Abstract

A relatively compact, lightweight, and programmable spectropolarimetric imager was used to collect spectral and polarization data from various objects and backgrounds, both in the laboratory and in field tests. This imager uses a tellurium dioxide (TeO2) acousto-optic tunable filter and a liquid-crystal retardation plate with a CCD camera. The spectral images were collected 450–1000 nm at 10- or 20-nm intervals at two or four polarization settings for each spectral interval. We analyzed a portion of these data to assess the effectiveness of this system for object detection. We present our measurements and discuss the analysis results.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, K. Bennett, S. Simizu, D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, “Progress in AOTF hyperspectral imagers,” in Automated Geo-Spatial Image and Data Exploitation, W. E. Roper, M. K. Hamilton, eds., Proc. SPIE4054, 30–38 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, M. Gottlieb, L. Denes, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “Hyperspectral imaging using acousto-optic tunable filters,” in Optical Design and Analysis Software, R. C. Juergens, ed., Proc. SPIE3780, 512–521 (1999).
  3. N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, “Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging with AOTF for object recognition,” in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE3584, 128–135 (1999).
  4. M. Gottlieb, L. J. Denes, “Spectro-polarimetric imager,” U.S. patent6,064,510 (16May2000).
  5. N. Gupta, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 23–27 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. S. Gottlieb, “Acousto-optic tunable filter,” in Design and Fabrication of Acousto-Optic Devices, A. P. Goutzoulis, D. R. Pape, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994), pp. 197–283.
  7. L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “AOTF polarization difference imaging,” in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE3584, 106–115 (1999).
  8. L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, “Acousto-optic tunable filters in imaging applications,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1262–1267 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, D. F. Huber, “Spectro-polarimetric imaging for object recognition,” in Medical Imaging 1998: Image Perception, H. L. Kundel, ed., Proc. SPIE3240, 8–18 (1998).
  10. M. J. Duggin, R. Lee, “The acquisition of multiband polarimetric imagery: calibration considerations,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements, and Remote Sensing II, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 238–247 (2000).
  11. V. C. Vanderbilt, L. Grant, C. S. T. Daughtry, “Polarization of light scattered by vegetation,” Proc. IEEE 73, 1012–1024 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. A. Israel, M. H. Holly, V. S. Whitehead, “Optimizing view/illumination geometry for terrestrial features using space shuttle and aerial polarimetry,” in Polarization and Remote Sensing, W. G. Egan, ed., Proc. SPIE1747, 121–127 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1998

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, “Acousto-optic tunable filters in imaging applications,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1262–1267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

N. Gupta, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 23–27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985

V. C. Vanderbilt, L. Grant, C. S. T. Daughtry, “Polarization of light scattered by vegetation,” Proc. IEEE 73, 1012–1024 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, K.

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, K. Bennett, S. Simizu, D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, “Progress in AOTF hyperspectral imagers,” in Automated Geo-Spatial Image and Data Exploitation, W. E. Roper, M. K. Hamilton, eds., Proc. SPIE4054, 30–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dahmani, R.

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, K. Bennett, S. Simizu, D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, “Progress in AOTF hyperspectral imagers,” in Automated Geo-Spatial Image and Data Exploitation, W. E. Roper, M. K. Hamilton, eds., Proc. SPIE4054, 30–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, M. Gottlieb, L. Denes, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “Hyperspectral imaging using acousto-optic tunable filters,” in Optical Design and Analysis Software, R. C. Juergens, ed., Proc. SPIE3780, 512–521 (1999).

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, “Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging with AOTF for object recognition,” in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE3584, 128–135 (1999).

Daughtry, C. S. T.

V. C. Vanderbilt, L. Grant, C. S. T. Daughtry, “Polarization of light scattered by vegetation,” Proc. IEEE 73, 1012–1024 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Denes, L.

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, M. Gottlieb, L. Denes, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “Hyperspectral imaging using acousto-optic tunable filters,” in Optical Design and Analysis Software, R. C. Juergens, ed., Proc. SPIE3780, 512–521 (1999).

Denes, L. J.

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, “Acousto-optic tunable filters in imaging applications,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1262–1267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, D. F. Huber, “Spectro-polarimetric imaging for object recognition,” in Medical Imaging 1998: Image Perception, H. L. Kundel, ed., Proc. SPIE3240, 8–18 (1998).

