Abstract

What is believed to be the first fluorescence imaging of the facades of a historical building, which was accomplished with a scanning fluorescence lidar system, is reported. The mobile system was placed at a distance of ∼60 m from the medieval Lund Cathedral (Sweden), and a 355-nm pulsed laser beam was swept over the stone facades row by row while spectrally resolved fluorescence signals of each measurement point were recorded. By multispectral image processing, either by formation of simple spectral-band ratios or by use of multivariate techniques, areas with different spectral signatures were classified. In particular, biological growth was observed and different stone types were distinguished. The technique can yield data for use in facade status assessment and restoration planning.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Petter Weibring, Thomas Johansson, Hans Edner, Sune Svanberg, Barbro Sundnér, Valentina Raimondi, Giovanna Cecchi, and Luca Pantani, "Fluorescence lidar imaging of historical monuments: erratum," Appl. Opt. 41, 434-436 (2002)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-41-3-434

References

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1998 (3)

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Chiari, “Fluorescence lidar monitoring of historical buildings,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1089–1098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring, M. Andersson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Remote monitoring of industrial emissions by combination of Lidar and plume velocity measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 383–388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Andersson-Engels, C. af Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 815–824 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. Johansson, M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Mattsson, S. Svanberg, “Remote fluorescence measurements of vegetation spectrally resolved and by multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 632–637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation using a fluorescence lidar system in spectrally resolving and multi-spectral imaging modes,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 193–206 (1995).

S. Svanberg, “Fluorescence lidar monitoring of vegetation status,” Phys. Scr. T58, 79–85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Alberotanza, P. L. Cova, C. Ramasco, S. Vianello, M. Bazzani, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Yellow substance and chlorophyll monitoring in the Venice Lagoon using laser-induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 102–110 (1995).

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Johansson, “The lichen flora on the Lund Cathedral,” Sven. Botan. Tidskr. 87, 25–30 (1993).

1992 (3)

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

A. Rosema, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, M. Romoli, P. Mazzinghi, O. Van Kooten, C. Kliffen, “Monitoring photosynthetic activity and ozone stress by laser induced fluorescence in trees,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 737–751 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Carlozzi, E. Pelosi, G. Torzillo, “Phytoplankton monitoring by laser induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 106–110 (1992).

1987 (2)

1980 (1)

af Klinteberg, C.

S. Andersson-Engels, C. af Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 815–824 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alberotanza, L.

L. Alberotanza, P. L. Cova, C. Ramasco, S. Vianello, M. Bazzani, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Yellow substance and chlorophyll monitoring in the Venice Lagoon using laser-induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 102–110 (1995).

Andersson, M.

P. Weibring, M. Andersson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Remote monitoring of industrial emissions by combination of Lidar and plume velocity measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 383–388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Johansson, M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Mattsson, S. Svanberg, “Remote fluorescence measurements of vegetation spectrally resolved and by multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 632–637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

S. Andersson-Engels, C. af Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 815–824 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballerini, G.

G. Ballerini, S. Bracci, L. Pantani, P. Tiano, “Lidar remote sensing of stone cultural heritage: detection of protective treatments,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1579–1583.

Bazzani, M.

L. Alberotanza, P. L. Cova, C. Ramasco, S. Vianello, M. Bazzani, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Yellow substance and chlorophyll monitoring in the Venice Lagoon using laser-induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 102–110 (1995).

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Carlozzi, E. Pelosi, G. Torzillo, “Phytoplankton monitoring by laser induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 106–110 (1992).

Beebe, K. R.

K. R. Beebe, B. Kowalski, “An introduction to multivariate calibration and analysis,” Anal. Chem. 59, 1607A (1987).

Bosco, M.

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, L. Tomaselli, G. Lamenti, M. Bosco, P. Tiano, “Fluorescence lidar technique for the monitoring of biodeteriogens on the cultural heritage,” in Remote Sensing for Geography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 137–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bown, S.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

Bracci, S.

