Abstract

A novel six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOFs) alignment technique for assembling two-dimensional array components is presented. The technique uses off-axis linear Fresnel zone plates on one component that are combined with alignment targets on the other. The technique is compact and sensitive to all six DOFs; it was used to package an array of microlenses with a 32 × 32 array of GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators flip-chip bonded to a 9 mm × 9 mm complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor chip. By use of interference fringes to control the tilt misalignment, the worst-case misalignment of the microlenses relative to the chip is calculated to be as follows: lateral = 3.0 µm, rotational = 0.023°, longitudinal = 13 µm, and tilt = 0.022°. We also propose alternative implementations of the technique, including one that uses on-chip photodetectors to automate this six-DOF alignment technique.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2001 (1)

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, “Tolerance of optical interconnections to misalignment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2282–2290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

1997 (1)

1996 (4)

N. R. Basavanhally, M. F. Brady, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic packaging of two-dimensional surface active devices,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B 19, 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

1988 (1)

P. Aubert, H. J. Oguey, R. Vuilleumier, “Monolithic optical position encoder with on-chip photodiodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 23, 465–473 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” in Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” in Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aubert, P.

P. Aubert, H. J. Oguey, R. Vuilleumier, “Monolithic optical position encoder with on-chip photodiodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 23, 465–473 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ayliffe, M. H.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

M. H. Ayliffe, D. V. Plant, “On the design of misalignment-tolerant free-space optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 905–916 (2000).

Baets, R.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Baillie, D. A.

J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Basavanhally, N. R.

N. R. Basavanhally, M. F. Brady, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic packaging of two-dimensional surface active devices,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B 19, 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Basavanhally, “Opto-mechanical alignment and assembly of 2D-array components,” in Technical Digest of the IEEE Princeton Section Sarnoff Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 23–27.

Baukens, V.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Bernier, E.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

Bertilsson, K.

Bisaillon, E.

E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).

Bockstaele, R.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Boisset, G. C.

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boudreau, R.

R. Boudreau, “Passive optical alignment methods,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials Processes, Properties and Interfaces (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 180–181.

Boudreau, R. A.

R. A. Boudreau, H. Han, M. Kadar-Kallen, J. R. Rowlette, “Kinematic mounting of optical and optoelectronic elements on silicon waferboard,” U.S. patent5,574,561 (12November1996).

Brady, M. F.

N. R. Basavanhally, M. F. Brady, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic packaging of two-dimensional surface active devices,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B 19, 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brosseau, D.F.-

E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).

Buchholz, D. B.

N. R. Basavanhally, M. F. Brady, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic packaging of two-dimensional surface active devices,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B 19, 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Châteauneuf, M.

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chuah, A. E. L.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chuah, E. L.

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

Churoux, P.

P. Sheer, T. Collette, P. Churoux, “Free-space optical interconnection within SIMD massively parallel computers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnects, J. Goodman, S. Hinton, T. Pinkston, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1997), pp. 167–177.

Coldren, L. A.

Collette, T.

P. Sheer, T. Collette, P. Churoux, “Free-space optical interconnection within SIMD massively parallel computers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnects, J. Goodman, S. Hinton, T. Pinkston, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1997), pp. 167–177.

Craft, N. C.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Däschner, W.

Delaney, W. F.

Dhoedt, B.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Erlich, A.

A. Erlich, “Micro-optical integration spurs mass production,” Laser Focus World 34, 77–81 (1998).

Everett, P. N.

F.-Brosseau, D.

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

Faucher, J.

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).

Feldblum, A. Y.

Garvin, C.

J. A. Trezza, J. S. Powell, C. Garvin, K. Kang, R. Stack, “Large format smart pixel arrays and their applications,” in 1998 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), Vol. 5, pp. 299–310.

Godwill, D.

E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” in Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, “Optoelectronic-VLSI: photonics integrated with VLSI circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 899–912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.

R. A. Boudreau, H. Han, M. Kadar-Kallen, J. R. Rowlette, “Kinematic mounting of optical and optoelectronic elements on silicon waferboard,” U.S. patent5,574,561 (12November1996).

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.1998).

Hirabayashi, K.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, W. S.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S. P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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[CrossRef]

Kabal, D.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

Kadar-Kallen, M.

