Abstract

A fine calibration of the depolarization ratio is required for a detailed interpretation of lidar-observed polar stratospheric clouds. We propose a procedure for analyzing data by using atmospheric depolarization lidar. The method is based on a plot of δT versus (1 - R T -1), where δT is the total depolarization ratio and R T is the total backscattering ratio. Assuming that there are only spherical particles in some altitude ranges of the lidar data, the characteristics of the plot of δT versus (1 - R T -1) lead to a simple but effective calibration method for δT. Additionally, the depolarization of air molecules δm can be determined in the process of δT calibration. We compared determined values with theoretically calculated values for the depolarization of air to test the proposed method. The δm value was calculated from the lidar data acquired at Ny-Ålesund (79 °N, 12 °E), Svalbard in winter 1994–1995. When only sulfate aerosols were present on 24 December 1994, δm was 0.46 ± 0.35%. When the particles consisted of sulfate aerosols and spherical particles of polar stratospheric clouds on 4 January 1995, δm was 0.45 ± 0.07%. Both δm values were in good agreement with the theoretically calculated value, 0.50 ± 0.03%.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  32. C. Flesia, A. Mugnai, Y. Emery, S. Godin, L. de Schoulepnikoff, V. Mitev, “Interpretation of lidar depolarization measurements of the Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol layer during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1443–1446 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2000

J. Reichardt, A. Tsias, A. Behrendt, “Optical properties of PSC Ia-enhanced at UV and visible wavelengths: model and observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 201–204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Shibata, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “On the lidar observed sandwich structure of polar stratospheric clouds. I. implications for the mixing state of the PSC particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 21603–21611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Shibata, “On the lidar observed sandwich structure of polar stratospheric clouds. II. numerical simulations of externally mixed PSC particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 21613–21619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, N. Nakura, “Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter of 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical “sandwich” structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10829–10840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. Stefanutti, M. Morandi, M. D. Guasta, S. Godin, C. David, “Unusual PSCs observed by LIDAR in Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2377–2380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. Flesia, A. Mugnai, Y. Emery, S. Godin, L. de Schoulepnikoff, V. Mitev, “Interpretation of lidar depolarization measurements of the Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol layer during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1443–1446 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, “Preliminary analysis of observations of the Pinatubo volcanic plume with a polarization-sensitive lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 171–175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848–1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, M. Morandi, M. D. Guasta, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations over the antarctic continent at Dumont d’Urvillem,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12975–12987 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Poole, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, S. Schaffner, M. C. Pitts, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar observations of polar stratospheric cloud evolution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 389–392 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, L. R. Poole, M. P. McCormick, S. K. Schaffner, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, “Optical backscatter characteristics of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 377–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. Hanson, K. Mauersberger, “Laboratory studies of the nitric acid trihydrate: implications for the south polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 855–858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

Y. Iwasaka, T. Hirasawa, H. Fukunishi, “Lidar measurement of the Antarctic stratospheric aerosol layer. I. winter enhancement,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 37, 1087–1095 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, “Implications of the stratospheric water vapor distribution as determined from the Nimbus 7 LIMS experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 2934–2945 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, J. M. Russell, “The Limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere: experiment description, performance, and results,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5179–5190 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

Y. Iwasaka, S. Hayashida, “The effect of the volcanic eruption of St. Helens on the polarization properties of stratospheric aerosols: lidar measurement at Nagoya,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 59, 611–614 (1981).

1979

1977

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar observation of a mixed-phase altostratus cloud,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 339–345 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

1973

1971

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. J. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

1961

C. E. Junge, C. W. Chagnon, J. E. Manson, “Stratospheric aerosols,” J. Meteorol. 18, 81–108 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, H.

T. Shibata, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “On the lidar observed sandwich structure of polar stratospheric clouds. I. implications for the mixing state of the PSC particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 21603–21611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, N. Nakura, “Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter of 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical “sandwich” structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10829–10840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Adachi, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “The relationship of interference filter to depolarization ratio of air molecules and correction method of total depolarization ratio” (in Japanese), in Abstract of Papers, 19th Japanese Laser Sensing Symposium, T. Itabe, ed. (Communications Research Laboratory, Brussels, Belgium, 1998), pp. 101–102.

