Abstract

The spectral responsivity of several types of silicon photodiode at oblique incidence (≈45°) is investigated. Both windowless diodes and diodes that incorporate quartz windows are considered. The spectral responsivities are measured directly for both parallel and perpendicular polarized radiation. For comparison, the responsivity at oblique incidence is also calculated from the normal-incidence measured responsivity in conjunction with the reflectance values at normal and oblique incidence calculated from thin-film theory by use of the measured oxide thicknesses of the diodes and published data on the refractive indices of silicon and fused silica. A technique, believed to be novel, is described for accurately measuring the oxide thicknesses of the diodes. A comparison of calculated and measured responsivity values shows that, when imperfect polarizers are used, it may be more accurate over a certain spectral range to calculate the responsivities at oblique incidence rather than to measure them directly. The additional uncertainty associated with the calculated responsivity values at oblique incidence, with respect to the original source data for normal incidence, is ±1% over a wide spectral range.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964), pp. 38–41.
  8. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), pp. 547–569, 759–761.
  9. O. S. Heavens, “Measurement of optical constants of thin films,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, New York, 1964), Vol. 2, pp. 205–207.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. R. M. A. Azzam, M. M. K. Howlader, “Measurement of the thickness of dielectric thin films on silicon photodetectors using the angular response to incident linearly polarized light,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 43, 799–802 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. P. Boivin, “Measurements using two types of transfer radiometer developed for a monochromator-based cryogenic radiometer facility,” Metrologia 35, 363–368 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

1997

J. C. Zwinkels, D. S. Gignac, M. Nevins, I. Powell, A. Bewsher, “Design and testing of a two-monochromator reference spectrofluorimeter for high-accuracy total radiance factor measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 892–902 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Tsai, “Developments for a new spectral irradiance scale at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 551–558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gardner, F. J. Wilkinson, “Angular effects in silicon photodiode responsivity comparisons,” Metrologia 34, 111–114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Goebel, S. Yilmaz, R. Pello, “Polarization dependence of trap detectors,” Metrologia 33, 207–213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. M. A. Azzam, M. M. K. Howlader, “Measurement of the thickness of dielectric thin films on silicon photodetectors using the angular response to incident linearly polarized light,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 43, 799–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gardner, “Transmission trap detectors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5914–5918 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

N. P. Fox, “Trap detectors and their properties,” Metrologia 28, 197–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, M. M. K. Howlader, “Measurement of the thickness of dielectric thin films on silicon photodetectors using the angular response to incident linearly polarized light,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 43, 799–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bewsher, A.

Boivin, L. P.

L. P. Boivin, “Measurements using two types of transfer radiometer developed for a monochromator-based cryogenic radiometer facility,” Metrologia 35, 363–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Boivin, “Properties of indium antimonide detectors for use as transfer standards for detector calibrations,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1924–1929 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Boivin, “Monochromator-based cryogenic radiometry at the NRC,” Metrologia 32, 565–570 (1995/1996).
[CrossRef]

Bonhoure, J.

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964), pp. 38–41.

Duda, C. R.

Fox, N. P.

N. P. Fox, “Trap detectors and their properties,” Metrologia 28, 197–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J. L.

J. L. Gardner, F. J. Wilkinson, “Angular effects in silicon photodiode responsivity comparisons,” Metrologia 34, 111–114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gardner, “Transmission trap detectors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5914–5918 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gignac, D. S.

Goebel, R.

R. Goebel, S. Yilmaz, R. Pello, “Polarization dependence of trap detectors,” Metrologia 33, 207–213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Haapalinna, A.

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, “Measurement of optical constants of thin films,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, New York, 1964), Vol. 2, pp. 205–207.

Howlader, M. M. K.

R. M. A. Azzam, M. M. K. Howlader, “Measurement of the thickness of dielectric thin films on silicon photodetectors using the angular response to incident linearly polarized light,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 43, 799–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ikonen, E.

Kärhä, P.

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Metzdorf, J.

P. Sperfeld, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, W. Möller, J. Metzdorf, “Spectral irradiance scale based on radiometric black-body temperature measurements,” Metrologia 32, 435–439 (1995/1996).
[CrossRef]

Möller, W.

P. Sperfeld, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, W. Möller, J. Metzdorf, “Spectral irradiance scale based on radiometric black-body temperature measurements,” Metrologia 32, 435–439 (1995/1996).
[CrossRef]

Nawo, B.

P. Sperfeld, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, W. Möller, J. Metzdorf, “Spectral irradiance scale based on radiometric black-body temperature measurements,” Metrologia 32, 435–439 (1995/1996).
[CrossRef]

Nevins, M.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), pp. 547–569, 759–761.

Pello, R.

R. Goebel, S. Yilmaz, R. Pello, “Polarization dependence of trap detectors,” Metrologia 33, 207–213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

Raatz, K.-H.

P. Sperfeld, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, W. Möller, J. Metzdorf, “Spectral irradiance scale based on radiometric black-body temperature measurements,” Metrologia 32, 435–439 (1995/1996).
[CrossRef]

Sperfeld, P.

P. Sperfeld, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, W. Möller, J. Metzdorf, “Spectral irradiance scale based on radiometric black-body temperature measurements,” Metrologia 32, 435–439 (1995/1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, B. K.

