Abstract

The presence of soot in the lower stratosphere was recently established by in situ measurements. To isolate their contribution to optical measurements from that of background aerosol, the soot’s bulk optical properties must be determined. Laboratory measurements of extinction and polarization of randomly distributed soot were conducted. For all soot, measurements show a slight reddening extinction between 400 and 700 nm and exhibit a maximum of 100% polarization at a scattering angle of 75 ± 5°. Such results cannot be reproduced by use of Mie theory assumptions. The different optical properties of soot and background stratospheric aerosol could allow isolation of soot in future analyses of stratospheric measurements.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2000 (3)

R. F. Pueschel, S. Verma, H. Rohatschek, G. V. Ferry, N. Boiadjieva, S. D. Howard, A. W. Strawa, “Vertical transport of anthropogenic soot aerosol into the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D3, 3727–3736 (2000).

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument: comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 46, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

A. Petzold, A. Dopelheuer, C. A. Brock, F. Schroder, “In-situ observations and model calculation of black carbon emission by aircraft at cruise altitude,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D18, 22171–22181 (1999).

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, E. Hadamcik, “Light scattering by dust particles in microgravity: the PROGRA2 achievements and results,” Adv. Space Res. 23, 1257–1266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosol and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefevre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wu, S. S. Krishnan, G. M. Faeth, “Refractive indices at visible wavelengths of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames,” J. Heat Transfer 119, 230–236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2, and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D22, 28793–28804 (1996).

1995 (1)

D. F. Blake, K. Kato, “Latitudinal distribution of black carbon soot in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, D4, 7195–7202 (1995).

1992 (1)

J. D. Felske, J. C. Ku, “A technique for determining the spectral refractive indices, size, and number density of soot particles from light scattering and spectral extinction measurements in flames,” Combust. Flame 91, 1–20 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

Ackerman, T. P.

Balois, J. Y.

Bauman, J. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R. W.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berthet, G.

Blake, D. F.

D. F. Blake, K. Kato, “Latitudinal distribution of black carbon soot in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, D4, 7195–7202 (1995).

Boiadjieva, N.

R. F. Pueschel, S. Verma, H. Rohatschek, G. V. Ferry, N. Boiadjieva, S. D. Howard, A. W. Strawa, “Vertical transport of anthropogenic soot aerosol into the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D3, 3727–3736 (2000).

Brock, C. A.

A. Petzold, A. Dopelheuer, C. A. Brock, F. Schroder, “In-situ observations and model calculation of black carbon emission by aircraft at cruise altitude,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D18, 22171–22181 (1999).

Brooks, S. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, C. W.

Brun-Huret, N.

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument: comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 46, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bui, P. T.

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chalumeau, G.

Chartier, M.

Cohen, R.

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deshler, T.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dopelheuer, A.

A. Petzold, A. Dopelheuer, C. A. Brock, F. Schroder, “In-situ observations and model calculation of black carbon emission by aircraft at cruise altitude,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D18, 22171–22181 (1999).

Drdla, K.

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. G.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Elkins, J. W.

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Faeth, G. M.

J. S. Wu, S. S. Krishnan, G. M. Faeth, “Refractive indices at visible wavelengths of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames,” J. Heat Transfer 119, 230–236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Felske, J. D.

J. D. Felske, J. C. Ku, “A technique for determining the spectral refractive indices, size, and number density of soot particles from light scattering and spectral extinction measurements in flames,” Combust. Flame 91, 1–20 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, G. V.

R. F. Pueschel, S. Verma, H. Rohatschek, G. V. Ferry, N. Boiadjieva, S. D. Howard, A. W. Strawa, “Vertical transport of anthropogenic soot aerosol into the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D3, 3727–3736 (2000).

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gao, R. S.

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gayet, J.-F.

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gonzales, L.

Goutail, F.

Gurton, K. P.

Hadamcik, E.

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument: comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 46, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, E. Hadamcik, “Light scattering by dust particles in microgravity: the PROGRA2 achievements and results,” Adv. Space Res. 23, 1257–1266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Hadamcik, “Contribution à une classification des comètes à partir d’observations et de simulations en laboratoire,” Ph.D. dissertation (University Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France, 1999).