Bailey, P. L.

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, “Implications of the stratospheric water vapor distribution as determined from the Nimbus 7 LIMS experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 2934–2945 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Behrendt, A.

J. Reichardt, A. Tsias, A. Behrendt, “Optical properties of PSC Ia-enhanced at UV and visible wavelengths: model and observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 201–204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beyerle, G.

K. Stebel, O. Schrems, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, P. von der Gathen, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic (Spitsbergen),” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, 1995), pp. 113–116.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Butler, C. F.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A. I.

Carter, A. F.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chagnon, C. W.

C. E. Junge, C. W. Chagnon, J. E. Manson, “Stratospheric aerosols,” J. Meteorol. 18, 81–108 (1961).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

L. Stefanutti, M. Morandi, M. D. Guasta, S. Godin, C. David, “Unusual PSCs observed by LIDAR in Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2377–2380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Schoulepnikoff, L.

C. Flesia, A. Mugnai, Y. Emery, S. Godin, L. de Schoulepnikoff, V. Mitev, “Interpretation of lidar depolarization measurements of the Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol layer during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1443–1446 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Emery, Y.

C. Flesia, A. Mugnai, Y. Emery, S. Godin, L. de Schoulepnikoff, V. Mitev, “Interpretation of lidar depolarization measurements of the Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol layer during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1443–1446 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Flesia, C.

C. Flesia, A. Mugnai, Y. Emery, S. Godin, L. de Schoulepnikoff, V. Mitev, “Interpretation of lidar depolarization measurements of the Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol layer during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1443–1446 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

T. Shibata, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “On the lidar observed sandwich structure of polar stratospheric clouds. I. implications for the mixing state of the PSC particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 21603–21611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, N. Nakura, “Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter of 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical “sandwich” structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10829–10840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Adachi, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “The relationship of interference filter to depolarization ratio of air molecules and correction method of total depolarization ratio” (in Japanese), in Abstract of Papers, 19th Japanese Laser Sensing Symposium, T. Itabe, ed. (Communications Research Laboratory, Brussels, Belgium, 1998), pp. 101–102.

Fukunishi, H.

Y. Iwasaka, T. Hirasawa, H. Fukunishi, “Lidar measurement of the Antarctic stratospheric aerosol layer. I. winter enhancement,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 37, 1087–1095 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gille, J. C.

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, “Implications of the stratospheric water vapor distribution as determined from the Nimbus 7 LIMS experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 2934–2945 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, J. M. Russell, “The Limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere: experiment description, performance, and results,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5179–5190 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Godin, S.

L. Stefanutti, M. Morandi, M. D. Guasta, S. Godin, C. David, “Unusual PSCs observed by LIDAR in Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2377–2380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Flesia, A. Mugnai, Y. Emery, S. Godin, L. de Schoulepnikoff, V. Mitev, “Interpretation of lidar depolarization measurements of the Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol layer during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1443–1446 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goody, R.

R. Goody, Principles of Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry (Oxford University, New York, 1995).

Gordley, L. L.

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, “Implications of the stratospheric water vapor distribution as determined from the Nimbus 7 LIMS experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 2934–2945 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Guasta, M. D.

L. Stefanutti, M. Morandi, M. D. Guasta, S. Godin, C. David, “Unusual PSCs observed by LIDAR in Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2377–2380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, M. Morandi, M. D. Guasta, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations over the antarctic continent at Dumont d’Urvillem,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12975–12987 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, D.

D. Hanson, K. Mauersberger, “Laboratory studies of the nitric acid trihydrate: implications for the south polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 855–858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, M.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, N. Nakura, “Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter of 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical “sandwich” structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10829–10840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hayashida, S.

Y. Iwasaka, S. Hayashida, “The effect of the volcanic eruption of St. Helens on the polarization properties of stratospheric aerosols: lidar measurement at Nagoya,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 59, 611–614 (1981).

Higdon, N. S.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, T.

Y. Iwasaka, T. Hirasawa, H. Fukunishi, “Lidar measurement of the Antarctic stratospheric aerosol layer. I. winter enhancement,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 37, 1087–1095 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).

Hunt, W. H.

