Abstract

An experimental study of surface-plasmon polariton scattering by an individual surface protrusion on a silver film has been performed. Both in- and out-of-plane scattering have been investigated by imaging with a photon-scanning tunneling microscope at various probe-to-sample distances. For imaging in close proximity we observed a bright spot with rims on the shadow side, but, for imaging at larger distances, the location of the bright spot shifts away from the direction of the incoming surface-plasmon polariton. We estimate a pronounced peak in the far-field scattering pattern at an angle of ∼20° from the sample plane, which is in good agreement with recent theoretical studies and indicates that the same protrusion could possibly be used for local launching of surface-plasmon polaritons in a reversed illumination configuration.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  2. I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, C. C. Davis, “Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601–1611 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. R. Krenn, R. Wolf, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, “Near-field optical imaging the surface plasmon fields of lithographically designed nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 137, 46–50 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gab structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008–3011 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, “Near-field optical measurement of the surface plasmon field,” Opt. Commun. 96, 225–228 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Surface defect scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: mirrors and light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3509–3511 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. Sánchez-Gil, A. A. Maradudin, “Near-field and far-field scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8359–8367 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Vohnsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Characterization of near-field optical probes,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1792–1797 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, R. Olesen, “Study of shear force technique for near-field microscopy with an uncoated fiber tip,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 207–213 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, “Near-field microscopy of surface-plasmon polaritons: localization and internal interface imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916–17924 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. V. Shchegrov, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (personal communication, 2000).
  18. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gab structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (5)

J. A. Sánchez-Gil, A. A. Maradudin, “Near-field and far-field scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8359–8367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Vohnsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Characterization of near-field optical probes,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1792–1797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Surface defect scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: mirrors and light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3509–3511 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, C. C. Davis, “Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601–1611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, R. Wolf, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, “Near-field optical imaging the surface plasmon fields of lithographically designed nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 137, 46–50 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, R. Olesen, “Study of shear force technique for near-field microscopy with an uncoated fiber tip,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 207–213 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, “Near-field microscopy of surface-plasmon polaritons: localization and internal interface imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916–17924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, “Near-field optical measurement of the surface plasmon field,” Opt. Commun. 96, 225–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, R. Wolf, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, “Near-field optical imaging the surface plasmon fields of lithographically designed nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 137, 46–50 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, “Near-field optical measurement of the surface plasmon field,” Opt. Commun. 96, 225–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bourillot, E.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnaya, E. A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, R. Olesen, “Study of shear force technique for near-field microscopy with an uncoated fiber tip,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 207–213 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gab structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Vohnsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Characterization of near-field optical probes,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1792–1797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, “Near-field microscopy of surface-plasmon polaritons: localization and internal interface imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916–17924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, C. C. Davis, “Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601–1611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erland, J.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gab structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girard, C.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gotschy, W.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, “Near-field optical measurement of the surface plasmon field,” Opt. Commun. 96, 225–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heckl, W. M.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herminghaus, S.

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, “Near-field optical measurement of the surface plasmon field,” Opt. Commun. 96, 225–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gab structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, R. Wolf, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, “Near-field optical imaging the surface plasmon fields of lithographically designed nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 137, 46–50 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lacroute, Y.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leiderer, P.

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, “Near-field optical measurement of the surface plasmon field,” Opt. Commun. 96, 225–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, R. Wolf, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, “Near-field optical imaging the surface plasmon fields of lithographically designed nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 137, 46–50 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gab structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mait, J.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, C. C. Davis, “Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601–1611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

J. A. Sánchez-Gil, A. A. Maradudin, “Near-field and far-field scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8359–8367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marti, O.

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, “Near-field optical measurement of the surface plasmon field,” Opt. Commun. 96, 225–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoni, D. L.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, C. C. Davis, “Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601–1611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, “Near-field optical measurement of the surface plasmon field,” Opt. Commun. 96, 225–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, I. V.

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olesen, R.

B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, R. Olesen, “Study of shear force technique for near-field microscopy with an uncoated fiber tip,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 207–213 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pedarnig, J. D.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pudonin, F. A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, F. A. Pudonin, “Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2823–2826 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

J. A. Sánchez-Gil, A. A. Maradudin, “Near-field and far-field scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by one-dimensional surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8359–8367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Surface defect scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: mirrors and light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3509–3511 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shchegrov, A. V.

A. V. Shchegrov, I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by a circularly symmetric surface defect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4269–4272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Shchegrov, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (personal communication, 2000).

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gab structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, C. C. Davis, “Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601–1611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, C. C. Davis, “Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877–3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, “Near-field microscopy of surface-plasmon polaritons: localization and internal interface imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916–17924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Specht, M.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, “Scanning plasmon near-field microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476–479 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Labeke, D.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vigoureux, J. M.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vohnsen, B.

B. Vohnsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Characterization of near-field optical probes,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1792–1797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Vohnsen, S. Bozhevolnyi, R. Olesen, “Study of shear force technique for near-field microscopy with an uncoated fiber tip,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 207–213 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, C. Girard, “Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, R.

J. R. Krenn, R. Wolf, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, “Near-field optical imaging the surface plasmon fields of lithographically designed nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 137, 46–50 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, “Near-field microscopy of surface-plasmon polaritons: localization and internal interface imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916–17924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Surface defect scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: mirrors and light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3509–3511 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, J. M. Vigoureux, “Theoretical study of near-field surface plasmon excitation, propagation and diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 171, 317–331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, R. Wolf, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, “Near-field optical imaging the surface plasmon fields of lithographically designed nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 137, 46–50 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, “Near-field optical measurement of the surface plasmon field,” Opt. Commun. 96, 225–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the experimental setup used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gray-scale images (4.0 µm × 4.0 µm) of the optical signal recorded (a) with shear-force sensing activated (i.e., by tracing of the topography) and (b) at ∼100-nm probe-to-sample distance. The visibility of the images is (a) ∼35% and (b) ∼99%. The maximum topography variation recorded simultaneously with (a) was ∼20 nm (not shown).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gray-scale images (4.0 µm × 4.0 µm) of simultaneously recorded (a) topography and (b) optical signal. The maximum variation in height is ∼50 nm, and the visibility of the optical image is ∼99%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gray-scale images (2.0 µm × 3.0 µm) of (a) topography and (b)–(e) optical signal. Images (a) and (b) were recorded simultaneously and with the shear-force sensing mechanism activated (except for the upper part of the images); the other images are all optical and were recorded at fixed probe-to-sample distances of approximately (c) ∼40 nm, (d) ∼80 nm, and (e) ∼150 nm. The visibility in all the optical images is ∼99%. All gray-scale images presented in this paper were made in accordance with the scale bar shown here.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Horizontal cross sections through the maxima of the images shown in Figs. 4(b)4(e) with shear-force contact between the probe and the sample (solid curve) and at probe-to-sample distances of ∼40 nm (dashed curve), ∼80 nm (dotted curve), and ∼150 nm (dashed–dotted curve). In (b) the location of the peak of the spot is shown for several probe-to-sample distances z. The star markers refer to the cross sections used in (a), whereas the crosses correspond to sections of intermediate situations (for simplicity not shown). The solid line shows the linear approximation used to estimate the scattering angle; the dotted curve serves only to guide the eye.

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