Fazio, J. R. Houck, T. Kelley, G. H. Rieke, D. J. Tenerelli, M. Whitten, “Space Infrared Telescope Facility,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 478–491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kelsall, T.

T. Kelsall, “The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment search for cosmic infrared background. II. Model of the interplanetary dust cloud,” Astrophys. J. 508, 44–73 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, S. R.

Lagache, G.

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

Lange, A. E.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leger, A.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J.-M. Mariotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maffei, B.

B. Guiderdoni, E. Hivon, F. R. Bouchet, B. Maffei, “Semi-analytic modelling of galaxy evolution in the IR/submm range,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 877–898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mariotti, J.-M.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J.-M. Mariotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matsuhara, H.

H. Matsuhara, K. Kawara, Y. Sato, Y. Taniguchi, H. Okuda, T. Matsumoto, Y. Sofue, K. Wakamatsu, L. L. Cowie, R. D. Joseph, D. B. Sanders, “ISO deep far-infrared survey in the Lockman Hole. II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts,” Astron. Astrophys. 361, 407–414 (2000).

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

H. Matsuhara, K. Kawara, Y. Sato, Y. Taniguchi, H. Okuda, T. Matsumoto, Y. Sofue, K. Wakamatsu, L. L. Cowie, R. D. Joseph, D. B. Sanders, “ISO deep far-infrared survey in the Lockman Hole. II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts,” Astron. Astrophys. 361, 407–414 (2000).

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, S.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mauskopf, P. D.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moorwood, A. F. M.

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

Murakami, H.

T. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Murakami, “Japanese infrared survey mission IRIS (ASTRO-F),” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 471–477 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, T.

T. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okuda, H.

H. Matsuhara, K. Kawara, Y. Sato, Y. Taniguchi, H. Okuda, T. Matsumoto, Y. Sofue, K. Wakamatsu, L. L. Cowie, R. D. Joseph, D. B. Sanders, “ISO deep far-infrared survey in the Lockman Hole. II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts,” Astron. Astrophys. 361, 407–414 (2000).

T. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Onaka, T.

T. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Penny, A. J.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J.-M. Mariotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pilbratt, G.

G. Pilbratt, “The first mission: baseline, science objectives and operations,” in The Far Infrared and Submillimeter Universe, A. Wilson, ed., ESA EP-401 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1997), p. 7.

Prasad, S.

Puget, J. L.

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

Reach, W. T.

J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

Richards, P. L.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rieke, G. H.

J. L. Fanson, G. G. Fazio, J. R. Houck, T. Kelley, G. H. Rieke, D. J. Tenerelli, M. Whitten, “Space Infrared Telescope Facility,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 478–491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robin, J.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J.-M. Mariotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, D. B.

H. Matsuhara, K. Kawara, Y. Sato, Y. Taniguchi, H. Okuda, T. Matsumoto, Y. Sofue, K. Wakamatsu, L. L. Cowie, R. D. Joseph, D. B. Sanders, “ISO deep far-infrared survey in the Lockman Hole. II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts,” Astron. Astrophys. 361, 407–414 (2000).

Sato, Y.

H. Matsuhara, K. Kawara, Y. Sato, Y. Taniguchi, H. Okuda, T. Matsumoto, Y. Sofue, K. Wakamatsu, L. L. Cowie, R. D. Joseph, D. B. Sanders, “ISO deep far-infrared survey in the Lockman Hole. II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts,” Astron. Astrophys. 361, 407–414 (2000).

Schalinski, C.

A. J. Penny, A. Leger, J.-M. Mariotti, C. Schalinski, C. L. Eiroa, J. Robin, M. Fridlund, “DARWIN interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 666–671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shibai, H.

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H. Matsuhara, K. Kawara, Y. Sato, Y. Taniguchi, H. Okuda, T. Matsumoto, Y. Sofue, K. Wakamatsu, L. L. Cowie, R. D. Joseph, D. B. Sanders, “ISO deep far-infrared survey in the Lockman Hole. II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts,” Astron. Astrophys. 361, 407–414 (2000).