G. S. Kent, L. R. Poole, M. P. McCormick, S. K. Schaffner, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, “Optical backscatter characteristics of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 377–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Poole, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, S. Schaffner, M. C. Pitts, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar observations of polar stratospheric cloud evolution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 389–392 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaka, Y.

T. Shibata, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “On the lidar observed sandwich structure of polar stratospheric clouds. I. implications for the mixing state of the PSC particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 21603–21611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, N. Nakura, “Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter of 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical “sandwich” structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10829–10840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iwasaka, T. Hirasawa, H. Fukunishi, “Lidar measurement of the Antarctic stratospheric aerosol layer. I. winter enhancement,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 37, 1087–1095 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iwasaka, S. Hayashida, “The effect of the volcanic eruption of St. Helens on the polarization properties of stratospheric aerosols: lidar measurement at Nagoya,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 59, 611–614 (1981).

H. Adachi, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “The relationship of interference filter to depolarization ratio of air molecules and correction method of total depolarization ratio” (in Japanese), in Abstract of Papers, 19th Japanese Laser Sensing Symposium, T. Itabe, ed. (Communications Research Laboratory, Brussels, Belgium, 1998), pp. 101–102.

Junge, C. E.

C. E. Junge, C. W. Chagnon, J. E. Manson, “Stratospheric aerosols,” J. Meteorol. 18, 81–108 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Kent, G. S.

L. R. Poole, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, S. Schaffner, M. C. Pitts, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar observations of polar stratospheric cloud evolution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 389–392 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, L. R. Poole, M. P. McCormick, S. K. Schaffner, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, “Optical backscatter characteristics of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 377–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Knudsen, B.

K. Stebel, O. Schrems, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, P. von der Gathen, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic (Spitsbergen),” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, 1995), pp. 113–116.

Koyanagi, Y.

T. Ogawa, Y. Koyanagi, Data Analysis by Least Squares Method (in Japanese) (Tokyo University, Tokyo, 1982).

Lapp, M.

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1983).

Manson, J. E.

C. E. Junge, C. W. Chagnon, J. E. Manson, “Stratospheric aerosols,” J. Meteorol. 18, 81–108 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Mauersberger, K.

D. Hanson, K. Mauersberger, “Laboratory studies of the nitric acid trihydrate: implications for the south polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 855–858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

G. S. Kent, L. R. Poole, M. P. McCormick, S. K. Schaffner, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, “Optical backscatter characteristics of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 377–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Poole, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, S. Schaffner, M. C. Pitts, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar observations of polar stratospheric cloud evolution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 389–392 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russel, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783–3797 (1979).

Mitev, V.

C. Flesia, A. Mugnai, Y. Emery, S. Godin, L. de Schoulepnikoff, V. Mitev, “Interpretation of lidar depolarization measurements of the Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol layer during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1443–1446 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morandi, M.

L. Stefanutti, M. Morandi, M. D. Guasta, S. Godin, C. David, “Unusual PSCs observed by LIDAR in Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2377–2380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, M. Morandi, M. D. Guasta, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations over the antarctic continent at Dumont d’Urvillem,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12975–12987 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mugnai, A.

C. Flesia, A. Mugnai, Y. Emery, S. Godin, L. de Schoulepnikoff, V. Mitev, “Interpretation of lidar depolarization measurements of the Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol layer during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1443–1446 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nagatani, M.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, N. Nakura, “Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter of 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical “sandwich” structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10829–10840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakura, N.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, N. Nakura, “Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter of 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical “sandwich” structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10829–10840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neuber, R.

K. Stebel, O. Schrems, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, P. von der Gathen, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic (Spitsbergen),” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, 1995), pp. 113–116.

Ogawa, T.

T. Ogawa, Y. Koyanagi, Data Analysis by Least Squares Method (in Japanese) (Tokyo University, Tokyo, 1982).

Osborn, M. T.

D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, “Preliminary analysis of observations of the Pinatubo volcanic plume with a polarization-sensitive lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 171–175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Poole, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, S. Schaffner, M. C. Pitts, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar observations of polar stratospheric cloud evolution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 389–392 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, L. R. Poole, M. P. McCormick, S. K. Schaffner, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, “Optical backscatter characteristics of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 377–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pal, S. R.

