Abstract

We present an overview of the vicarious calibration of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). This program has three components: the calibration of the near-infrared bands so that the atmospheric correction algorithm retrieves the optical properties of maritime aerosols in the open ocean; the calibration of the visible bands against in-water measurements from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY); and a calibration-verification program that uses comparisons between SeaWiFS retrievals and globally distributed in situ measurements of water-leaving radiances. This paper describes the procedures as implemented for the third reprocessing of the SeaWiFS global mission data set. The uncertainty in the near-infrared vicarious gain is 0.9%. The uncertainties in the visible-band vicarious gains are 0.3%, corresponding to uncertainties in the water-leaving radiances of approximately 3%. The means of the SeaWiFS/in situ matchup ratios for water-leaving radiances are typically within 5% of unity in Case 1 waters, while chlorophyll a ratios are within 1% of unity. SeaWiFS is the first ocean-color mission to use an extensive and ongoing prelaunch and postlaunch calibration program, and the matchup results demonstrate the benefits of a comprehensive approach.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045663, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).
  2. C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal zone color scanner system calibration: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS postlaunch calibration and validation overview,” in SeaWiFS postlaunch calibration and validation analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).
  8. R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “The calibration of SeaWiFS. I: Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. C. Johnson, E. E. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, in The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068924, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).
  10. R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, “Lunar data analysis for SeaWiFS calibration,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).
  12. R. E. Eplee, C. R. McClain, “MOBY data analysis for the vicarious calibration of SeaWiFS bands 1–6,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).
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  14. S. W. Bailey, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, B. D. Schieber, “Normalized water-leaving radiance and chlorophyll a match-up analysis,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-20689210, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Wang, S. Bailey, “Correction of the sunglint contamination of the SeaWiFS aerosol optical thickness retrievals,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).
  18. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Descahmps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 15, 496–509 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. D. Robinson, G. M. Schmidt, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, “Changes made in the operational SeaWiFS processing,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-20689210, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).
  23. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of the SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67, 348–359 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12,500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, MODTRAN: a Moderate Resolution Model for LOWTRAN7, (Geophysical Directorate Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1990).
  28. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of ocean waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. L. Mueller, “Overview of measurement and data analysis protocol,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).
  30. M. Wang, “SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm updates,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).
  31. D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. D. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite color color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).
  33. M. Wang, S. Bailey, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197, 202 (2000).

2001 (1)

2000 (5)

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. D. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite color color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, S. Bailey, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197, 202 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of the SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67, 348–359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Descahmps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of ocean waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

1988 (1)

1984 (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12,500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

Bailey, S.

M. Wang, S. Bailey, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197, 202 (2000).

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

M. Wang, S. Bailey, “Correction of the sunglint contamination of the SeaWiFS aerosol optical thickness retrievals,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Bailey, S. W.

S. W. Bailey, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, B. D. Schieber, “Normalized water-leaving radiance and chlorophyll a match-up analysis,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-20689210, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Barnes, R.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045663, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Barnes, R. A.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “The calibration of SeaWiFS. I: Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Johnson, E. E. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, in The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068924, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, “Lunar data analysis for SeaWiFS calibration,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Barnes, W.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045663, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Berk, A.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, MODTRAN: a Moderate Resolution Model for LOWTRAN7, (Geophysical Directorate Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1990).

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, MODTRAN: a Moderate Resolution Model for LOWTRAN7, (Geophysical Directorate Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1990).

Biggar, S. F.

Broenkow, W.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Caffrey, R. T.

B. C. Johnson, E. E. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, in The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068924, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Clark, D. K.

Cleave, M. L.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

Descahmps, P. Y.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Descahmps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Early, E. E.

B. C. Johnson, E. E. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, in The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068924, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Endres, D.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045663, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Eplee, R. E.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “The calibration of SeaWiFS. I: Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Johnson, E. E. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, in The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068924, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

R. E. Eplee, C. R. McClain, “MOBY data analysis for the vicarious calibration of SeaWiFS bands 1–6,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, “Lunar data analysis for SeaWiFS calibration,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Esaias, W. E.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045663, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Evans, R. H.

Fargion, G. S.

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Feldman, G. C.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

Frouin, R.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Descahmps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal zone color scanner system calibration: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregg, W. W.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

Guenther, B.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045663, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Holmes, A. W.

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045663, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Johnson, B. C.

B. C. Johnson, E. E. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, in The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068924, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Kuring, N.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

Labs, D.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12,500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

McClain, C. R.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “The calibration of SeaWiFS. I: Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, S. Bailey, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197, 202 (2000).

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045663, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS postlaunch calibration and validation overview,” in SeaWiFS postlaunch calibration and validation analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

R. E. Eplee, C. R. McClain, “MOBY data analysis for the vicarious calibration of SeaWiFS bands 1–6,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

S. W. Bailey, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, B. D. Schieber, “Normalized water-leaving radiance and chlorophyll a match-up analysis,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-20689210, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

W. D. Robinson, G. M. Schmidt, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, “Changes made in the operational SeaWiFS processing,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-20689210, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Mitchell, G.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045663, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Moore, K. D.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, “Overview of measurement and data analysis protocol,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Neckel, H.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12,500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Patt, F. S.

Robertson, D. C.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, MODTRAN: a Moderate Resolution Model for LOWTRAN7, (Geophysical Directorate Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1990).

Robinson, W. D.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. D. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite color color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Robinson, G. M. Schmidt, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, “Changes made in the operational SeaWiFS processing,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-20689210, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

W. D. Robinson, M. Wang, “Vicarious calibration of SeaWiFS band 7,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Schieber, B. D.

