Abstract

We present the retrieval of temperature and O3 volume mixing ratio profiles in the middle atmosphere from a single strong O3 line. We performed the study using simulated limb-sounding measurements in the frame of the submillimeter radiometer (SMR) instrument that will be carried by the Odin satellite that is due to be launched in early 2001. This study is interesting for the Odin SMR data analysis because we first provide additional temperature measurements, and second reduce significantly the O3 retrieval error that is due to the temperature and pressure uncertainties. Nonlinear retrievals are performed to retrieve the O3, CO, H2O, and temperature profiles simultaneously from the spectral band 576.27–576.67 GHz. The pressure profile is deduced from the hydrostatic equilibrium equation after each iteration. Temperature and O3 can be retrieved throughout the stratosphere from 15–50 and 20–50 km, respectively, with a vertical resolution of 3 km. The altitude domain corresponds to the parts of the atmosphere where the signal intensity saturates in some spectrometer channels. A total error of 4–6 K has been found in the temperature profile, mainly because of the instrumental thermal noise and to a lesser extent the calibration. The total error in the O3 profile is 5–10% and is dominated by the O3 line-broadening parameter. The total error on the retrieved pressure profile is 2–10% because of the errors in calibration and reference pressure.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  2. J. E. P. Eriksson, F. Merino, D. Murtagh, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. I. Radiative transfer and instrumental simulation,” Can. J. Phy. (to be published).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1999 (1)

1996 (3)

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D5 95, 5587–5595 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

C. D. Rodgers, R. L. Jones, J. J. Barnett, “Retrieval of temperature and composition from NIMBUS 7 SAMS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5280–5286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 564–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. C. Gille, F. B. House, “On the inversion of limb radiance measurements. I: Temperature and thickness,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1427–1442 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, P. L.

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, J. J.

C. D. Rodgers, R. L. Jones, J. J. Barnett, “Retrieval of temperature and composition from NIMBUS 7 SAMS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5280–5286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Baron, P.

F. Merino, P. Baron, “A theoretical basis and performance simulations for the simultaneous retrieval of temperature and volume mixing ratio constituents from non-oxygen odin/sub-mm bands,” . (Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, 2000).

P. Baron, P. Ricaud, F. de la Noë, J. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer: II. Retrieval methodology. Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

J. E. P. Eriksson, F. Merino, D. Murtagh, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. I. Radiative transfer and instrumental simulation,” Can. J. Phy. (to be published).

F. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. III. Performance simulations,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

Bühler, S. A.

W. J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. J. Kerridge, S. A. Bühler, A. von Engeln, J. Urban, J. Wohlgemuth, K. Künzi, D. Feist, N. Kämpfer, H. Czekala, “Study on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere sounding,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Burris, J.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carlotti, M.

Chanin, M. L.

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 564–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cofield, R. E.

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cressie, N. A.

N. A. Cressie, Statistics for Spatial Data (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1993).

Czekala, H.

W. J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. J. Kerridge, S. A. Bühler, A. von Engeln, J. Urban, J. Wohlgemuth, K. Künzi, D. Feist, N. Kämpfer, H. Czekala, “Study on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere sounding,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

de la Noë, F.

P. Baron, P. Ricaud, F. de la Noë, J. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer: II. Retrieval methodology. Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

de la Noë, J.

F. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. III. Performance simulations,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

J. E. P. Eriksson, F. Merino, D. Murtagh, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. I. Radiative transfer and instrumental simulation,” Can. J. Phy. (to be published).

Drayson, S. R.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, J. E. P.

P. Baron, P. Ricaud, F. de la Noë, J. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer: II. Retrieval methodology. Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

F. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. III. Performance simulations,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

J. E. P. Eriksson, F. Merino, D. Murtagh, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. I. Radiative transfer and instrumental simulation,” Can. J. Phy. (to be published).

Feist, D.

W. J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. J. Kerridge, S. A. Bühler, A. von Engeln, J. Urban, J. Wohlgemuth, K. Künzi, D. Feist, N. Kämpfer, H. Czekala, “Study on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere sounding,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Ferrare, R. A.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fishbein, E. F.

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Froidevaux, L.

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gelman, M. E.

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gille, J. C.

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, F. B. House, “On the inversion of limb radiance measurements. I: Temperature and thickness,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1427–1442 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Gordley, L. L.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M. R.

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hauchecorne, A.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 564–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hervig, M. E.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

House, F. B.

J. C. Gille, F. B. House, “On the inversion of limb radiance measurements. I: Temperature and thickness,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1427–1442 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Jarnot, R. F.

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. L.

C. D. Rodgers, R. L. Jones, J. J. Barnett, “Retrieval of temperature and composition from NIMBUS 7 SAMS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5280–5286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kämpfer, N.