Penney, C. M.

Peters, P. L. St.

Pitts, M. C.

L. R. Poole, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, S. Schaffner, M. C. Pitts, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar observations of polar stratospheric cloud evolution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 389–392 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M. R.

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar observation of a mixed-phase altostratus cloud,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 339–345 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

L. R. Poole, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, S. Schaffner, M. C. Pitts, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar observations of polar stratospheric cloud evolution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 389–392 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, L. R. Poole, M. P. McCormick, S. K. Schaffner, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, “Optical backscatter characteristics of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 377–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reichardt, J.

J. Reichardt, A. Tsias, A. Behrendt, “Optical properties of PSC Ia-enhanced at UV and visible wavelengths: model and observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 201–204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Remsberg, E. E.

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, “Implications of the stratospheric water vapor distribution as determined from the Nimbus 7 LIMS experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 2934–2945 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Robinette, P. A.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Russel, P. B.

Russell, J. M.

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, “Implications of the stratospheric water vapor distribution as determined from the Nimbus 7 LIMS experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 2934–2945 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, J. M. Russell, “The Limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere: experiment description, performance, and results,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5179–5190 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, N. Nakura, “Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter of 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical “sandwich” structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10829–10840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salby, M. L.

M. L. Salby, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics (Academic, New York, 1996).

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848–1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. J. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Schaffner, S.

L. R. Poole, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, S. Schaffner, M. C. Pitts, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar observations of polar stratospheric cloud evolution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 389–392 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schaffner, S. K.

G. S. Kent, L. R. Poole, M. P. McCormick, S. K. Schaffner, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, “Optical backscatter characteristics of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 377–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schoeberl, M. R.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. J. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Schrems, O.

K. Stebel, O. Schrems, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, P. von der Gathen, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic (Spitsbergen),” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, 1995), pp. 113–116.

Shibata, T.

T. Shibata, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “On the lidar observed sandwich structure of polar stratospheric clouds. I. implications for the mixing state of the PSC particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 21603–21611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Shibata, “On the lidar observed sandwich structure of polar stratospheric clouds. II. numerical simulations of externally mixed PSC particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 21613–21619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, N. Nakura, “Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter of 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical “sandwich” structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10829–10840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Adachi, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “The relationship of interference filter to depolarization ratio of air molecules and correction method of total depolarization ratio” (in Japanese), in Abstract of Papers, 19th Japanese Laser Sensing Symposium, T. Itabe, ed. (Communications Research Laboratory, Brussels, Belgium, 1998), pp. 101–102.

Shiraishi, K.

T. Shibata, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “On the lidar observed sandwich structure of polar stratospheric clouds. I. implications for the mixing state of the PSC particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 21603–21611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, N. Nakura, “Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter of 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical “sandwich” structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10829–10840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stebel, K.

K. Stebel, O. Schrems, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, P. von der Gathen, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic (Spitsbergen),” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, 1995), pp. 113–116.

Stefanutti, L.

L. Stefanutti, M. Morandi, M. D. Guasta, S. Godin, C. David, “Unusual PSCs observed by LIDAR in Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2377–2380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, M. Morandi, M. D. Guasta, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations over the antarctic continent at Dumont d’Urvillem,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12975–12987 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stone, R. J.

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. J. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Susumu, K.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, N. Nakura, “Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter of 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical “sandwich” structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10829–10840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T. J.

Toon, O. B.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tsias, A.

J. Reichardt, A. Tsias, A. Behrendt, “Optical properties of PSC Ia-enhanced at UV and visible wavelengths: model and observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 201–204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tuck, A. F.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

von der Gathen, P.

K. Stebel, O. Schrems, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, P. von der Gathen, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic (Spitsbergen),” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, 1995), pp. 113–116.