S. W. Bailey, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, B. D. Schieber, “Normalized water-leaving radiance and chlorophyll a match-up analysis,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-20689210, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Schmidt, G. M.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “The calibration of SeaWiFS. I: Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Robinson, G. M. Schmidt, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, “Changes made in the operational SeaWiFS processing,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-20689210, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Schwindling, M.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Descahmps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

Slater, P. N.

Thome, K. J.

Trees, C.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. D. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite color color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, S. Bailey, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197, 202 (2000).

M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of the SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67, 348–359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Robinson, M. Wang, “Vicarious calibration of SeaWiFS band 7,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

M. Wang, S. Bailey, “Correction of the sunglint contamination of the SeaWiFS aerosol optical thickness retrievals,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

M. Wang, “SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm updates,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

W. D. Robinson, G. M. Schmidt, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, “Changes made in the operational SeaWiFS processing,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-20689210, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

S. W. Bailey, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, B. D. Schieber, “Normalized water-leaving radiance and chlorophyll a match-up analysis,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-20689210, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Zalewski, E. F.

Appl. Opt. (9)

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “The calibration of SeaWiFS. I: Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5620–5631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of ocean waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. D. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite color color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

M. Wang, S. Bailey, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197, 202 (2000).

J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. (1)

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Descahmps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal zone color scanner system calibration: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of the SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67, 348–359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sea Technol. (1)

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

Solar Phys. (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12,500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, MODTRAN: a Moderate Resolution Model for LOWTRAN7, (Geophysical Directorate Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1990).

W. D. Robinson, G. M. Schmidt, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, “Changes made in the operational SeaWiFS processing,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-20689210, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

J. L. Mueller, “Overview of measurement and data analysis protocol,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

M. Wang, “SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm updates,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1045663, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

B. C. Johnson, E. E. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, in The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068924, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS postlaunch calibration and validation overview,” in SeaWiFS postlaunch calibration and validation analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

M. Wang, S. Bailey, “Correction of the sunglint contamination of the SeaWiFS aerosol optical thickness retrievals,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, “Lunar data analysis for SeaWiFS calibration,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

R. E. Eplee, C. R. McClain, “MOBY data analysis for the vicarious calibration of SeaWiFS bands 1–6,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

W. D. Robinson, M. Wang, “Vicarious calibration of SeaWiFS band 7,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-2068929, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

S. W. Bailey, C. R. McClain, P. J. Werdell, B. D. Schieber, “Normalized water-leaving radiance and chlorophyll a match-up analysis,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-20689210, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Band 7 vicarious gain over the MOBY site. a, plotted as a function of time; b, plotted as a histogram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time series of normalized water-leaving radiances for MOBY band 1. L wn that are computed with use of the approximate diffuse transmittance, the retrieved diffuse transmittance, and the measured E w are plotted.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time series of normalized water-leaving radiances for SeaWiFS band 1. L wn that are computed with use of the approximate diffuse transmittance and directly retrieved by the atmospheric-correction algorithm are plotted.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SeaWiFS/MOBY vicarious calibration matchups as a function of time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SeaWiFS/MOBY vicarious calibration matchups as a function of scan angle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SeaWiFS/MOBY matchups for bands 1–6 as a function of airmass. The lines are linear fits to the data.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The mean L wn values. a, plotted as a function of pixel number along the scan line; b, plotted as a function of the secant of the scan angle for each pixel. The two sides of the scan are denoted by the solid and dashed lines. The 45° GAC cutoff is indicated in the plot.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Validation matchups between SeaWiFS and in situ data sets for bands 1–5 and chlorophyll.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

SeaWiFS clear-water analysis time series from eight-day timebin files. a, mean global clear-water radiances; b, mean global clear-water chlorophyll.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

SeaWiFS clear-water analysis time series atmospheric-correction parameters. a, mean Ångström at 510 and 865 nm; b, mean ∊(765,865); c, mean aerosol optical depth at 865 nm.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Exclusion Criteria for SeaWiFS/MOBY Matchups

Tables Icon

Table 2 Results of SeaWiFS Vicarious Calibration

Tables Icon

Table 3 Solar Constants Used in SeaWiFS Data Processinga

Tables Icon

Table 4 Band 8 Vicarious Gain Bias Testa

Tables Icon

Table 5 Statistics for Lw for Bands 1–5, Chlorophyll a, and K d (490) a

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ltλ=Lrλ+Laλ+Lraλ+TλLgλ+tλLwcλ+tλLwλ,
Ltλ=Coutλ-CdarkλK1λK2λ×αλβλ+γλt-t0+δλt-t02,
λ, 865=ρasλρas865=LasλF0865Las865F0λ,
Ltλ-Lrλ-tλLwcλ=Laλ+Lraλ,
765, 865Lt765-Lr765-t765Lwc765F0865Lt865-Lr865-t865Lwc8765)F0765.
Lwnλ=Lwλ, θ0Esλ, θ0F0λ,
Esλ, θ0=F0λcosθ0tλ, θ0fsol,
fsol=RAURES2,
Lwnλ=Lwλ, θ0cosθ0tλ, θ0fsol.
tλ, θ0=exp-τrλ/2+τozλ+1-ωaλFaλτaλcosθ0,
tλ, θ0M=exp-τeλ, θ0scosθ0M=exp-lnt0rλ, θ0st0ozλ, θ0scosθ0scosθ0M,
Lwλ=1tλLtλ-Lrλ-tλLwcλ-λ, 865Las865F0λF0865.
fλ=LwnsλLwnMλ,
m=1cosθ0+1cosθ,

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