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, M. Masson, “Polarization of light scattered by fluffy particles,” Icarus (to be published).

Hamill, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

Howard, S. D.

R. F. Pueschel, S. Verma, H. Rohatschek, G. V. Ferry, N. Boiadjieva, S. D. Howard, A. W. Strawa, “Vertical transport of anthropogenic soot aerosol into the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D3, 3727–3736 (2000).

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huguenin, D.

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefevre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2, and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D22, 28793–28804 (1996).

Kato, K.

D. F. Blake, K. Kato, “Latitudinal distribution of black carbon soot in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, D4, 7195–7202 (1995).

Krishnan, S. S.

J. S. Wu, S. S. Krishnan, G. M. Faeth, “Refractive indices at visible wavelengths of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames,” J. Heat Transfer 119, 230–236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ku, J. C.

J. D. Felske, J. C. Ku, “A technique for determining the spectral refractive indices, size, and number density of soot particles from light scattering and spectral extinction measurements in flames,” Combust. Flame 91, 1–20 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lary, D. J.

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosol and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lateltin, E.

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefevre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, P.

Lee, A. M.

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosol and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lefevre, F.

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefevre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

Levasseur-Regourd, A.-C.

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument: comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 46, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, E. Hadamcik, “Light scattering by dust particles in microgravity: the PROGRA2 achievements and results,” Adv. Space Res. 23, 1257–1266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, M. Masson, “Polarization of light scattered by fluffy particles,” Icarus (to be published).

Livingston, J. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Loewenstein, M.

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Masson, M.

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, M. Masson, “Polarization of light scattered by fluffy particles,” Icarus (to be published).

Moreau, G.

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2, and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D22, 28793–28804 (1996).

Mozer, J. B.

Newchurch, M.

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosol and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nozière, B.

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefevre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ovarlez, H.

J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, “Water vapour and aerosol measurements during SESAME, and the observation of low water vapour content layers,” Air Pollution Report 56, Polar Stratospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Third European Workshop (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Publication, Brussels, Belgium, 1995).

Ovarlez, J.

J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, “Water vapour and aerosol measurements during SESAME, and the observation of low water vapour content layers,” Air Pollution Report 56, Polar Stratospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Third European Workshop (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Publication, Brussels, Belgium, 1995).

Perkins, K. K.

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, A.

A. Petzold, A. Dopelheuer, C. A. Brock, F. Schroder, “In-situ observations and model calculation of black carbon emission by aircraft at cruise altitude,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D18, 22171–22181 (1999).

Pirre, M.

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosol and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefevre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2, and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D22, 28793–28804 (1996).

Pollack, J. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pommereau, J. P.

Pueschel, R. F.

R. F. Pueschel, S. Verma, H. Rohatschek, G. V. Ferry, N. Boiadjieva, S. D. Howard, A. W. Strawa, “Vertical transport of anthropogenic soot aerosol into the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D3, 3727–3736 (2000).

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Renard, J.-B.

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument: comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 46, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, E. Hadamcik, “Light scattering by dust particles in microgravity: the PROGRA2 achievements and results,” Adv. Space Res. 23, 1257–1266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosol and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefevre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2, and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D22, 28793–28804 (1996).

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, M. Masson, “Polarization of light scattered by fluffy particles,” Icarus (to be published).

Robert, C.

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefevre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2, and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D22, 28793–28804 (1996).

Rohatschek, H.

R. F. Pueschel, S. Verma, H. Rohatschek, G. V. Ferry, N. Boiadjieva, S. D. Howard, A. W. Strawa, “Vertical transport of anthropogenic soot aerosol into the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D3, 3727–3736 (2000).

Russell, J. M.

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2, and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D22, 28793–28804 (1996).

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salawitch, R. J.

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Santer, R.

Schroder, F.

A. Petzold, A. Dopelheuer, C. A. Brock, F. Schroder, “In-situ observations and model calculation of black carbon emission by aircraft at cruise altitude,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D18, 22171–22181 (1999).

Stowe, L. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Strawa, A. W.