Tanaka, M.

M. Kawada, J. J. Bock, V. V. Hristov, A. E. Lange, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, S. Matsuura, P. D. Mauskopf, P. L. Richards, M. Tanaka, “A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high galactic latitude,” Astrophys. J. 425, L89–L92 (1994).
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H. Matsuhara, K. Kawara, Y. Sato, Y. Taniguchi, H. Okuda, T. Matsumoto, Y. Sofue, K. Wakamatsu, L. L. Cowie, R. D. Joseph, D. B. Sanders, “ISO deep far-infrared survey in the Lockman Hole. II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts,” Astron. Astrophys. 361, 407–414 (2000).

Tenerelli, D. J.

J. L. Fanson, G. G. Fazio, J. R. Houck, T. Kelley, G. H. Rieke, D. J. Tenerelli, M. Whitten, “Space Infrared Telescope Facility,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 478–491 (1998).
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T. Nakagawa, M. Hayashi, M. Kawada, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Okuda, T. Onaka, H. Shibai, M. Ueno, “HII/L2 mission: future Japanese infrared astronomical mission,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 462–470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wakamatsu, K.

H. Matsuhara, K. Kawara, Y. Sato, Y. Taniguchi, H. Okuda, T. Matsumoto, Y. Sofue, K. Wakamatsu, L. L. Cowie, R. D. Joseph, D. B. Sanders, “ISO deep far-infrared survey in the Lockman Hole. II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts,” Astron. Astrophys. 361, 407–414 (2000).

Walkup, J. F.

Whitten, M.

J. L. Fanson, G. G. Fazio, J. R. Houck, T. Kelley, G. H. Rieke, D. J. Tenerelli, M. Whitten, “Space Infrared Telescope Facility,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 478–491 (1998).
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J. L. Puget, G. Lagache, D. L. Clements, W. T. Reach, H. Aussel, F. R. Bouchet, C. Cesarsky, F. X. Desert, H. Dole, D. Elbaz, A. Franceschini, B. Guiderdoni, A. F. M. Moorwood, “FIRBACK. I. A deep survey at 175 microns with ISO, preliminary results,” Astron. Astrophys. 345, 29–35 (1999).

H. Matsuhara, K. Kawara, Y. Sato, Y. Taniguchi, H. Okuda, T. Matsumoto, Y. Sofue, K. Wakamatsu, L. L. Cowie, R. D. Joseph, D. B. Sanders, “ISO deep far-infrared survey in the Lockman Hole. II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts,” Astron. Astrophys. 361, 407–414 (2000).

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J. L. Fanson, G. G. Fazio, J. R. Houck, T. Kelley, G. H. Rieke, D. J. Tenerelli, M. Whitten, “Space Infrared Telescope Facility,” in Space Telescope and Instruments, V. P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 478–491 (1998).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Focal plane interferometer and a detector array. This configuration exists for each baseline of an n C 2 interferometer. The effect of shot noise on the photodetection process has been fully formulated for this situation. For spectrally broad light, the fringe can be dispersed in the cross fringe direction if a two-dimensional detector is used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-dimensional (2D) 3 C 3 interferometer. Fringes are superposed at the focal plane of a two-dimensional detector. Because the fringes cannot be dispersed, the spectral bandwidth of this interferometer is limited.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

