Abstract

A novel six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOFs) alignment technique for assembling two-dimensional array components is presented. The technique uses off-axis linear Fresnel zone plates on one component that are combined with alignment targets on the other. The technique is compact and sensitive to all six DOFs; it was used to package an array of microlenses with a 32 × 32 array of GaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators flip-chip bonded to a 9 mm × 9 mm complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor chip. By use of interference fringes to control the tilt misalignment, the worst-case misalignment of the microlenses relative to the chip is calculated to be as follows: lateral = 3.0 µm, rotational = 0.023°, longitudinal = 13 µm, and tilt = 0.022°. We also propose alternative implementations of the technique, including one that uses on-chip photodetectors to automate this six-DOF alignment technique.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2001 (1)

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

D. T. Neilson, “Tolerance of optical interconnections to misalignment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2282–2290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

1998 (5)

1997 (1)

1996 (4)

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Basavanhally, M. F. Brady, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic packaging of two-dimensional surface active devices,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B 19, 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

1988 (1)

P. Aubert, H. J. Oguey, R. Vuilleumier, “Monolithic optical position encoder with on-chip photodiodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 23, 465–473 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” in Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” in Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aubert, P.

P. Aubert, H. J. Oguey, R. Vuilleumier, “Monolithic optical position encoder with on-chip photodiodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 23, 465–473 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ayliffe, M. H.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. V. Plant, “On the design of misalignment-tolerant free-space optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 905–916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Baillie, D. A.

J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Basavanhally, N. R.

N. R. Basavanhally, M. F. Brady, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic packaging of two-dimensional surface active devices,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B 19, 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Basavanhally, “Opto-mechanical alignment and assembly of 2D-array components,” in Technical Digest of the IEEE Princeton Section Sarnoff Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 23–27.
[CrossRef]

Baukens, V.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Bernier, E.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bertilsson, K.

Bisaillon, E.

E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bockstaele, R.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Boisset, G. C.

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boudreau, R.

R. Boudreau, “Passive optical alignment methods,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials Processes, Properties and Interfaces (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 180–181.
[CrossRef]

Boudreau, R. A.

R. A. Boudreau, H. Han, M. Kadar-Kallen, J. R. Rowlette, “Kinematic mounting of optical and optoelectronic elements on silicon waferboard,” U.S. patent5,574,561 (12November1996).

Brady, M. F.

N. R. Basavanhally, M. F. Brady, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic packaging of two-dimensional surface active devices,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B 19, 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brosseau, D.F.-

E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buchholz, D. B.

N. R. Basavanhally, M. F. Brady, D. B. Buchholz, “Optoelectronic packaging of two-dimensional surface active devices,” IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B 19, 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Châteauneuf, M.

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chuah, A. E. L.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chuah, E. L.

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Churoux, P.

P. Sheer, T. Collette, P. Churoux, “Free-space optical interconnection within SIMD massively parallel computers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnects, J. Goodman, S. Hinton, T. Pinkston, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1997), pp. 167–177.
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

Collette, T.

P. Sheer, T. Collette, P. Churoux, “Free-space optical interconnection within SIMD massively parallel computers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnects, J. Goodman, S. Hinton, T. Pinkston, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1997), pp. 167–177.
[CrossRef]

Craft, N. C.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Däschner, W.

Delaney, W. F.

Dhoedt, B.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Erlich, A.

A. Erlich, “Micro-optical integration spurs mass production,” Laser Focus World 34, 77–81 (1998).

Everett, P. N.

F.-Brosseau, D.

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Faucher, J.

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feldblum, A. Y.

Garvin, C.

J. A. Trezza, J. S. Powell, C. Garvin, K. Kang, R. Stack, “Large format smart pixel arrays and their applications,” in 1998 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), Vol. 5, pp. 299–310.
[CrossRef]

Godwill, D.

E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” in Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, “Optoelectronic-VLSI: photonics integrated with VLSI circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 899–912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.

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M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
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A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
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J. A. Trezza, J. S. Powell, C. Garvin, K. Kang, R. Stack, “Large format smart pixel arrays and their applications,” in 1998 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), Vol. 5, pp. 299–310.
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M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
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A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
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D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

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A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
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D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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Lopata, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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Luo, W.

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).
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S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
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Matin, M.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
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M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
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McDonald, P. A.

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Michael, F. S. J.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
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A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
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Morgan, R. A.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate for interconnection applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1369–1372 (1992).
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Nguyen, H. N.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate for interconnection applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1369–1372 (1992).
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Ozguz, V. H.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
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Plant, D. V.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
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B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
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G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
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M. H. Ayliffe, D. V. Plant, “On the design of misalignment-tolerant free-space optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 905–916 (2000).
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E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).
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J. A. Trezza, J. S. Powell, C. Garvin, K. Kang, R. Stack, “Large format smart pixel arrays and their applications,” in 1998 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), Vol. 5, pp. 299–310.
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D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).
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B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
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G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rolston, D. R.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
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R. A. Boudreau, H. Han, M. Kadar-Kallen, J. R. Rowlette, “Kinematic mounting of optical and optoelectronic elements on silicon waferboard,” U.S. patent5,574,561 (12November1996).