B. K. Tsai, “Developments for a new spectral irradiance scale at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 551–558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, F. J.

J. L. Gardner, F. J. Wilkinson, “Angular effects in silicon photodiode responsivity comparisons,” Metrologia 34, 111–114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964), pp. 38–41.

Yilmaz, S.

R. Goebel, S. Yilmaz, R. Pello, “Polarization dependence of trap detectors,” Metrologia 33, 207–213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zalewski, E. F.

Zwinkels, J. C.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

R. M. A. Azzam, M. M. K. Howlader, “Measurement of the thickness of dielectric thin films on silicon photodetectors using the angular response to incident linearly polarized light,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 43, 799–802 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.

B. K. Tsai, “Developments for a new spectral irradiance scale at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 551–558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

L. P. Boivin, “Monochromator-based cryogenic radiometry at the NRC,” Metrologia 32, 565–570 (1995/1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gardner, F. J. Wilkinson, “Angular effects in silicon photodiode responsivity comparisons,” Metrologia 34, 111–114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Goebel, S. Yilmaz, R. Pello, “Polarization dependence of trap detectors,” Metrologia 33, 207–213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Boivin, “Measurements using two types of transfer radiometer developed for a monochromator-based cryogenic radiometer facility,” Metrologia 35, 363–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Fox, “Trap detectors and their properties,” Metrologia 28, 197–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Sperfeld, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, W. Möller, J. Metzdorf, “Spectral irradiance scale based on radiometric black-body temperature measurements,” Metrologia 32, 435–439 (1995/1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964), pp. 38–41.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), pp. 547–569, 759–761.

O. S. Heavens, “Measurement of optical constants of thin films,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, New York, 1964), Vol. 2, pp. 205–207.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated spectral reflectances for two silicon photodiodes at 45° incidence and corresponding to both parallel and perpendicular polarizations: a windowless Hamamatsu S6337 diode and a UDT UV100 diode with a quartz window, having measured oxide thicknesses of 29.3 and 124.6 nm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the apparatus used to measure the spectral responsivity of the silicon photodiodes at oblique angles of incidence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio of spectral responsivities corresponding to parallel and perpendicular polarizations for angles of incidence of 25° and 45°: calculated values for three oxide thicknesses (25, 30, and 35 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sum of squares of the deviations between the measured ratio of responsivities (parallel to perpendicular polarizations) and the calculated ratios for a wide range of oxide thicknesses. Results are shown for two types of silicon photodiode: UDT UV100 and Hamamatsu S1337. The summations were carried out over the spectral range 250–600 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ratio of spectral responsivities corresponding to parallel and perpendicular polarizations for an angle of incidence of 45°: comparison of measured values with the values calculated for the measured oxide thickness of the silicon diode, for two types of windowless diode: Hamamatsu S6337 and EG&G UV444.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ratio of spectral responsivities corresponding to parallel and perpendicular polarizations for an angle of incidence of 45°: comparison of measured values with the values calculated for the measured oxide thickness of the silicon diode, for a Hamamatsu S1337 diode with and without a quartz window.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured spectral responsivity at normal incidence and 45° incidence for a silicon-diode type EG&G UV444 (windowless); also shown are the values calculated at 45° with the measured oxide thickness value (112.4 nm); results at 45° incidence are given for both parallel (‖) and perpendicular (⊥) polarizations. The curves at the top give the differences between measured and calculated values at 45° incidence for both states of polarization.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured spectral responsivity at normal incidence and 45° incidence for a silicon-diode type UDT UV100 (quartz window); also shown are the calculated values at 45° with the measured oxide thickness value (124.6 nm); results at 45° incidence are given for both parallel (‖) and perpendicular (⊥) polarizations. The curves at the top give the differences between measured and calculated values at 45° incidence for both states of polarization.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured spectral responsivity at normal incidence and 45° incidence for a silicon-diode type Hamamatsu S6337 (windowless); also shown are the calculated values at 45° with the measured oxide thickness value (29.3 nm); results at 45° incidence are given for both parallel (‖) and perpendicular (⊥) polarizations. The curves at the top give the differences between measured and calculated values at 45° incidence for both states of polarization.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectral responsivity of a windowless Hamamatsu S1337 diode at 45° incidence for parallel and perpendicular polarization: differences between calculated and measured values corresponding to the use of two different polarizers.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectral responsivity of a three-detector reflection trap: Comparison of measured and calculated values; the dotted–dashed curve shows the percentage differences between the solid and the dashed curves. The measured normal-incidence responsivity for a single diode is also shown.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measured Oxide Thicknesses of Various Types of Silicon Photodiode

Equations (6)

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Rtotλ, θ=Rwinλ, θ+RSiλ, θ-2Rwinλ, θRSiλ, θ1-Rwinλ, θRSiλ, θ,
Sθλ=S0λ1-Rtotλ, θ/1-Rtotλ, 0
RATcalcλ, θ=1-Rtotλ, θ/1-Rtotλ, θ.
λminλmaxRATcalc-RATmeas/RATmeas2minimum.
Rtrapλ=RSiλ, 0°RSiλ, 45°2RSiλ, 45°2,
Strapλ=S0λ1-Rtrapλ/1-RSiλ, 0,

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