G. Ballerini, S. Bracci, L. Pantani, P. Tiano, “Lidar remote sensing of stone cultural heritage: detection of protective treatments,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1579–1583.

Breschi, B.

M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Carlozzi, E. Pelosi, G. Torzillo, “Phytoplankton monitoring by laser induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 106–110 (1992).

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

Buja-Bijunas, L.

Carlozzi, P.

M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Carlozzi, E. Pelosi, G. Torzillo, “Phytoplankton monitoring by laser induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 106–110 (1992).

Cecchi, G.

V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Chiari, “Fluorescence lidar monitoring of historical buildings,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1089–1098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Alberotanza, P. L. Cova, C. Ramasco, S. Vianello, M. Bazzani, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Yellow substance and chlorophyll monitoring in the Venice Lagoon using laser-induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 102–110 (1995).

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

A. Rosema, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, M. Romoli, P. Mazzinghi, O. Van Kooten, C. Kliffen, “Monitoring photosynthetic activity and ozone stress by laser induced fluorescence in trees,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 737–751 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Carlozzi, E. Pelosi, G. Torzillo, “Phytoplankton monitoring by laser induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 106–110 (1992).

V. Raimondi, P. Weibring, G. Cecchi, H. Edner, T. Johansson, L. Pantani, B. Sundnér, S. Svanberg, “Fluorescence imaging of historical buildings by lidar remote sensing,” in Earth Surface Remote Sensing II, G. Cecchi, E. Zilioli, eds., Proc. SPIE3496, 15–20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, “The fluorescence lidar technique for the remote sensing of stony materials in ancient buildings,” in Remote Sensing forGeography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 163–172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, L. Tomaselli, G. Lamenti, M. Bosco, P. Tiano, “Fluorescence lidar technique for the monitoring of biodeteriogens on the cultural heritage,” in Remote Sensing for Geography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 137–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Celander, L.

L. Celander, K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, S. Svanberg, “Investigation of laser-induced fluorescence with applications to remote sensing of environmental parameters,” (Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, 1978).

Chiari, R.

V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Chiari, “Fluorescence lidar monitoring of historical buildings,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1089–1098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, “The fluorescence lidar technique for the remote sensing of stony materials in ancient buildings,” in Remote Sensing forGeography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 163–172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, L. Tomaselli, G. Lamenti, M. Bosco, P. Tiano, “Fluorescence lidar technique for the monitoring of biodeteriogens on the cultural heritage,” in Remote Sensing for Geography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 137–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Colleen, S.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

Cova, P. L.

L. Alberotanza, P. L. Cova, C. Ramasco, S. Vianello, M. Bazzani, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Yellow substance and chlorophyll monitoring in the Venice Lagoon using laser-induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 102–110 (1995).

Diddens, H.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

Edner, H.

P. Weibring, M. Andersson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Remote monitoring of industrial emissions by combination of Lidar and plume velocity measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 383–388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Johansson, M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Mattsson, S. Svanberg, “Remote fluorescence measurements of vegetation spectrally resolved and by multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 632–637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation using a fluorescence lidar system in spectrally resolving and multi-spectral imaging modes,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 193–206 (1995).

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Fluorescence lidar multicolor imaging of vegetation,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2471–2479 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Unéus, W. Wendt, “Mobile remote sensing system for atmospheric monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4330–4338 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Raimondi, P. Weibring, G. Cecchi, H. Edner, T. Johansson, L. Pantani, B. Sundnér, S. Svanberg, “Fluorescence imaging of historical buildings by lidar remote sensing,” in Earth Surface Remote Sensing II, G. Cecchi, E. Zilioli, eds., Proc. SPIE3496, 15–20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Esbensen, K.

K. Esbensen, T. Midtgaard, S. Schonkopf, D. Guyoyf, Multivariate Analysis—A Training Package (CAMO ASA, Oslo, Norway, 1994).

