Abstract

We describe the advantages of using diffractive (Fresnel) lenses on thin membranes over conventional optics for, among others, future space telescope projects. Fabrication methods are presented for lenses on two types of freestanding membrane up to 50 cm in size. The first is a Fresnel lens etched into a thin (380-µm) glass sheet, and the second is an ∼50-µm-thick polymer membrane containing a Fresnel lens made by replication process from a specially made fused-silica master. We show optical performance analysis of all the lenses that are fabricated, including a diffraction-limited Airy spot from a 20-m- focal-length membrane lens in a diffractive telescope system.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. L. Endelman, “The Hubble Space Telescope mission, history, and systems,” in 19th International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, P. W. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE1358, 422–441 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. L. Endelman, “Hubble Space Telescope: now and then,” in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE2869, 44–57 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. P. Angel, “Glass mirrors for space telescopes,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, R. S. McDowell, ed., Proc. SPIE542, 32–34 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. S. Stockman, M. Stiavelli, J. C. Mather, “The NGST science mission,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 133, 24–33 (1998).
  5. M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, eds., “Petawatt laser report,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1996).
  6. R. A. Hyde, “Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4198–4212 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Falkis, G. M. Morris, “Broadband imaging with holographic lenses,” Opt. Eng. 28, 592–598 (1989).
  8. R. E. Hufnagel, “Achromatic holographic optical system,” U.S. patent4,550,973 (5November1985).
  9. M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”
  10. R. Angel, J. Burge, N. Woolf, “Ultralightweight space optics,” Opt. Photon. News (December, 1999), p. 9.
  11. J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).
  12. See, for example, H.-P. Herzig, ed., Micro-optics: Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).
  13. K. N. Christodoulou, L. E. Scriven, “The fluid mechanics of slide coating,” J. Fluid Mech. 208, 321–354 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. G. Blough, M. Rossi, S. K. Mack, R. L. Michaels, “Single-point diamond turning and replication of visible and near-infrared diffractive optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4648–4654 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. T. Gale, “Replication technology for diffractive optical elements,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 111–123 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. G. Harvey, “Replication techniques for micro-optics,” in Micro-optical Technology for Measurement, Sensors and Microsystems II and Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies and Applications, O. M. Parriaux, B. Culshaw, M. Breidne, E. Kley, eds., Proc. SPIE3099, 76–82 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. Angel, J. Burge, N. Woolf, “Ultralightweight space optics,” Opt. Photon. News (December, 1999), p. 9.

1998 (2)

H. S. Stockman, M. Stiavelli, J. C. Mather, “The NGST science mission,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 133, 24–33 (1998).

R. A. Hyde, “Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4198–4212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1989 (2)

K. N. Christodoulou, L. E. Scriven, “The fluid mechanics of slide coating,” J. Fluid Mech. 208, 321–354 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Falkis, G. M. Morris, “Broadband imaging with holographic lenses,” Opt. Eng. 28, 592–598 (1989).

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel, “Glass mirrors for space telescopes,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, R. S. McDowell, ed., Proc. SPIE542, 32–34 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Angel, R.

R. Angel, J. Burge, N. Woolf, “Ultralightweight space optics,” Opt. Photon. News (December, 1999), p. 9.

Auyang, L.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

Barton, I. M.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

Battersby, C. L.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

Blough, C. G.

Britten, J. A.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

Burge, J.

R. Angel, J. Burge, N. Woolf, “Ultralightweight space optics,” Opt. Photon. News (December, 1999), p. 9.

Cagle, H.

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

Christodoulou, K. N.

K. N. Christodoulou, L. E. Scriven, “The fluid mechanics of slide coating,” J. Fluid Mech. 208, 321–354 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S. N.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

Eckart, M.

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

Endelman, L. L.

L. L. Endelman, “The Hubble Space Telescope mission, history, and systems,” in 19th International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, P. W. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE1358, 422–441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Endelman, “Hubble Space Telescope: now and then,” in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE2869, 44–57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Falkis, D.

D. Falkis, G. M. Morris, “Broadband imaging with holographic lenses,” Opt. Eng. 28, 592–598 (1989).

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, “Replication technology for diffractive optical elements,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 111–123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, T. G.

T. G. Harvey, “Replication techniques for micro-optics,” in Micro-optical Technology for Measurement, Sensors and Microsystems II and Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies and Applications, O. M. Parriaux, B. Culshaw, M. Breidne, E. Kley, eds., Proc. SPIE3099, 76–82 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herman, S. M.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

Hoaglan, C. R.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

Hufnagel, R. E.

R. E. Hufnagel, “Achromatic holographic optical system,” U.S. patent4,550,973 (5November1985).

Hyde, R.

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

Hyde, R. A.