W. J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. J. Kerridge, S. A. Bühler, A. von Engeln, J. Urban, J. Wohlgemuth, K. Künzi, D. Feist, N. Kämpfer, H. Czekala, “Study on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere sounding,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Keckhut, P.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kerridge, B. J.

W. J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. J. Kerridge, S. A. Bühler, A. von Engeln, J. Urban, J. Wohlgemuth, K. Künzi, D. Feist, N. Kämpfer, H. Czekala, “Study on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere sounding,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Komhyr, W.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kumer, J. B.

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Künzi, K.

W. J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. J. Kerridge, S. A. Bühler, A. von Engeln, J. Urban, J. Wohlgemuth, K. Künzi, D. Feist, N. Kämpfer, H. Czekala, “Study on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere sounding,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Lungu, T. A.

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lyjak, L. V.

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R.

P. Baron, P. Ricaud, F. de la Noë, J. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer: II. Retrieval methodology. Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

F. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. III. Performance simulations,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

Massie, S. T.

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, P. M.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McDermid, I. S.

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McGee, T. J.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mergenthaler, J. L.

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Merino, F.

F. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. III. Performance simulations,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

J. E. P. Eriksson, F. Merino, D. Murtagh, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. I. Radiative transfer and instrumental simulation,” Can. J. Phy. (to be published).

F. Merino, P. Baron, “A theoretical basis and performance simulations for the simultaneous retrieval of temperature and volume mixing ratio constituents from non-oxygen odin/sub-mm bands,” . (Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, 2000).

Merino, J.

P. Baron, P. Ricaud, F. de la Noë, J. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer: II. Retrieval methodology. Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

Miller, A. J.

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Murtagh, D.

P. Baron, P. Ricaud, F. de la Noë, J. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer: II. Retrieval methodology. Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

J. E. P. Eriksson, F. Merino, D. Murtagh, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. I. Radiative transfer and instrumental simulation,” Can. J. Phy. (to be published).

F. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. III. Performance simulations,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

Murtagh, D. P.

D. P. Murtagh, “Overview paper on the Odin satellite,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

Nagatani, R. M.

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Owens, M.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, J.

M. Ridal, J. Pardo, “Microwave temperature and pressure measurements with the Odin satellite. II. retrieval method,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

J. Pardo, M. Ridal, “Microwave temperature and pressure measurements with the Odin satellite. I. observational method,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

Read, W. G.

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reburn, W. J.

W. J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. J. Kerridge, S. A. Bühler, A. von Engeln, J. Urban, J. Wohlgemuth, K. Künzi, D. Feist, N. Kämpfer, H. Czekala, “Study on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere sounding,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Ricaud, P.

J. E. P. Eriksson, F. Merino, D. Murtagh, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. I. Radiative transfer and instrumental simulation,” Can. J. Phy. (to be published).

F. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. III. Performance simulations,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

P. Baron, P. Ricaud, F. de la Noë, J. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer: II. Retrieval methodology. Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

Ridal, M.

M. Ridal, J. Pardo, “Microwave temperature and pressure measurements with the Odin satellite. II. retrieval method,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

J. Pardo, M. Ridal, “Microwave temperature and pressure measurements with the Odin satellite. I. observational method,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

Ridolfi, M.

Roche, A. E.

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D5 95, 5587–5595 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, R. L. Jones, J. J. Barnett, “Retrieval of temperature and composition from NIMBUS 7 SAMS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5280–5286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

Russell, J. M.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmidlin, F.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shippony, Z.

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siddans, R.

W. J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. J. Kerridge, S. A. Bühler, A. von Engeln, J. Urban, J. Wohlgemuth, K. Künzi, D. Feist, N. Kämpfer, H. Czekala, “Study on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere sounding,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Singh, U.

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Singh, U. N.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stone, K.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. E.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Urban, J.

W. J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. J. Kerridge, S. A. Bühler, A. von Engeln, J. Urban, J. Wohlgemuth, K. Künzi, D. Feist, N. Kämpfer, H. Czekala, “Study on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere sounding,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

von Engeln, A.

W. J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. J. Kerridge, S. A. Bühler, A. von Engeln, J. Urban, J. Wohlgemuth, K. Künzi, D. Feist, N. Kämpfer, H. Czekala, “Study on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere sounding,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Wang, M. P.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Waters, J. W.

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wohlgemuth, J.