Fotakis, C.

V. Zafiropulus, C. Fotakis, “Lasers in the conservation of painted artwork,” in Laser Cleaning in Conservation: an Introduction, M. Cooper, ed. (Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, 1998), Chap. 6.

Fredriksson, K.

H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Unéus, W. Wendt, “Mobile remote sensing system for atmospheric monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4330–4338 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Celander, K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, S. Svanberg, “Investigation of laser-induced fluorescence with applications to remote sensing of environmental parameters,” (Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, 1978).

Galle, B.

L. Celander, K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, S. Svanberg, “Investigation of laser-induced fluorescence with applications to remote sensing of environmental parameters,” (Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, 1978).

Gregory, G.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

Guyoyf, D.

K. Esbensen, T. Midtgaard, S. Schonkopf, D. Guyoyf, Multivariate Analysis—A Training Package (CAMO ASA, Oslo, Norway, 1994).

Idvall, I.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

Ingvar, C.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

Jocham, D.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

Johansson, J.

J. Johansson, M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Mattsson, S. Svanberg, “Remote fluorescence measurements of vegetation spectrally resolved and by multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 632–637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation using a fluorescence lidar system in spectrally resolving and multi-spectral imaging modes,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 193–206 (1995).

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Fluorescence lidar multicolor imaging of vegetation,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2471–2479 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

Johansson, P.

P. Johansson, “The lichen flora on the Lund Cathedral,” Sven. Botan. Tidskr. 87, 25–30 (1993).

P. Johansson, The Lichen Flora on the Lund Cathedral (Central Board for National Antiquities, Stockholm, Sweden, 1992), in Swedish.

Johansson, T.

V. Raimondi, P. Weibring, G. Cecchi, H. Edner, T. Johansson, L. Pantani, B. Sundnér, S. Svanberg, “Fluorescence imaging of historical buildings by lidar remote sensing,” in Earth Surface Remote Sensing II, G. Cecchi, E. Zilioli, eds., Proc. SPIE3496, 15–20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kliffen, C.

A. Rosema, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, M. Romoli, P. Mazzinghi, O. Van Kooten, C. Kliffen, “Monitoring photosynthetic activity and ozone stress by laser induced fluorescence in trees,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 737–751 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, B.

K. R. Beebe, B. Kowalski, “An introduction to multivariate calibration and analysis,” Anal. Chem. 59, 1607A (1987).

Lamenti, G.

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, L. Tomaselli, G. Lamenti, M. Bosco, P. Tiano, “Fluorescence lidar technique for the monitoring of biodeteriogens on the cultural heritage,” in Remote Sensing for Geography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 137–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Löfvendahl, R.

R. Löfvendahl, B. Sundner, The Lund Cathedral. Stony Material and Damage Assessment (Central Board for National Antiquities, Stockholm, Sweden, 1997), in Swedish.

Marfunin, A. S.

A. S. Marfunin, Spectroscopy, Luminescence, and Radiation Centers in Minerals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979).
[CrossRef]

Mattsson, J.

J. Johansson, M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Mattsson, S. Svanberg, “Remote fluorescence measurements of vegetation spectrally resolved and by multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 632–637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mazzinghi, P.

A. Rosema, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, M. Romoli, P. Mazzinghi, O. Van Kooten, C. Kliffen, “Monitoring photosynthetic activity and ozone stress by laser induced fluorescence in trees,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 737–751 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Menzel, E. R.

E. R. Menzel, Laser Detection of Fingerprints, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999).

Midtgaard, T.

K. Esbensen, T. Midtgaard, S. Schonkopf, D. Guyoyf, Multivariate Analysis—A Training Package (CAMO ASA, Oslo, Norway, 1994).

Montán, S.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

O’Neill, R. A.

Pantani, L.