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J. M. Sasian, D. A. Baillie, “Simple technique for out-of-focus feature alignment,” Opt. Eng. 34, 564–566 (1995).
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Schuchatowitz, R. D.

Y. Y. Kipman, P. A. McDonald, R. D. Schuchatowitz, “System and method for aligning a first surface with respect to a second surface,” U.S. patent5,532,815 (2July1996).

Sheer, P.

P. Sheer, T. Collette, P. Churoux, “Free-space optical interconnection within SIMD massively parallel computers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnects, J. Goodman, S. Hinton, T. Pinkston, E. Schenfeld, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, New York, 1997), pp. 167–177.
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Simmons, J.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
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Song, K.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stack, R.

J. A. Trezza, J. S. Powell, C. Garvin, K. Kang, R. Stack, “Large format smart pixel arrays and their applications,” in 1998 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), Vol. 5, pp. 299–310.
[CrossRef]

Strzelecka, E. M.

Szymanski, T. H.

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
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Taghizadeh, M. R.

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
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Thibeault, B. J.

Thienpont, H.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Thompson, D. A.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
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Thompson, G. B.

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
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A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
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Trezza, J. A.

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Trezza, J. S. Powell, C. Garvin, K. Kang, R. Stack, “Large format smart pixel arrays and their applications,” in 1998 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), Vol. 5, pp. 299–310.
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B. J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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Tuteleers, P.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Van Hove, A.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

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D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

Verschaffelt, G.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

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A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, J. A. Trezza, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, D. Kabal, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, D. F.-Brosseau, F. S. J. Michael, E. L. Chuah, “A modulator-based multistage free-space optical interconnection system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 449–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, H. Thienpont, “Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 255–261 (1999).

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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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[CrossRef]

Walker, S. J.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate for interconnection applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1369–1372 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wong, Y. M.

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate for interconnection applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1369–1372 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wynn, J. D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. H. Ayliffe, D. R. Rolston, A. E. L. Chuah, E. Bernier, F. S. J. Michael, D. Kabal, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Design and testing of a kinematic package supporting a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a CMOS chip,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1543–1559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, “Optoelectronic-VLSI: photonics integrated with VLSI circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 899–912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, K. Koyabu, “High-density digital free-space photonic-switching fabrics using exciton absorption reflection-switch (EARS) arrays and microbeam optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 47–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

P. Aubert, H. J. Oguey, R. Vuilleumier, “Monolithic optical position encoder with on-chip photodiodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 23, 465–473 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, W. S. Hsiao, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Simmons, K. Song, M. Matin, D. A. Thompson, D. V. Plant, “On-die diffractive alignment structures for packaging of microlens arrays with 2-D optoelectronics device arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 918–920 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, R. A. Morgan, H. N. Nguyen, J. A. Walker, S. J. Walker, Y. M. Wong, “Hybrid integration of surface-emitting microlaser chip and planar optics substrate for interconnection applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1369–1372 (1992).
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[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, J. A. Trezza, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, W. Luo, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1046–1054 (2000).
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E. Bisaillon, T. Yamamoto, D.F.- Brosseau, E. Bernier, D. Godwill, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, “Optical link for an adaptive redundant free-space interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 999–1009 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Six-degrees-of-freedom (x, y, z, θx, θy, θz) alignment of an 8 × 8 array of microlens to an OE-VLSI chip.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Description of the six-DOF off-axis alignment technique.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of the off-axis FZP fabricated on the CMOS chip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CCD images showing location of the cross pattern with respect to the fiducial markers (outlined) at three different planes along the optical axis: (a) 100 µm in front of the focal plane, (b) at the focal plane, and (c) 100 µm behind the focal plane.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup that uses the retroreflected beam alignment technique.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Retroreflected spot from (a) the OE-VLSI chip of Fig. 3 and (b) a 100% mirror.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup that uses the in situ beam alignment technique.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CCD image showing interference fringes between the microlens substrate and the chip surface (only the upper-left corner of the chip is shown). The fringes are difficult to see owing to the low reflectivity of the microlens substrate; they are oriented parallel to the lines of the arrows.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Orthogonal beam alignment that uses in situ off-axis linear FZPs.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photograph of an assembled package module having an 8 × 8 array of microlens aligned to a 32 × 32 array of GaAs MQW modulators flip-chip bonded to a 9 mm × 9 mm CMOS chip.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Improved implementation of the six-DOF alignment technique.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Novel implementation that uses on-chip photodetectors to perform six-DOF alignment.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Worst-Case Misalignment Errors for Both Beam Alignment Techniques

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δx=Δy=δ+fμlens tanβ.
Δθz=arctan2δd2δd,
Δz=δtanϕ-βδtan ϕ,
Δθx=Δθy=arctanΔzd/22δd tan ϕ.
sinθedge=mλp,
β=12arctanfc2fc,
Δθx=Δθy=arctanNλ2LNλ2L.
β=arctanδ2fμlensδ2fμlens,
Δx=x+-x-,
Δz=x++x--D2 tan ϕ,
Δx=I2+I4-I1-I3I1+I2+I3+I4D,
Δz=I1+I4-I2-I3I1+I2+I3+I4D2 tan ϕ,

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