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “AOTF polarization difference imaging,” in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE3584, 106–115 (1999).

M. Gottlieb, L. J. Denes, “Spectro-polarimetric imager,” U.S. patent6,064,510 (16May2000).

Duggin, M. J.

M. J. Duggin, R. Lee, “The acquisition of multiband polarimetric imagery: calibration considerations,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements, and Remote Sensing II, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 238–247 (2000).

Gottlieb, M.

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, “Acousto-optic tunable filters in imaging applications,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1262–1267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, D. F. Huber, “Spectro-polarimetric imaging for object recognition,” in Medical Imaging 1998: Image Perception, H. L. Kundel, ed., Proc. SPIE3240, 8–18 (1998).

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “AOTF polarization difference imaging,” in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE3584, 106–115 (1999).

M. Gottlieb, L. J. Denes, “Spectro-polarimetric imager,” U.S. patent6,064,510 (16May2000).

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, M. Gottlieb, L. Denes, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “Hyperspectral imaging using acousto-optic tunable filters,” in Optical Design and Analysis Software, R. C. Juergens, ed., Proc. SPIE3780, 512–521 (1999).

Gottlieb, M. S.

M. S. Gottlieb, “Acousto-optic tunable filter,” in Design and Fabrication of Acousto-Optic Devices, A. P. Goutzoulis, D. R. Pape, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994), pp. 197–283.

Grant, L.

V. C. Vanderbilt, L. Grant, C. S. T. Daughtry, “Polarization of light scattered by vegetation,” Proc. IEEE 73, 1012–1024 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, N.

N. Gupta, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 23–27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, “Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging with AOTF for object recognition,” in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE3584, 128–135 (1999).

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, M. Gottlieb, L. Denes, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “Hyperspectral imaging using acousto-optic tunable filters,” in Optical Design and Analysis Software, R. C. Juergens, ed., Proc. SPIE3780, 512–521 (1999).

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, K. Bennett, S. Simizu, D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, “Progress in AOTF hyperspectral imagers,” in Automated Geo-Spatial Image and Data Exploitation, W. E. Roper, M. K. Hamilton, eds., Proc. SPIE4054, 30–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holly, M. H.

S. A. Israel, M. H. Holly, V. S. Whitehead, “Optimizing view/illumination geometry for terrestrial features using space shuttle and aerial polarimetry,” in Polarization and Remote Sensing, W. G. Egan, ed., Proc. SPIE1747, 121–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huber, D. F.

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, D. F. Huber, “Spectro-polarimetric imaging for object recognition,” in Medical Imaging 1998: Image Perception, H. L. Kundel, ed., Proc. SPIE3240, 8–18 (1998).

Israel, S. A.

S. A. Israel, M. H. Holly, V. S. Whitehead, “Optimizing view/illumination geometry for terrestrial features using space shuttle and aerial polarimetry,” in Polarization and Remote Sensing, W. G. Egan, ed., Proc. SPIE1747, 121–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaminsky, B.

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, “Acousto-optic tunable filters in imaging applications,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1262–1267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, D. F. Huber, “Spectro-polarimetric imaging for object recognition,” in Medical Imaging 1998: Image Perception, H. L. Kundel, ed., Proc. SPIE3240, 8–18 (1998).

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “AOTF polarization difference imaging,” in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE3584, 106–115 (1999).

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, M. Gottlieb, L. Denes, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “Hyperspectral imaging using acousto-optic tunable filters,” in Optical Design and Analysis Software, R. C. Juergens, ed., Proc. SPIE3780, 512–521 (1999).

Lee, R.

M. J. Duggin, R. Lee, “The acquisition of multiband polarimetric imagery: calibration considerations,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements, and Remote Sensing II, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 238–247 (2000).

Metes, P.

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “AOTF polarization difference imaging,” in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE3584, 106–115 (1999).

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, M. Gottlieb, L. Denes, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “Hyperspectral imaging using acousto-optic tunable filters,” in Optical Design and Analysis Software, R. C. Juergens, ed., Proc. SPIE3780, 512–521 (1999).

Simizu, S.

