Abstract

We have developed a broadly tunable diode laser system by employing custom-designed asymmetric multiple-quantum-well (AMQW) InGaAsP lasers in an external cavity configuration. Feedback is provided by a diffractive optical element with high coupling efficiency and wavelength selectivity, allowing for single-mode tuning of the output wavelength by varying the external cavity length. This tunable laser system was used experimentally to perform absorption spectroscopy on weak CO2 lines over a broad wavelength region in the near infrared. An experimental tuning range of 80 nm has been observed for a laser cavity length of 600 µm, which is double the tuning range found with conventional, uncoated quantum-well lasers. We achieved a detection sensitivity of 5 × 10-6 at 95% confidence over the wavelength range of 1.54–1.62 µm by employing a second-harmonic detection technique. The theoretical predictions of a broad gain profile from an ambipolar rate equation model are found to correspond to the experimentally observed increased tunability of the uncoated AMQW lasers.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Reid, J. Shewchun, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity pollution detection employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 300–307 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. F. Ventrudo, D. T. Cassidy, “Operating characteristics of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer using short-external-cavity and DFB laser diodes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5007–5013 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Konig, T. W. Hansch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, “Observation of CO and CO2 absorption near 1.57 µm with an external-cavity diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3298–3300 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Weldon, J. O’Gorman, P. Phelan, T. Tanbun-Ek, “Gas sensing with λ = 1.57 µm distributed feedback laser diodes using overtone and combination band absorption,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3867–3870 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, “Measurements of CO, CO2, OH, and H2O in room-temperature and combustion gases by use of a broadly current-tuned multisection InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1506–1512 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, “Liquid detection with InGaAsP semiconductor lasers having multiple short external cavities,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4689–4693 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Critical design parameters for engineering broadly tunable asymmetric multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 978–983 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. K. Kononenko, I. S. Manak, S. V. Nalivko, “Design and characteristics of widely tunable quantum-well laser diodes,” Spectrochim. Acta A 55, 2091–2096 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Lee, C. Lin, “Wide-range tunable semiconductor lasers using asymmetric dual quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 322–324 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, D. A. Thompson, B. J. Robinson, Q. C. Zhao, M. Davies, “1.4-µm InGaAsP–InP strained multiple-quantum-well laser for broad-wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1202–1204 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. F. Krauss, G. Hondromitros, B. Vogele, R. M. De La Rue, “Broad spectral bandwidth semiconductor lasers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1142–1143 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. S. Gingrich, D. R. Chummey, S. Z. Sun, S. D. Hersee, L. F. Lester, S. R. J. Brueck, “Broadly tunable external cavity laser diodes with staggered thickness multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 155–157 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, “Diffractive optical element used in an external feedback configuration to tune the wavelength of uncoated Fabry-Pérot diode lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1071–1078 (1999).
  16. T. D. Milster, “Miniature and micro-optics,” in Handbook of Optics Volume II: Devices, Measurements, and Properties, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).
  17. M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the carrier distribution in asymmetric multiple quantum-well InGaAsP lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 92–99 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. C. Woodworth, M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Performance of a diffractive optical element external cavity diode laser,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Postconference Digest, Vol. 41 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 60–62.
  19. J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the carrier distribution in asymmetric multiple quantum-well InGaAsP lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 92–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Critical design parameters for engineering broadly tunable asymmetric multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 978–983 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

V. K. Kononenko, I. S. Manak, S. V. Nalivko, “Design and characteristics of widely tunable quantum-well laser diodes,” Spectrochim. Acta A 55, 2091–2096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, “Diffractive optical element used in an external feedback configuration to tune the wavelength of uncoated Fabry-Pérot diode lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1071–1078 (1999).

B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, “Measurements of CO, CO2, OH, and H2O in room-temperature and combustion gases by use of a broadly current-tuned multisection InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1506–1512 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. Lee, C. Lin, “Wide-range tunable semiconductor lasers using asymmetric dual quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 322–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, D. A. Thompson, B. J. Robinson, Q. C. Zhao, M. Davies, “1.4-µm InGaAsP–InP strained multiple-quantum-well laser for broad-wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1202–1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, G. Hondromitros, B. Vogele, R. M. De La Rue, “Broad spectral bandwidth semiconductor lasers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1142–1143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Gingrich, D. R. Chummey, S. Z. Sun, S. D. Hersee, L. F. Lester, S. R. J. Brueck, “Broadly tunable external cavity laser diodes with staggered thickness multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 155–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, “Observation of CO and CO2 absorption near 1.57 µm with an external-cavity diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3298–3300 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Konig, T. W. Hansch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. Weldon, J. O’Gorman, P. Phelan, T. Tanbun-Ek, “Gas sensing with λ = 1.57 µm distributed feedback laser diodes using overtone and combination band absorption,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3867–3870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1981 (1)

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Allen, M. G.

Ballik, E. A.

Brown, L. R.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

H. S. Gingrich, D. R. Chummey, S. Z. Sun, S. D. Hersee, L. F. Lester, S. R. J. Brueck, “Broadly tunable external cavity laser diodes with staggered thickness multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 155–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, D. T.