One-dimensional (1D) 3 C 3′ interferometer. One-dimensional fringes are dispersed in the cross fringe direction and superposed at the focal plane of a two-dimensional detector. Spectrally broad light can be observed by an n C n interferometer with one-dimensional baselines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Detection limits of a TPF-like interferometer. Detection limits of 5σ are plotted as functions of wavelength for the maximum baseline lengths of 100 m and 1 km for an n C 2 interferometer (solid curve) and a one-dimensional n C n ′ interferometer (dashed curve). Assumptions about other parameters are given in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Detection limits of a Darwin-like interferometer. Detection limits of 5σ are plotted as functions of wavelength for the maximum baseline lengths of 100 m and 1 km for an n C 2 interferometer (solid curve) and a one-dimensional n C n ′ interferometer (dashed curve). Assumptions about other parameters are given in the text.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Detection limits of a five-element compact array with artificially cooled apertures. Detection limits of 5σ of a two-dimensional n C n interferometer are plotted as functions of wavelength for the maximum baseline lengths of 10, 30, and 100 m. Assumptions about other parameters are given in the text.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Confusion limits of monolithic observatories. The confusion limits predicted from the model E of Guiderdoni et al.14 (solid curve) are compared with those estimated from ISO observations by Matsuhara et al.16 (polygon) and Puget et al.15 (triangle).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison with monolithic observatories. The sensitivity of an n C 2 interferometer composed of four 3.5-m apertures is plotted for telescope temperatures of 5, 10, 20, and 40 K with an emissivity of 5%. The maximum baseline length is assumed to be 100 m. The dashed curves denote the sensitivities of NGST, SPICA, and FIRST that are given for comparison.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison with monolithic observatories. The sensitivity of a one-dimensional n C n ′ interferometer composed of four 3.5-m apertures is plotted for telescope temperatures of 5, 10, 20, and 40 K with an emissivity of 5%. The maximum baseline length is assumed to be 100 m. The dashed curves denote the sensitivities of NGST, SPICA, and FIRST that are given for comparison.

Equations (64)