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, K. Bennett, S. Simizu, D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, “Progress in AOTF hyperspectral imagers,” in Automated Geo-Spatial Image and Data Exploitation, W. E. Roper, M. K. Hamilton, eds., Proc. SPIE4054, 30–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Singh, N. B.

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, K. Bennett, S. Simizu, D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, “Progress in AOTF hyperspectral imagers,” in Automated Geo-Spatial Image and Data Exploitation, W. E. Roper, M. K. Hamilton, eds., Proc. SPIE4054, 30–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suhre, D. R.

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, K. Bennett, S. Simizu, D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, “Progress in AOTF hyperspectral imagers,” in Automated Geo-Spatial Image and Data Exploitation, W. E. Roper, M. K. Hamilton, eds., Proc. SPIE4054, 30–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, V. C.

V. C. Vanderbilt, L. Grant, C. S. T. Daughtry, “Polarization of light scattered by vegetation,” Proc. IEEE 73, 1012–1024 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, V. S.

S. A. Israel, M. H. Holly, V. S. Whitehead, “Optimizing view/illumination geometry for terrestrial features using space shuttle and aerial polarimetry,” in Polarization and Remote Sensing, W. G. Egan, ed., Proc. SPIE1747, 121–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, “Acousto-optic tunable filters in imaging applications,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1262–1267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News

N. Gupta, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 23–27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

V. C. Vanderbilt, L. Grant, C. S. T. Daughtry, “Polarization of light scattered by vegetation,” Proc. IEEE 73, 1012–1024 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. A. Israel, M. H. Holly, V. S. Whitehead, “Optimizing view/illumination geometry for terrestrial features using space shuttle and aerial polarimetry,” in Polarization and Remote Sensing, W. G. Egan, ed., Proc. SPIE1747, 121–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Gottlieb, “Acousto-optic tunable filter,” in Design and Fabrication of Acousto-Optic Devices, A. P. Goutzoulis, D. R. Pape, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994), pp. 197–283.

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “AOTF polarization difference imaging,” in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE3584, 106–115 (1999).

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, D. F. Huber, “Spectro-polarimetric imaging for object recognition,” in Medical Imaging 1998: Image Perception, H. L. Kundel, ed., Proc. SPIE3240, 8–18 (1998).

M. J. Duggin, R. Lee, “The acquisition of multiband polarimetric imagery: calibration considerations,” in Polarization Analysis, Measurements, and Remote Sensing II, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 238–247 (2000).

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, K. Bennett, S. Simizu, D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, “Progress in AOTF hyperspectral imagers,” in Automated Geo-Spatial Image and Data Exploitation, W. E. Roper, M. K. Hamilton, eds., Proc. SPIE4054, 30–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, M. Gottlieb, L. Denes, B. Kaminsky, P. Metes, “Hyperspectral imaging using acousto-optic tunable filters,” in Optical Design and Analysis Software, R. C. Juergens, ed., Proc. SPIE3780, 512–521 (1999).

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, “Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging with AOTF for object recognition,” in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE3584, 128–135 (1999).

M. Gottlieb, L. J. Denes, “Spectro-polarimetric imager,” U.S. patent6,064,510 (16May2000).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflectance spectra of live plant Sanseveria and two green painted samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Percent polarization spectra of live plant Sanseveria and two green painted samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of camouflage print liner and six metal plates on a blue sheet taken at 740 nm with (a) 0° and (b) 90° polarization on a sunny day.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of camouflage print liner and six metal plates on a blue sheet taken at 740 nm with (a) 0° and (b) 90° polarization on a cloudy day.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral reflectance of the two painted samples of green 1 and green 2 on the blue sheet and grass at (a) 0° and (b) 90° polarization on a sunny day.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Percent polarization for green 1, green 2, and grass with data from (a) Fig. 3 for a sunny day and (b) Fig. 4 for a cloudy day.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Image of an airplane on a runway taken at 740 nm with (a) 0° and (b) 90° polarization.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Polarization-difference image of an airplane at 740 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Image of downtown Dayton taken at 740 nm with (a) 0° and (b) 90° polarization.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Polarization-difference image of downtown Dayton.

Equations (1)

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Pp=100I - I/I + I,

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