M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the carrier distribution in asymmetric multiple quantum-well InGaAsP lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 92–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Critical design parameters for engineering broadly tunable asymmetric multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 978–983 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, “Diffractive optical element used in an external feedback configuration to tune the wavelength of uncoated Fabry-Pérot diode lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1071–1078 (1999).

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, D. A. Thompson, B. J. Robinson, Q. C. Zhao, M. Davies, “1.4-µm InGaAsP–InP strained multiple-quantum-well laser for broad-wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1202–1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, “Liquid detection with InGaAsP semiconductor lasers having multiple short external cavities,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4689–4693 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Ventrudo, D. T. Cassidy, “Operating characteristics of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer using short-external-cavity and DFB laser diodes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5007–5013 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Woodworth, M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Performance of a diffractive optical element external cavity diode laser,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Postconference Digest, Vol. 41 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 60–62.

Chance, K. V.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chummey, D. R.

H. S. Gingrich, D. R. Chummey, S. Z. Sun, S. D. Hersee, L. F. Lester, S. R. J. Brueck, “Broadly tunable external cavity laser diodes with staggered thickness multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 155–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davies, M.

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, D. A. Thompson, B. J. Robinson, Q. C. Zhao, M. Davies, “1.4-µm InGaAsP–InP strained multiple-quantum-well laser for broad-wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1202–1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

T. F. Krauss, G. Hondromitros, B. Vogele, R. M. De La Rue, “Broad spectral bandwidth semiconductor lasers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1142–1143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Esslinger, T.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Konig, T. W. Hansch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garside, B. K.

Gingrich, H. S.

H. S. Gingrich, D. R. Chummey, S. Z. Sun, S. D. Hersee, L. F. Lester, S. R. J. Brueck, “Broadly tunable external cavity laser diodes with staggered thickness multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 155–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamp, M. J.

M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the carrier distribution in asymmetric multiple quantum-well InGaAsP lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 92–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Critical design parameters for engineering broadly tunable asymmetric multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 978–983 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, “Diffractive optical element used in an external feedback configuration to tune the wavelength of uncoated Fabry-Pérot diode lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1071–1078 (1999).

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, D. A. Thompson, B. J. Robinson, Q. C. Zhao, M. Davies, “1.4-µm InGaAsP–InP strained multiple-quantum-well laser for broad-wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1202–1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Woodworth, M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Performance of a diffractive optical element external cavity diode laser,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Postconference Digest, Vol. 41 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 60–62.

Hansch, T. W.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Konig, T. W. Hansch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hemmerich, A.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Konig, T. W. Hansch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hersee, S. D.

H. S. Gingrich, D. R. Chummey, S. Z. Sun, S. D. Hersee, L. F. Lester, S. R. J. Brueck, “Broadly tunable external cavity laser diodes with staggered thickness multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 155–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hondromitros, G.

T. F. Krauss, G. Hondromitros, B. Vogele, R. M. De La Rue, “Broad spectral bandwidth semiconductor lasers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1142–1143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Konig, W.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Konig, T. W. Hansch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kononenko, V. K.

V. K. Kononenko, I. S. Manak, S. V. Nalivko, “Design and characteristics of widely tunable quantum-well laser diodes,” Spectrochim. Acta A 55, 2091–2096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

T. F. Krauss, G. Hondromitros, B. Vogele, R. M. De La Rue, “Broad spectral bandwidth semiconductor lasers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1142–1143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Labrie, D.

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

B. Lee, C. Lin, “Wide-range tunable semiconductor lasers using asymmetric dual quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 322–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lester, L. F.

H. S. Gingrich, D. R. Chummey, S. Z. Sun, S. D. Hersee, L. F. Lester, S. R. J. Brueck, “Broadly tunable external cavity laser diodes with staggered thickness multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 155–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

B. Lee, C. Lin, “Wide-range tunable semiconductor lasers using asymmetric dual quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 322–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Manak, I. S.

V. K. Kononenko, I. S. Manak, S. V. Nalivko, “Design and characteristics of widely tunable quantum-well laser diodes,” Spectrochim. Acta A 55, 2091–2096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mccann, A.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Milster, T. D.

T. D. Milster, “Miniature and micro-optics,” in Handbook of Optics Volume II: Devices, Measurements, and Properties, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).

Nalivko, S. V.

V. K. Kononenko, I. S. Manak, S. V. Nalivko, “Design and characteristics of widely tunable quantum-well laser diodes,” Spectrochim. Acta A 55, 2091–2096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Gorman, J.

V. Weldon, J. O’Gorman, P. Phelan, T. Tanbun-Ek, “Gas sensing with λ = 1.57 µm distributed feedback laser diodes using overtone and combination band absorption,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3867–3870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phelan, P.

V. Weldon, J. O’Gorman, P. Phelan, T. Tanbun-Ek, “Gas sensing with λ = 1.57 µm distributed feedback laser diodes using overtone and combination band absorption,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3867–3870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J.

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Reid, J. Shewchun, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity pollution detection employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 300–307 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ricci, L.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Konig, T. W. Hansch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. J.