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Irx=2I01+γr cosκx·Br/d+ϕr,
I0=I0s+I0b,
γr=I0sI0s+I0bγrs.
γrs expiϕr= Sx, yexp-2πiux+vydxdy Sx, ydxdy.
krp=2K01+γr cospωr+ϕr.
lrp=krp+rrp,
yr=p=1Plrpexp-ipωr.
zr=p=1Pkrpexp-ipωr
p=1Prrpexp-ipωr=p=1Prrpexp-ipωr=0,
Yr=yr=Nγr expiϕr.
i1q=Rer=1nbyr exp+iωrq=rReyrcosωrq-Imyrsinωrq.
I1q=Rer=1nbYr exp+iωrq,
I1q=Nrγr cosωrq+ϕr=NrI0sI0s+I0bγrs cosωrq+ϕr.
Vi1q=i1q2-i1q2=r=1nbs=1nbReyrReys-ReyrReyscosωrqcosωsq-ReyrImys-ReyrImys×cosωrqsinωsq-ImyrReys-ImyrReyssinωrqcosωsq+ImyrImys-ImyrImyssinωrqsinωsq.
covReyr, Reys=ReyrReys-Reyr×Reys=p=1Pp=1Plrplsp-lrplsp×cosωrpcosωrp,
lrplsp-lrplsp=krpksp-krp×ksp+krprsp-krprsp+rrpksp-rrpksp+rrprsp-rrprsp.
krpksp-krpksp=δrsδppkrp,
krprsp-krprsp=rrpksp-rrp×ksp=0,
rrprsp-rrprsp=δrsδppσ2.
lrplsp-lrplsp=δrsδppkrp+σ2,
covReyr, Reys=VReyrδrs=δrspkrp+σ2cosωrp2=δrsN+Pσ22.
covReyr, Imys=covImyr, Reys=0,
covImyr, Imys=δrsN+Pσ22.
Vi1q=rN+Pσ22cos2ωrq+N+Pσ22sin2ωrq=rN+Pσ22=nbN+Pσ22=C2+nbPσ22.
I10Vi101/2=C/2I0s/I0s+I0bC/2+nbPσ2/21/2.
Ix=I0n+2g<hγgh cosκx·Bgh/d+ϕgh,
kp=Q0n+g<hγgh cospωgh+ϕgh.
lp=kp+rp,
ygh=p=1Plpexp-ipωgh.
Yij=Q0pexp-ipωijn+2g<hγgh cospωgh+ϕgh+prpexp-ipωij=Q0pg<hγghexpiϕghexpipωgh-ωij+exp-iϕghexp-ipωgh+ωij.
Yij=Zij=Mγij expiϕij,
i2q=Rei<jyij expiqωij=i<jReyijcosqωij-Imyijsinqωij.
I2q=Rei<jYij exp(+iqωij)=Mi<jγij cosqωij+ϕij.
Vi2q=nM+Pσ22nb+Mn-2i<jγij×cosqωij+ϕij=nM+Pσ22nb+Mn-2×i<jI0sI0s+I0bγijs cosqωij+ϕij.
I10Vi101/2=M I0s/I0s+I0bnb1/2nM+Pσ2/2+Mn-2I0s/I0s+I0b1/2=C I0s/I0s+I0bn-1/n1/2C+Pσ2+CI0s/I0s+I0b2n-2/n1/2.
SNR1=C1/2I0s/I0bC1/2+nbP1σ2/21/2,
SNR2=C2I0s/I0bn-1/n1/2C2+P2σ21/2,
SNR2=C2I0s/I0bn-1/n1/2C2+P2σ21/2,
SNR1=c1/2I0s/I0bc1/2+nbPxσ2/21/2.
SNR1=PySNR1=Pyc1/2I0s/I0bc1/2+nbPxσ2/21/2=C1/2I0s/I0bC1/2+nbPxPyσ2/21/2=C1/2I0s/I0bC1/2+nbP1σ2/21/2.
SNR1=C121/2I0sI0b.
SNR2=C21/2I0sI0bn-1n1/2.
SNR2=2n-1n1/2SNR1.
C1=C2,
C1/C2=Δν/νD/B,
SNR1/SNR2=C1C2n2n-11/2=ΔννBDn2n-11/2.
BDcross over=νΔν2n-1n.
SNR1/SNR2=n2n-11/2,
SNR1=C1/2I0s/I0bnbP1σ2/21/2,
SNR2=C2I0s/I0bn-1/n1/2P2σ2/21/2,
SNR2=C2I0s/I0bn-1/n1/2P2σ21/2,
SNR1/SNR2=2n-1ΔννBD3/2.
BDcross over=n-122νΔν21/3
SNR1/SNR2=1n-1.
Vi2q=i2q2=i2q2=i<jk<lReyijReykl-Reyij×Reyklcosωijqcosωklq-ReyijImykl-Reyij×Imyklcosωijqsinωklq-ImyijReykl-Imyij×Reyyklsinωijqcosωklq+ImyijImykl-Imyij×Imyklsinωijqsinωklq.
covReyij, Reykl=pkp+σ2cospwijcospwkl=pQ0n+σ2+Q0g<hγgh cospwgh+ϕgh×cospwijcospwkl.
pcospωijcospωkl=pexpipωij+exp-ipωij2expipωkl+exp-ipωkl2=pexpipωij+ωkl4+expipωij-ωkl4+exp-ipωij+ωkl4+exp-ipωij-ωkl4=Pδikδjl2.
ωgh±ωij±ωkl0,
pg<hγgh cospωgh+ϕghcospωijcospωkl=γ cos ϕ2Δij,kl,
covReyij, Reykl=Mn+Pσ22δikδjl+Mγ cos ϕ2Δij,kl.
covImyij, Imykl=Mn+Pσ22δikδjlMγ cos ϕ2Δij,kl.
covReyij, Imykl=Mγ sin ϕ2Δij,kl×+1sgni-j for i=k, sgni-k for j=l,
covReyij, Imykl=±covImyij, Reykl.
Vi2q=nM+Pσ22i<jcos2qωij+sin2qωij+M2i<jk<lΔij,kl cosqωij±ωklγ cos ϕ-i<j=k<lsinqωij+ωklγil sin ϕil+ωkl)]γil sin ϕil+ωkl)]γil sin ϕil+ωkl)]γil sin ϕil+ωkl)]γil sin ϕil+ωkl)]γil sin ϕil+ωkl)]γil sin ϕil+ωkl)]γil sin ϕil+ωkl)]γil sin ϕil+ωkl)]γil sin ϕil+ωkl)]γil sin ϕil+ωkl)]γil sin ϕil-k<l=i<jsinqωij+ωklγkj sin ϕkj-j<ln-l+j-1sinqωil+ωijγjl sin ϕjl-l<jn-j+l-1sinq-ωil+ωijγij sin ϕlj.

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