V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Chiari, “Fluorescence lidar monitoring of historical buildings,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1089–1098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Alberotanza, P. L. Cova, C. Ramasco, S. Vianello, M. Bazzani, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Yellow substance and chlorophyll monitoring in the Venice Lagoon using laser-induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 102–110 (1995).

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

A. Rosema, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, M. Romoli, P. Mazzinghi, O. Van Kooten, C. Kliffen, “Monitoring photosynthetic activity and ozone stress by laser induced fluorescence in trees,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 737–751 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Carlozzi, E. Pelosi, G. Torzillo, “Phytoplankton monitoring by laser induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 106–110 (1992).

V. Raimondi, P. Weibring, G. Cecchi, H. Edner, T. Johansson, L. Pantani, B. Sundnér, S. Svanberg, “Fluorescence imaging of historical buildings by lidar remote sensing,” in Earth Surface Remote Sensing II, G. Cecchi, E. Zilioli, eds., Proc. SPIE3496, 15–20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Ballerini, S. Bracci, L. Pantani, P. Tiano, “Lidar remote sensing of stone cultural heritage: detection of protective treatments,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1579–1583.

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, L. Tomaselli, G. Lamenti, M. Bosco, P. Tiano, “Fluorescence lidar technique for the monitoring of biodeteriogens on the cultural heritage,” in Remote Sensing for Geography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 137–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, “The fluorescence lidar technique for the remote sensing of stony materials in ancient buildings,” in Remote Sensing forGeography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 163–172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pelosi, E.

M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Carlozzi, E. Pelosi, G. Torzillo, “Phytoplankton monitoring by laser induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 106–110 (1992).

Radicati, B.

A. Rosema, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, M. Romoli, P. Mazzinghi, O. Van Kooten, C. Kliffen, “Monitoring photosynthetic activity and ozone stress by laser induced fluorescence in trees,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 737–751 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

Ragnarson, P.

L. Alberotanza, P. L. Cova, C. Ramasco, S. Vianello, M. Bazzani, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Yellow substance and chlorophyll monitoring in the Venice Lagoon using laser-induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 102–110 (1995).

H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation using a fluorescence lidar system in spectrally resolving and multi-spectral imaging modes,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 193–206 (1995).

Raimondi, V.

V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, R. Chiari, “Fluorescence lidar monitoring of historical buildings,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1089–1098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Alberotanza, P. L. Cova, C. Ramasco, S. Vianello, M. Bazzani, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Yellow substance and chlorophyll monitoring in the Venice Lagoon using laser-induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 102–110 (1995).

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

V. Raimondi, P. Weibring, G. Cecchi, H. Edner, T. Johansson, L. Pantani, B. Sundnér, S. Svanberg, “Fluorescence imaging of historical buildings by lidar remote sensing,” in Earth Surface Remote Sensing II, G. Cecchi, E. Zilioli, eds., Proc. SPIE3496, 15–20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, “The fluorescence lidar technique for the remote sensing of stony materials in ancient buildings,” in Remote Sensing forGeography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 163–172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, L. Tomaselli, G. Lamenti, M. Bosco, P. Tiano, “Fluorescence lidar technique for the monitoring of biodeteriogens on the cultural heritage,” in Remote Sensing for Geography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 137–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ramasco, C.

L. Alberotanza, P. L. Cova, C. Ramasco, S. Vianello, M. Bazzani, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Yellow substance and chlorophyll monitoring in the Venice Lagoon using laser-induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 102–110 (1995).

Rayner, D. M.

Romoli, M.

A. Rosema, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, M. Romoli, P. Mazzinghi, O. Van Kooten, C. Kliffen, “Monitoring photosynthetic activity and ozone stress by laser induced fluorescence in trees,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 737–751 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rosema, A.

A. Rosema, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, M. Romoli, P. Mazzinghi, O. Van Kooten, C. Kliffen, “Monitoring photosynthetic activity and ozone stress by laser induced fluorescence in trees,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 737–751 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rydell, R.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

Schonkopf, S.