Lu, K.

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

Mack, S. K.

Mather, J. C.

H. S. Stockman, M. Stiavelli, J. C. Mather, “The NGST science mission,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 133, 24–33 (1998).

Michaels, R. L.

Morris, G. M.

D. Falkis, G. M. Morris, “Broadband imaging with holographic lenses,” Opt. Eng. 28, 592–598 (1989).

Mouser, R. P.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

Parham, T. G.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

Patterson, F. G.

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

Perry, M. D.

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

Prior, J.

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

Rossi, M.

Rushford, M.

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

Rushford, M. C.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

Scriven, L. E.

K. N. Christodoulou, L. E. Scriven, “The fluid mechanics of slide coating,” J. Fluid Mech. 208, 321–354 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Seppala, L.

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

Shore, B. W.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

Stiavelli, M.

H. S. Stockman, M. Stiavelli, J. C. Mather, “The NGST science mission,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 133, 24–33 (1998).

Stockman, H. S.

H. S. Stockman, M. Stiavelli, J. C. Mather, “The NGST science mission,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 133, 24–33 (1998).

Summers, L.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

Thompson, C. T.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

Woolf, N.

R. Angel, J. Burge, N. Woolf, “Ultralightweight space optics,” Opt. Photon. News (December, 1999), p. 9.

Yoshiyama, J. M.

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. (1)

H. S. Stockman, M. Stiavelli, J. C. Mather, “The NGST science mission,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 133, 24–33 (1998).

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

K. N. Christodoulou, L. E. Scriven, “The fluid mechanics of slide coating,” J. Fluid Mech. 208, 321–354 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. Falkis, G. M. Morris, “Broadband imaging with holographic lenses,” Opt. Eng. 28, 592–598 (1989).

Opt. Photon. News (1)

R. Angel, J. Burge, N. Woolf, “Ultralightweight space optics,” Opt. Photon. News (December, 1999), p. 9.

Other (10)

J. A. Britten, S. M. Herman, L. Summers, M. C. Rushford, L. Auyang, I. M. Barton, B. W. Shore, S. N. Dixit, T. G. Parham, C. R. Hoaglan, C. T. Thompson, C. L. Battersby, J. M. Yoshiyama, R. P. Mouser, “Manufacture, optical performance, and laser damage characteristics of diffractive optics for the National Ignition Facility,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 337–346 (1999).

See, for example, H.-P. Herzig, ed., Micro-optics: Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).

R. E. Hufnagel, “Achromatic holographic optical system,” U.S. patent4,550,973 (5November1985).

M. Rushford (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550), I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, H. Cagle, S. N. Dixit, M. Eckart, R. Hyde, K. Lu, F. G. Patterson, J. Prior, L. Seppala, L. Summers, M. D. Perry are preparing a manuscript to be called “Demonstration of a large aperture diffractive telescope.”

L. L. Endelman, “The Hubble Space Telescope mission, history, and systems,” in 19th International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, P. W. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE1358, 422–441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Endelman, “Hubble Space Telescope: now and then,” in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, D. L. Paisley, ed., Proc. SPIE2869, 44–57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. P. Angel, “Glass mirrors for space telescopes,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, R. S. McDowell, ed., Proc. SPIE542, 32–34 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, eds., “Petawatt laser report,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1996).

M. T. Gale, “Replication technology for diffractive optical elements,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 111–123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Harvey, “Replication techniques for micro-optics,” in Micro-optical Technology for Measurement, Sensors and Microsystems II and Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies and Applications, O. M. Parriaux, B. Culshaw, M. Breidne, E. Kley, eds., Proc. SPIE3099, 76–82 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission wave front of the central 15 cm × 30 cm section of a 380-µm-thick zinc borosilicate glass sheet (Corning Code 0211) made by a thermal extrusion process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the photolithographic process used for the fabrication of diffractive elements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

One-dimensional radial surface-relief profile showing the feature size near the edge of a binary Fresnel lens fabricated in a 380-µm zinc borosilicate glass sheet by use of chemical etching.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the UV-embossing replication method developed to produce Fresnel lenses in thin freestanding polymer membranes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface-relief profile from a replicated Fresnel lens in a 60-µm-thick polymer membrane. The features present in the corresponding diffractive master are reproduced accurately, with the only significant change being a ∼1% uniform shrinkage across the optic.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Image of the focal spot from a 20-m focal-length diffractive telescope setup, with the 20-cm-diameter polymer membrane lens acting as the primary. The imaging CCD camera has a pixel size of 6.8 µm, hence the spot is ∼102 µm in diameter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission wave front from a 40-cm-diameter central region of a replicated flat polymer membrane. The 60-µm-thick membrane has a diameter of 53 cm. It was made with a replication process.

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