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, “Preliminary analysis of observations of the Pinatubo volcanic plume with a polarization-sensitive lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 171–175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848–1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Poole, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, S. Schaffner, M. C. Pitts, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar observations of polar stratospheric cloud evolution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 389–392 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, M. Morandi, M. D. Guasta, S. Godin, C. David, “Unusual PSCs observed by LIDAR in Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2377–2380 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, “Preliminary analysis of observations of the Pinatubo volcanic plume with a polarization-sensitive lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 171–175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, A. Tsias, A. Behrendt, “Optical properties of PSC Ia-enhanced at UV and visible wavelengths: model and observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 201–204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, L. R. Poole, M. P. McCormick, S. K. Schaffner, W. H. Hunt, M. T. Osborn, “Optical backscatter characteristics of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 377–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Hanson, K. Mauersberger, “Laboratory studies of the nitric acid trihydrate: implications for the south polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 855–858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Flesia, A. Mugnai, Y. Emery, S. Godin, L. de Schoulepnikoff, V. Mitev, “Interpretation of lidar depolarization measurements of the Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol layer during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1443–1446 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. J. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar observation of a mixed-phase altostratus cloud,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 339–345 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, “Implications of the stratospheric water vapor distribution as determined from the Nimbus 7 LIMS experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 2934–2945 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Geomagn. Geoelectr.

Y. Iwasaka, T. Hirasawa, H. Fukunishi, “Lidar measurement of the Antarctic stratospheric aerosol layer. I. winter enhancement,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 37, 1087–1095 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

T. Shibata, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “On the lidar observed sandwich structure of polar stratospheric clouds. I. implications for the mixing state of the PSC particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 21603–21611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Shibata, “On the lidar observed sandwich structure of polar stratospheric clouds. II. numerical simulations of externally mixed PSC particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 21613–21619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, N. Nakura, “Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter of 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical “sandwich” structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10829–10840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, J. M. Russell, “The Limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere: experiment description, performance, and results,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5179–5190 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, M. Morandi, M. D. Guasta, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations over the antarctic continent at Dumont d’Urvillem,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12975–12987 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol.

C. E. Junge, C. W. Chagnon, J. E. Manson, “Stratospheric aerosols,” J. Meteorol. 18, 81–108 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn.

Y. Iwasaka, S. Hayashida, “The effect of the volcanic eruption of St. Helens on the polarization properties of stratospheric aerosols: lidar measurement at Nagoya,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 59, 611–614 (1981).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Other

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1983).

R. Goody, Principles of Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry (Oxford University, New York, 1995).

T. Ogawa, Y. Koyanagi, Data Analysis by Least Squares Method (in Japanese) (Tokyo University, Tokyo, 1982).

K. Stebel, O. Schrems, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, P. von der Gathen, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic (Spitsbergen),” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone, J. A. Pyle, N. R. P. Harris, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, 1995), pp. 113–116.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).