R. A. Boudreau, H. Han, M. Kadar-Kallen, J. R. Rowlette, “Kinematic mounting of optical and optoelectronic elements on silicon waferboard,” U.S. patent5,574,561 (12November1996).

Kang, K.

J. A. Trezza, J. S. Powell, C. Garvin, K. Kang, R. Stack, “Large format smart pixel arrays and their applications,” in 1998 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), Vol. 5, pp. 299–310.

Kipman, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Kipman, P. A. McDonald, R. D. Schuchatowitz, “System and method for aligning a first surface with respect to a second surface,” U.S. patent5,532,815 (2July1996).

Kirk, A. G.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

Koyabu, K.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, “Optoelectronic-VLSI: photonics integrated with VLSI circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 899–912 (1998).
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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Kufner, S.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

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J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” in Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, F.

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

Laprise, E.

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).

Lee, S. H.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leibengath, R. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leonberger, F. J.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” in Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lopata, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Louderback, D. A.

Luo, W.

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).

Ma, J.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, S.

Matin, M.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, K.

McDonald, P. A.

Y. Y. Kipman, P. A. McDonald, R. D. Schuchatowitz, “System and method for aligning a first surface with respect to a second surface,” U.S. patent5,532,815 (2July1996).

Michael, F. S. J.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

Miyazaki, D.

Morgan, R. A.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate for interconnection applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1369–1372 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, D. T.

Nguyen, H. N.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate for interconnection applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1369–1372 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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P. Aubert, H. J. Oguey, R. Vuilleumier, “Monolithic optical position encoder with on-chip photodiodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 23, 465–473 (1988).
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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Ozguz, V. H.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Patra, S. K.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. V. Plant, “On the design of misalignment-tolerant free-space optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 905–916 (2000).

E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

Powell, J. S.

J. A. Trezza, J. S. Powell, C. Garvin, K. Kang, R. Stack, “Large format smart pixel arrays and their applications,” in 1998 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), Vol. 5, pp. 299–310.

Razavi, K.

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).

Robertson, B.

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

Rolston, D. R.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

Rowlette, J. R.

R. A. Boudreau, H. Han, M. Kadar-Kallen, J. R. Rowlette, “Kinematic mounting of optical and optoelectronic elements on silicon waferboard,” U.S. patent5,574,561 (12November1996).

Sasian, J. M.

J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schenfeld, E.

Schuchatowitz, R. D.

Y. Y. Kipman, P. A. McDonald, R. D. Schuchatowitz, “System and method for aligning a first surface with respect to a second surface,” U.S. patent5,532,815 (2July1996).

Sheer, P.

P. Sheer, T. Collette, P. Churoux, “Free-space optical interconnection within SIMD massively parallel computers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnects, J. Goodman, S. Hinton, T. Pinkston, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1997), pp. 167–177.

Simmons, J.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stack, R.

J. A. Trezza, J. S. Powell, C. Garvin, K. Kang, R. Stack, “Large format smart pixel arrays and their applications,” in 1998 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), Vol. 5, pp. 299–310.

Strzelecka, E. M.

Szymanski, T. H.

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

Taghizadeh, M. R.

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thibeault, B. J.

Thienpont, H.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Thompson, D. A.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, G. B.

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

Trezza, J. A.

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).

J. A. Trezza, J. S. Powell, C. Garvin, K. Kang, R. Stack, “Large format smart pixel arrays and their applications,” in 1998 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), Vol. 5, pp. 299–310.

Tseng, B. J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tuteleers, P.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Van Hove, A.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Venditti, M. B.

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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

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A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).

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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate for interconnection applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1369–1372 (1992).
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Walker, S. J.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate for interconnection applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1369–1372 (1992).
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Wong, Y. M.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate for interconnection applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1369–1372 (1992).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
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M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
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E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).

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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
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M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
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IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

P. Aubert, H. J. Oguey, R. Vuilleumier, “Monolithic optical position encoder with on-chip photodiodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 23, 465–473 (1988).
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[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).

P. Sheer, T. Collette, P. Churoux, “Free-space optical interconnection within SIMD massively parallel computers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnects, J. Goodman, S. Hinton, T. Pinkston, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1997), pp. 167–177.

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