K. Esbensen, T. Midtgaard, S. Schonkopf, D. Guyoyf, Multivariate Analysis—A Training Package (CAMO ASA, Oslo, Norway, 1994).

Sundner, B.

R. Löfvendahl, B. Sundner, The Lund Cathedral. Stony Material and Damage Assessment (Central Board for National Antiquities, Stockholm, Sweden, 1997), in Swedish.

Sundnér, B.

V. Raimondi, P. Weibring, G. Cecchi, H. Edner, T. Johansson, L. Pantani, B. Sundnér, S. Svanberg, “Fluorescence imaging of historical buildings by lidar remote sensing,” in Earth Surface Remote Sensing II, G. Cecchi, E. Zilioli, eds., Proc. SPIE3496, 15–20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sunesson, A.

Svanberg, K.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

S. Andersson-Engels, C. af Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 815–824 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

P. Weibring, M. Andersson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Remote monitoring of industrial emissions by combination of Lidar and plume velocity measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 383–388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Andersson-Engels, C. af Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 815–824 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Johansson, M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Mattsson, S. Svanberg, “Remote fluorescence measurements of vegetation spectrally resolved and by multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 632–637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation using a fluorescence lidar system in spectrally resolving and multi-spectral imaging modes,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 193–206 (1995).

S. Svanberg, “Fluorescence lidar monitoring of vegetation status,” Phys. Scr. T58, 79–85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Alberotanza, P. L. Cova, C. Ramasco, S. Vianello, M. Bazzani, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Yellow substance and chlorophyll monitoring in the Venice Lagoon using laser-induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 102–110 (1995).

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Fluorescence lidar multicolor imaging of vegetation,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2471–2479 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Unéus, W. Wendt, “Mobile remote sensing system for atmospheric monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4330–4338 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Celander, K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, S. Svanberg, “Investigation of laser-induced fluorescence with applications to remote sensing of environmental parameters,” (Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, 1978).

S. Svanberg, “Laser fluorescence spectroscopy in environmental monitoring,” in Optoelectronic for Environmental Science, S. Martellucci, A. N. Chester, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 15–27.
[CrossRef]

V. Raimondi, P. Weibring, G. Cecchi, H. Edner, T. Johansson, L. Pantani, B. Sundnér, S. Svanberg, “Fluorescence imaging of historical buildings by lidar remote sensing,” in Earth Surface Remote Sensing II, G. Cecchi, E. Zilioli, eds., Proc. SPIE3496, 15–20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tiano, P.

G. Ballerini, S. Bracci, L. Pantani, P. Tiano, “Lidar remote sensing of stone cultural heritage: detection of protective treatments,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1579–1583.

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, L. Tomaselli, G. Lamenti, M. Bosco, P. Tiano, “Fluorescence lidar technique for the monitoring of biodeteriogens on the cultural heritage,” in Remote Sensing for Geography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 137–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tirelli, D.

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Carlozzi, E. Pelosi, G. Torzillo, “Phytoplankton monitoring by laser induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 106–110 (1992).

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, L. Tomaselli, G. Lamenti, M. Bosco, P. Tiano, “Fluorescence lidar technique for the monitoring of biodeteriogens on the cultural heritage,” in Remote Sensing for Geography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 137–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, “The fluorescence lidar technique for the remote sensing of stony materials in ancient buildings,” in Remote Sensing forGeography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 163–172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tomaselli, L.

G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, R. Chiari, L. Tomaselli, G. Lamenti, M. Bosco, P. Tiano, “Fluorescence lidar technique for the monitoring of biodeteriogens on the cultural heritage,” in Remote Sensing for Geography, Geology, Land Planning, and Cultural Heritage, D. Arroyo-Bishop, R. Carla, J. B. Lurie, C. M. Marino, A. Panunzi, J. J. Pearson, E. Zioli, eds., Proc. SPIE2960, 137–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Torzillo, G.