R. F. Pueschel, S. Verma, H. Rohatschek, G. V. Ferry, N. Boiadjieva, S. D. Howard, A. W. Strawa, “Vertical transport of anthropogenic soot aerosol into the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D3, 3727–3736 (2000).

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stronberg, T. F.

Thomason, L. W.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

Toumi, R.

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosol and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verma, S.

R. F. Pueschel, S. Verma, H. Rohatschek, G. V. Ferry, N. Boiadjieva, S. D. Howard, A. W. Strawa, “Vertical transport of anthropogenic soot aerosol into the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D3, 3727–3736 (2000).

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Verwaerde, C.

Worms, J. C.

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument: comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 46, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, E. Hadamcik, “Light scattering by dust particles in microgravity: the PROGRA2 achievements and results,” Adv. Space Res. 23, 1257–1266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Worms, J.-C.

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, M. Masson, “Polarization of light scattered by fluffy particles,” Icarus (to be published).

Wu, J. S.

J. S. Wu, S. S. Krishnan, G. M. Faeth, “Refractive indices at visible wavelengths of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames,” J. Heat Transfer 119, 230–236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, M.

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, E. Hadamcik, “Light scattering by dust particles in microgravity: the PROGRA2 achievements and results,” Adv. Space Res. 23, 1257–1266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Combust. Flame (1)

J. D. Felske, J. C. Ku, “A technique for determining the spectral refractive indices, size, and number density of soot particles from light scattering and spectral extinction measurements in flames,” Combust. Flame 91, 1–20 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefevre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (1)

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, J.-F. Gayet, “Results of the PROGRA2 experiment: an experimental study in microgravity of scattered polarized light by dust particles with large size parameter,” Icarus 142, 281–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (7)

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18745–18763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, A. Dopelheuer, C. A. Brock, F. Schroder, “In-situ observations and model calculation of black carbon emission by aircraft at cruise altitude,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D18, 22171–22181 (1999).

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during POLARIS and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26753–26766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2, and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D22, 28793–28804 (1996).

D. F. Blake, K. Kato, “Latitudinal distribution of black carbon soot in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, D4, 7195–7202 (1995).

R. F. Pueschel, S. Verma, H. Rohatschek, G. V. Ferry, N. Boiadjieva, S. D. Howard, A. W. Strawa, “Vertical transport of anthropogenic soot aerosol into the middle atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D3, 3727–3736 (2000).

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosol and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Heat Transfer (1)

J. S. Wu, S. S. Krishnan, G. M. Faeth, “Refractive indices at visible wavelengths of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames,” J. Heat Transfer 119, 230–236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

J. C. Worms, J.-B. Renard, E. Hadamcik, N. Brun-Huret, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, “Light scattering by dust particles with the PROGRA2 instrument: comparative measurements between clouds under microgravity and layers on the ground,” Planet. Space Sci. 46, 493–505 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, “Water vapour and aerosol measurements during SESAME, and the observation of low water vapour content layers,” Air Pollution Report 56, Polar Stratospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Third European Workshop (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Publication, Brussels, Belgium, 1995).

E. Hadamcik, “Contribution à une classification des comètes à partir d’observations et de simulations en laboratoire,” Ph.D. dissertation (University Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France, 1999).

E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, J.-C. Worms, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, M. Masson, “Polarization of light scattered by fluffy particles,” Icarus (to be published).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electron transmission microscopy image of kerosene soot that contains single particles, chains, and aggregates. The white line across the top represents a size of 5 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top and middle, normalized extinction coefficient spectra obtained in the laboratory with the SALOMON instrument for kerosene and ethylene soot and their comparison with the best fit obtained by use of Mie theory assumptions. Bottom, size distribution used for the fits.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarimetric curves for three soot observed with the PROGRA2 instrument in microgravity conditions. All the soot are in the form of aggregates as large as tens of micrometers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of averaged polarimetric properties of aggregates measured in microgravity with the properties of air-lifted kerosene soot at ground and the same soot deposited on a surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of measured polarimetric curves of air-lifted kerosene soot, Mie theoretical curve parameters derived from extinction measurements of kerosene and ethylene soot, and a best fit by use of Mie theory assumptions (see text for details).

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