M. L. Salby, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics (Academic, New York, 1996).

H. Adachi, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, “The relationship of interference filter to depolarization ratio of air molecules and correction method of total depolarization ratio” (in Japanese), in Abstract of Papers, 19th Japanese Laser Sensing Symposium, T. Itabe, ed. (Communications Research Laboratory, Brussels, Belgium, 1998), pp. 101–102.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the two wavelengths and polarization lidar system used at Ny-Ålesund (79 °N, 12 °E).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Five characteristics of plots of δ T versus (1 - R T -1), where δ T is the total depolarization ratio and R T is the total backscattering ratio: (1) When (1 - R T -1) is zero, δ T is equal to the depolarization ratio of air molecules δ m . (2) When the backscattering ratio of the kth group of aerosol particles alone increases to infinity, limRk1-RT-1=1,  limRk δT=δk, where δ k is the depolarization ratio of the kth group. (3) When the backscattering ratio of one group of aerosols alone increases, the slope of δ T versus (1 - R T -1) is constant. (4) The average depolarization ratio of aerosols δp¯(z) at an arbitrary point [(1 - R T0 -1), δ T0] is the δ T value at the crossing point of the line (1 - R T0 -1) = 1 and the line from (0, δ m ) through [(1 - R T0 -1)]. (5) If all aerosols are spherical, points [(1 - R T -1), δ T ] are on the line from (0, δ m ) to (1, 0). All the points contributed by particles of arbitrary shape are above this line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correction of the total depolarization ratio. (a) When the line equation is determined by plotted points of spherical particles, η and δ m are calculated from the equation shown. (b) δ Tobs is corrected by η to δ T , x ≡ 1 - R T -1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) δ T and δ Tc versus δ Tobs for four values of η. (b) δ T and δ Tc of homogeneous sphere versus x for four values of η. The lines of δ T and δ Tc overlap when η = 0. δ m is assumed to be 0.005 in both (a) and (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Profile of lidar parameters and temperature on 24 December 1994: (a) total backscattering ratio [R T ]; (b) thin curve, observed total depolarization ratio [δ Tobs]; heavy curve, corrected total depolarization ratio [δ T ]; (c) heavy curve, temperature [T]; thin curve, frost point of NAT [T NAT]. Points between 12 and 18 km assume that particles in this range consist of only sulfate aerosols for the correction of the total depolarization ratio.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of δ T versus (1 - R T -1) between 12 and 18 km on 24 December 1994. Particles were assumed to consist of sulfate aerosol particles. The depolarization ratio of air molecules δ m was determined by δ Tobs to 0.46 ± 0.35%. δ Tobs is corrected to δ T .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Profile of lidar parameters and temperature on 4 January 1995: (a) total backscattering ratio [R T ]; (b) thin curve, observed total depolarization ratio [δ Tobs]; solid curve, corrected total depolarization ratio [δ T ]; (c) solid curve, temperature [T]; thin curve, frost point of NAT [T NAT]. Points between 13 and 23 km assumed that particles in this range included sulfate aerosol particles and spherical PSC particles for correction of the total depolarization ratio.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plot of δ T versus (1 - R T -1) between 13 and 23 km on 4 January 1995. It was assumed that particles measured in this data set included sulfate aerosols and PSC particles. δ Tobs was corrected by η to δ T , assuming only spherical particles of points in the hatched areas. The depolarization ratio of air molecules δ m was determined by δ Tobs to 0.45 ± 0.07%. δ Tobs was corrected to δ T .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plot of δ T versus (1 - R T -1) between 13 and 23 km in December 1995. There are two main groups corresponding to lines a and b. When the backscattering ratio of one group of aerosols R particle alone increases, a point on line (1 - R T -1) = 1 is reached. One group consists of specific nonspherical particles (depolarization ratio of particles, 35%), and the other group consists of spherical particles (depolarization ratio of particles, 0%). The total number of points in this figure is 28,537. The number of points used for the least-squares fitting of line a is ◇, 895, and of line b it is, □, 732.

Equations (27)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SpzgSsz=κT2zz2D · βz · I0,
I=I010,
βz=βzβzβzβz,
β,z=β,mz+i β,iz,
RTzβz+βzβmz+βmz=1+i Riz,
δTzβzβz+βz=βmz+i βizβmz+βmz+iβiz+βiz.
δTz=1-RT-1zi δiRizi Riz-δm+δm=1-RT-1zδp¯z-δm+δm,
δp¯zi δiRizi Riz=i βiziβiz+βiz.
δm,iβm,iβm,i+βm,i,
limRk1-RT-1=1,  limRk δT=δk.
dδTd1-RT-1=kδk-δm+jkδk-δjRj×ΔRki ΔRi.
δTobszgSszSpz+gSsz.
I0=I01-εε,
D=1-DpDsDp1-Ds,
SpgSs=κI0T2zz21-DpDsDp1-Ds1-εεε1-ε×ββ.
ββ=z2κI0T2z11-2ε1-Dp-Ds×1-ε-ε-ε1-ε1-Ds-Ds-Dp1-DpSpgSs.
δT=gSs-DpSp+gSs-ε1-Dp-DsSp+gSs1-2ε1-Dp-DsSp+gSs.
δT1+2ε+Dp+DsδTobs-Dp-ε.
δT1+2ηδTobs-η.
δTx=1-xδm,
δTobsx=1-xδm+η1+2η=-δm1+2η x+δm+η1+2η.
η=δTobsx-1-xδm1-2δTobsx.
KgSsSp+gSsδm
δTcx=δTobsxδmδTobs0=1+2ηδTobsxδmδm+η.
δTcx=1-δmδm+η x δm.
iδnonspherical,i-δmRnonspherical,i>δmRspherical.
limRk1-RT-1=1,  limRk δT=δk,

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