M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Carlozzi, E. Pelosi, G. Torzillo, “Phytoplankton monitoring by laser induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 106–110 (1992).

Unéus, L.

Valmori, G.

M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Carlozzi, E. Pelosi, G. Torzillo, “Phytoplankton monitoring by laser induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 106–110 (1992).

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

Van Kooten, O.

A. Rosema, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, M. Romoli, P. Mazzinghi, O. Van Kooten, C. Kliffen, “Monitoring photosynthetic activity and ozone stress by laser induced fluorescence in trees,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 737–751 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vianello, S.

L. Alberotanza, P. L. Cova, C. Ramasco, S. Vianello, M. Bazzani, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Yellow substance and chlorophyll monitoring in the Venice Lagoon using laser-induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 102–110 (1995).

Wallinder, E.

L. Alberotanza, P. L. Cova, C. Ramasco, S. Vianello, M. Bazzani, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Yellow substance and chlorophyll monitoring in the Venice Lagoon using laser-induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 102–110 (1995).

H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation using a fluorescence lidar system in spectrally resolving and multi-spectral imaging modes,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 193–206 (1995).

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Fluorescence lidar multicolor imaging of vegetation,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2471–2479 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

Wang, I.

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

Weibring, P.

P. Weibring, M. Andersson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Remote monitoring of industrial emissions by combination of Lidar and plume velocity measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 383–388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Raimondi, P. Weibring, G. Cecchi, H. Edner, T. Johansson, L. Pantani, B. Sundnér, S. Svanberg, “Fluorescence imaging of historical buildings by lidar remote sensing,” in Earth Surface Remote Sensing II, G. Cecchi, E. Zilioli, eds., Proc. SPIE3496, 15–20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, W.

Zafiropulus, V.

V. Zafiropulus, C. Fotakis, “Lasers in the conservation of painted artwork,” in Laser Cleaning in Conservation: an Introduction, M. Cooper, ed. (Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, 1998), Chap. 6.

Acta Radiol. (1)

K. Svanberg, I. Wang, S. Colleen, I. Idvall, C. Ingvar, R. Rydell, D. Jocham, H. Diddens, S. Bown, G. Gregory, S. Montán, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Clinical multi-colour fluorescence imaging of malignant tumours—initial experience,” Acta Radiol. 38, 2–9 (1998).

Anal. Chem. (1)

K. R. Beebe, B. Kowalski, “An introduction to multivariate calibration and analysis,” Anal. Chem. 59, 1607A (1987).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Weibring, M. Andersson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Remote monitoring of industrial emissions by combination of Lidar and plume velocity measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 383–388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. (4)

H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation using a fluorescence lidar system in spectrally resolving and multi-spectral imaging modes,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 193–206 (1995).

M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Carlozzi, E. Pelosi, G. Torzillo, “Phytoplankton monitoring by laser induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 106–110 (1992).

L. Alberotanza, P. L. Cova, C. Ramasco, S. Vianello, M. Bazzani, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, V. Raimondi, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Yellow substance and chlorophyll monitoring in the Venice Lagoon using laser-induced fluorescence,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 3, 102–110 (1995).

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119–130 (1992).

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

A. Rosema, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, M. Romoli, P. Mazzinghi, O. Van Kooten, C. Kliffen, “Monitoring photosynthetic activity and ozone stress by laser induced fluorescence in trees,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 737–751 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Plant Physiol. (1)

J. Johansson, M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Mattsson, S. Svanberg, “Remote fluorescence measurements of vegetation spectrally resolved and by multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” J. Plant Physiol. 148, 632–637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Ballerini, S. Bracci, L. Pantani, P. Tiano, “Lidar remote sensing of stone cultural heritage: detection of protective treatments,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1579–1583.