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, D. A. Thompson, B. J. Robinson, Q. C. Zhao, M. Davies, “1.4-µm InGaAsP–InP strained multiple-quantum-well laser for broad-wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1202–1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shewchun, J.

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

Sun, S. Z.

H. S. Gingrich, D. R. Chummey, S. Z. Sun, S. D. Hersee, L. F. Lester, S. R. J. Brueck, “Broadly tunable external cavity laser diodes with staggered thickness multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 155–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanbun-Ek, T.

V. Weldon, J. O’Gorman, P. Phelan, T. Tanbun-Ek, “Gas sensing with λ = 1.57 µm distributed feedback laser diodes using overtone and combination band absorption,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3867–3870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. A.

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, D. A. Thompson, B. J. Robinson, Q. C. Zhao, M. Davies, “1.4-µm InGaAsP–InP strained multiple-quantum-well laser for broad-wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1202–1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Upschulte, B. L.

Varanasi, P.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ventrudo, B. F.

Vogele, B.

T. F. Krauss, G. Hondromitros, B. Vogele, R. M. De La Rue, “Broad spectral bandwidth semiconductor lasers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1142–1143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic, V.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Konig, T. W. Hansch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weidemuller, M.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Konig, T. W. Hansch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weldon, V.

V. Weldon, J. O’Gorman, P. Phelan, T. Tanbun-Ek, “Gas sensing with λ = 1.57 µm distributed feedback laser diodes using overtone and combination band absorption,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3867–3870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Woodworth, S. C.

S. C. Woodworth, M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Performance of a diffractive optical element external cavity diode laser,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Postconference Digest, Vol. 41 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 60–62.

Yoshino, K.

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q. C.

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, D. A. Thompson, B. J. Robinson, Q. C. Zhao, M. Davies, “1.4-µm InGaAsP–InP strained multiple-quantum-well laser for broad-wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1202–1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, D. A. Thompson, B. J. Robinson, Q. C. Zhao, M. Davies, “1.4-µm InGaAsP–InP strained multiple-quantum-well laser for broad-wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1202–1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, “Liquid detection with InGaAsP semiconductor lasers having multiple short external cavities,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4689–4693 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, C.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Konig, T. W. Hansch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. F. Krauss, G. Hondromitros, B. Vogele, R. M. De La Rue, “Broad spectral bandwidth semiconductor lasers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1142–1143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Critical design parameters for engineering broadly tunable asymmetric multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 978–983 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the carrier distribution in asymmetric multiple quantum-well InGaAsP lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 92–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

B. Lee, C. Lin, “Wide-range tunable semiconductor lasers using asymmetric dual quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 322–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, D. A. Thompson, B. J. Robinson, Q. C. Zhao, M. Davies, “1.4-µm InGaAsP–InP strained multiple-quantum-well laser for broad-wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1202–1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Gingrich, D. R. Chummey, S. Z. Sun, S. D. Hersee, L. F. Lester, S. R. J. Brueck, “Broadly tunable external cavity laser diodes with staggered thickness multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 155–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, “Diffractive optical element used in an external feedback configuration to tune the wavelength of uncoated Fabry-Pérot diode lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1071–1078 (1999).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

J. Y. Mandin, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Varanasi, V. Dana, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and Hawks (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Ricci, M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. Konig, T. W. Hansch, “A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics,” Opt. Commun. 117, 541–549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

V. Weldon, J. O’Gorman, P. Phelan, T. Tanbun-Ek, “Gas sensing with λ = 1.57 µm distributed feedback laser diodes using overtone and combination band absorption,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3867–3870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta A (1)

V. K. Kononenko, I. S. Manak, S. V. Nalivko, “Design and characteristics of widely tunable quantum-well laser diodes,” Spectrochim. Acta A 55, 2091–2096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. D. Milster, “Miniature and micro-optics,” in Handbook of Optics Volume II: Devices, Measurements, and Properties, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).

S. C. Woodworth, M. J. Hamp, D. T. Cassidy, “Performance of a diffractive optical element external cavity diode laser,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Postconference Digest, Vol. 41 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 60–62.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of the DOE external cavity and the lens–grating external cavity in a Littrow configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the tunable laser absorption spectrometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Second-harmonic detection signal for a continuous wavelength scan over a 1-nm tuning range by use of the DOE external cavity with a 600-µm cavity length AMQW diode laser. The bottom trace is magnified by a factor of 40 over the top trace. The minimum detectable absorptance for the 2f measurements at 95% confidence is 5 × 10-6.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Second-harmonic detection data at three wavelength regions of the CO2 absorption spectrum over a 37-nm tuning range for the 800-µm cavity length AMQW laser. The predicted absorption lines from the HITRAN database are shown as solid vertical lines at the bottom of each plot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Second-harmonic detection data at three wavelength regions of the CO2 absorption spectrum over an 80-nm tuning range for the 600-µm cavity length AMQW laser. The predicted absorption lines from the HITRAN database are shown as solid vertical lines at the bottom of each plot.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical gain curve calculations for the 800- and the 600-µm AMQW laser structures tested.

Equations (3)

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dmr=λ0m+1+f0-f02+r21/2,
kf-f2+rm21/2=-2πm,
f  1/λ.

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