W. J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. J. Kerridge, S. A. Bühler, A. von Engeln, J. Urban, J. Wohlgemuth, K. Künzi, D. Feist, N. Kämpfer, H. Czekala, “Study on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere sounding,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 564–568 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

J. C. Gille, F. B. House, “On the inversion of limb radiance measurements. I: Temperature and thickness,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1427–1442 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, L. V. Lyjak, D. P. Edwards, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, I. S. McDermid, A. J. Miller, U. Singh, “Accuracy and precision of the cryogenic limb array spectrometer (CLAES) temperature retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9583–9601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, K. Stone, R. E. Thompson, M. E. Gelman, I. S. McDermid, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, M. R. Gross, “Validation of temperature measurements from the halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10277–10285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Fishbein, R. E. Cofield, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, T. A. Lungu, W. G. Read, Z. Shippony, J. W. Waters, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, U. Singh, M. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, M. E. Gelman, R. M. Nagatani, “Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder temperature and pressure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9938–10016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, M. P. Wang, P. M. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during stoic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, R. L. Jones, J. J. Barnett, “Retrieval of temperature and composition from NIMBUS 7 SAMS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5280–5286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. D5 (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D5 95, 5587–5595 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

W. J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. J. Kerridge, S. A. Bühler, A. von Engeln, J. Urban, J. Wohlgemuth, K. Künzi, D. Feist, N. Kämpfer, H. Czekala, “Study on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere sounding,” (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

F. Merino, P. Baron, “A theoretical basis and performance simulations for the simultaneous retrieval of temperature and volume mixing ratio constituents from non-oxygen odin/sub-mm bands,” . (Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, 2000).

N. A. Cressie, Statistics for Spatial Data (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1993).

D. P. Murtagh, “Overview paper on the Odin satellite,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

J. E. P. Eriksson, F. Merino, D. Murtagh, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. I. Radiative transfer and instrumental simulation,” Can. J. Phy. (to be published).

P. Baron, P. Ricaud, F. de la Noë, J. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer: II. Retrieval methodology. Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

F. Merino, D. Murtagh, R. Martin, J. E. P. Eriksson, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, “Studies for the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer. III. Performance simulations,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

J. Pardo, M. Ridal, “Microwave temperature and pressure measurements with the Odin satellite. I. observational method,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

M. Ridal, J. Pardo, “Microwave temperature and pressure measurements with the Odin satellite. II. retrieval method,” Can. J. Phys. (to be published).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrum of the 576.27–576.67-GHz band at a tangent height of 38 km.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Brightness temperature measured in channels covering a range of 150 MHz from the O3 line (dashed curves), together with the atmospheric temperature corrected in brightness temperature (solid curve). Crosses indicate the maximum intensity measured in the channels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) O3 weighting functions at each tangent altitude for a single channel 30 MHz from the O3 line center. This channel experiences saturation below 30 km. (b) Same as (a) but for the temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Averaging kernels for temperature and O3. The measurement response is also plotted (thick curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Ozone retrieval when the TP are retrieved (crosses) and are not retrieved (circles). Also plotted are the true profile (solid curve) and the a priori profile (dashed curve). (b) Relative difference between the retrieved and the true profiles when the TP are retrieved (solid curve), when the TP are not retrieved (circles), and the relative difference between the a priori and the true profiles (dashed curve). The a priori and true TP profiles can be seen in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Temperature retrieval (crosses) from the 576.27–576.67 band when temperature and O3 are retrieved simultaneously. Also plotted are the true profile (solid curve) and the a priori profile (dashed curve). (b) Relative difference between the retrieved and the true temperature profiles (solid curve) and the relative difference between the a priori and the true temperature profiles (dashed curve). (c) Relative difference between the calculated and the true pressure profiles (solid curve) and the relative difference between the a priori and the true pressure profiles (dashed curve).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Relative and (b) absolute errors in the temperature profile that are due to the retrieval model parameters: O3 a priori profile (solid curves), CO a priori profile (dashed–dotted curves), H2O a priori profile (dotted curves), temperature a priori profile (dashed curves), reference pressure (circles), and total error (solid thick curves). (c) Relative and (d) absolute errors in the temperature profile that are due to the forward model parameters and measurement errors: tangent height (solid curves), line-broadening parameter (dashed–dotted curves), thermal noise (squares), calibration (circles), and total error (solid thick curves).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Relative errors in the pressure profile that are due to the retrieval model parameters: O3 a priori profile (solid curve), CO a priori profile (dashed–dotted curve), H2O a priori profile (dotted curve), temperature a priori profile (dashed curve), reference pressure (circles), and total error (solid thick curve). (b) Relative errors in the pressure profile that are due to the forward model parameters and measurement errors: tangent height (solid curve line), line-broadening parameter (dashed–dotted curve), thermal noise (squares), calibration (circles), and total error (solid thick curve).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Errors in the O3 profile. Same as Fig. 7. ppmv, parts per million by volume.

Equations (7)

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y=Fx, b+,
Kmν, θ=yν, θxm xam,
xi+1=xa+Sx-1+KiTSy-1Ki+γiI-1KiTSy-1y-Fxi+Kixi-xa+γixi-xa,
χ2=y-Fxi+1, bTSy-1y-Fxi+1, b)+xi+1-xaTSx-1xi+1-xa
xˆm-xm=Am/m-Ixm-xam+nm Am/nxn-xan+S1Kbb+D1y,
wmi=j Am/mi, j.
pi=p0 exp-MRj=1i gjΔzjTj,

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