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. Andersson-Engels, C. af Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 815–824 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

S. Svanberg, “Fluorescence lidar monitoring of vegetation status,” Phys. Scr. T58, 79–85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sven. Botan. Tidskr. (1)

P. Johansson, “The lichen flora on the Lund Cathedral,” Sven. Botan. Tidskr. 87, 25–30 (1993).

Other (12)

L. Celander, K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, S. Svanberg, “Investigation of laser-induced fluorescence with applications to remote sensing of environmental parameters,” (Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, 1978).

S. Svanberg, “Laser fluorescence spectroscopy in environmental monitoring,” in Optoelectronic for Environmental Science, S. Martellucci, A. N. Chester, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 15–27.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fluorescence lidar multispectral imaging at a historical building. Top left, photograph of the northern facade of the Lund Cathedral, with the portal area studied in the present research indicated. A specially selected vertical scan line is also indicated. Bottom right, photograph of the Swedish mobile lidar system during the fluorescence imaging measurements. Top right, single-point remote fluorescence spectrum for the facade. Filter bands are shown by hatched regions. Bottom left, fluorescence image of the 8 m × 8 m marked area covering the northern portal. The image was recorded at 682 nm and displays biodeteriogen colonization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical and electronic arrangement of the lidar system employed in measurements of the historic building. PMTs, photomultiplier tubes; OMA, optical multichannel analyzer; TR, transient digitizer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of the northern portal and representative remotely recorded point-monitoring fluorescence spectra. The spectra are normalized in intensity and are shown for wavelengths from 440 to 740 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Point-monitoring spectra of different types of stone in the cathedral facade. The spectra were recorded by accumulation of 20 shots at 60-m distance. Spectra are given with the detected intensities (top) and normalized to their maximum value (bottom). The generic spectral shapes of 12th- and 19th-century sandstone, stones with a crust, stones affected by quenching rust (iron ions), and a rarely occurring yellowish facade stone are given. In the normalized spectra, the intensity ratios for the signal levels at the orange (600-nm) and the blue (448-nm) filters used are also given.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Point monitoring spectra of different types of biodeteriogen colonization on the cathedral facade. The spectra were recorded by accumulation of 20 laser shots at 60-m distance and are intensity normalized.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fluorescence spectra for an 11-m vertical line scan on the left side of the northern portal as indicated in Fig. 1. Spectra are shown in a three-dimensional surface plot.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simultaneous recording of fluorescence images taken through (a) 448- and (b) 600-nm filters (two-channel method). The image of the ratio I(600 nm)/I(448 nm) is shown in (d). Red corresponds to the highest intensity; yellow and green, to successively lower intensities; and blue and black indicate the lowest values, as indicated in the color bars.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Demonstration of chlorophyll imaging. All pixels that contain even a minimal chlorophyll signal have been selected and are indicated in gray shades (top left). A PCA is performed in the spectral region 650–740 nm for the chlorophyll signal feature, separated from the sloping stone fluorescence background. The two first PC vectors (PC1 and PC2) for the spectral material are shown at the top right, together with two examples of detected spectra. Finally, images of the scores of the two principal components are shown in gray scale: PC1 (bottom left) and PC2 (bottom right). Here higher intensity is indicated by a lighter color.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The three first principal components (PC1–PC3) and their normalized score plots for all nonchlorophyll pixels. The individual spectra can be expressed as a weighted sum of principal components. The averaged spectral shapes from five characteristic locations along the PC2–PC1 and PC3–PC1 score plots are shown (A–E).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

False-colored image with pixels superimposed upon a photograph of the northern portal. Areas with different characteristics can be identified. Thus, pixels with 12th-century stone characteristics are shown in blue–indigo, and those with 19th-century characteristics are shown in green. The violet pixels correspond to areas that exhibit iron-ion quenching. The normalized chlorophyll pixels from Fig. 8 have been merged in red color tones: Pixels with a large amount of biodeteriogen PC1 are light red; those with a high PC2 score, darker red; and those with both PC1 and PC2 low are shown in a very dark red color.

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