Abstract

Quantum measurement of amplitude fluctuation is performed by the injection of 2.5-dB amplitude-squeezed light produced by a quantum-well laser into the dark port of a beam splitter as the meter wave. It is shown that the measurements satisfy the criteria of quantum nondemolition measurement. The measured transfer coefficient and the quantum-state preparation ability are 1.07 and 0.8, respectively.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, K. S. Thorne, “Quantum nondemolition mesurements,” Science 209, 547–556 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, M. Reid, D. F. Wall, “Quantum nondemolition detection of optical quadrature amplitudes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2473–2476 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. La Porta, R. E. Slusger, B. Yurke, “Back-action evading measurement of an optical field parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 28–31 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. F. Pereira, Z. Y. Ou, H. J. Kimble, “Back-action evading measurements for quantum nondemolition detection and quantum optical tapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 214–217 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Goobar, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, “Experimental realization of a semiconductor photon number amplifier and a quantum optical tap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2002–2005 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. Roch, J. P. Poizat, P. Grangier, “Sub-shot noise manipulation of light using semiconductor emitters and receivers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2006–2009 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. B. Matsko, S. P. Vyatchanin, “A ponderomotive scheme for QND measurement of quadrature component,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 167–171 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Quantum nondemolition measurements improved by a squeezed meter input,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1243–1246 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Continuous-wave quantum nondemolition measurements with vacuum and nonclassical meter input,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 203–212 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Shapiro, “Optical waveguide tap with infinitesimal insertion loss,” Opt. Lett. 5, 351–353 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. J. Holland, M. J. Collett, D. F. Walls, M. D. Levenson, “Nonideal quantum nondemolition measurements,” Phy. Rev. A 42, 2995–3005 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Realization of a paradigm for quantum measurements: the squeezed light beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 43–46 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. Xie, K. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. C. Kilper, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, D. R. Scifres, “Polarization-dependent noise in photon-number squeezed light generated by quantum-well lasers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1283–1285 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, “Squeezing light from injection-locked quantum well lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951–3954 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, P. J. Edwards, “Sub-shot-noise laser Doppler anemometry with amplitude-squeezed light,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105–3108 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. C. Kilper, A. C. Schaefer, J. Erland, D. G. Steel, “Coherent nonlinear optical spectroscopy using photon-number squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1785–R1788 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Kasapi, S. Lathi, Y. Yamamoto, “Amplitude-squeezed, frequency-modulated, tunable, diode-laser-based source for sub-shot-noise FM spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 22, 478–480 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, E. Giacobino, “Demonstration of high sensitivity spectroscopy with squeezed semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Commun. 140, 146–157 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–269 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Ph. Poizat, P. Grangier, “Experimental realization of a quantum optical tap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 271–274 (1993).
  22. J. P. Poizat, J. F. Roch, P. Grangier, “Characterization of quantum non-demolition measurements in optics,” Ann. Phys. Fr. (Paris) 19, 265–297 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Q. Li, P. J. Edwards, P. Lynam, W. N. Cheung, “Quantum-correlated light from transverse junction stripe laser diodes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 10, 417–421 (1995).

1999 (1)

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. Xie, K. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (7)

S. Kasapi, S. Lathi, Y. Yamamoto, “Amplitude-squeezed, frequency-modulated, tunable, diode-laser-based source for sub-shot-noise FM spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 22, 478–480 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, E. Giacobino, “Demonstration of high sensitivity spectroscopy with squeezed semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Commun. 140, 146–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, S. P. Vyatchanin, “A ponderomotive scheme for QND measurement of quadrature component,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 167–171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Quantum nondemolition measurements improved by a squeezed meter input,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1243–1246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Continuous-wave quantum nondemolition measurements with vacuum and nonclassical meter input,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 203–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, P. J. Edwards, “Sub-shot-noise laser Doppler anemometry with amplitude-squeezed light,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Realization of a paradigm for quantum measurements: the squeezed light beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 43–46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

D. C. Kilper, A. C. Schaefer, J. Erland, D. G. Steel, “Coherent nonlinear optical spectroscopy using photon-number squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1785–R1788 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Kilper, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, D. R. Scifres, “Polarization-dependent noise in photon-number squeezed light generated by quantum-well lasers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1283–1285 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

Y. Q. Li, P. J. Edwards, P. Lynam, W. N. Cheung, “Quantum-correlated light from transverse junction stripe laser diodes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 10, 417–421 (1995).

1994 (2)

J. P. Poizat, J. F. Roch, P. Grangier, “Characterization of quantum non-demolition measurements in optics,” Ann. Phys. Fr. (Paris) 19, 265–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Pereira, Z. Y. Ou, H. J. Kimble, “Back-action evading measurements for quantum nondemolition detection and quantum optical tapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 214–217 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (5)

E. Goobar, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, “Experimental realization of a semiconductor photon number amplifier and a quantum optical tap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2002–2005 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Roch, J. P. Poizat, P. Grangier, “Sub-shot noise manipulation of light using semiconductor emitters and receivers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2006–2009 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, “Squeezing light from injection-locked quantum well lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951–3954 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ph. Poizat, P. Grangier, “Experimental realization of a quantum optical tap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 271–274 (1993).

1990 (1)

M. J. Holland, M. J. Collett, D. F. Walls, M. D. Levenson, “Nonideal quantum nondemolition measurements,” Phy. Rev. A 42, 2995–3005 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. La Porta, R. E. Slusger, B. Yurke, “Back-action evading measurement of an optical field parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 28–31 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, M. Reid, D. F. Wall, “Quantum nondemolition detection of optical quadrature amplitudes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2473–2476 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, K. S. Thorne, “Quantum nondemolition mesurements,” Science 209, 547–556 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Shapiro, “Optical waveguide tap with infinitesimal insertion loss,” Opt. Lett. 5, 351–353 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abram, I.

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjork, G.

E. Goobar, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, “Experimental realization of a semiconductor photon number amplifier and a quantum optical tap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2002–2005 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, K. S. Thorne, “Quantum nondemolition mesurements,” Science 209, 547–556 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bramati, A.

F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, E. Giacobino, “Demonstration of high sensitivity spectroscopy with squeezed semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Commun. 140, 146–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bruckmeier, R.

R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Realization of a paradigm for quantum measurements: the squeezed light beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 43–46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Quantum nondemolition measurements improved by a squeezed meter input,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1243–1246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Continuous-wave quantum nondemolition measurements with vacuum and nonclassical meter input,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 203–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, W. N.

Y. Q. Li, P. J. Edwards, P. Lynam, W. N. Cheung, “Quantum-correlated light from transverse junction stripe laser diodes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 10, 417–421 (1995).

Collett, M. J.

M. J. Holland, M. J. Collett, D. F. Walls, M. D. Levenson, “Nonideal quantum nondemolition measurements,” Phy. Rev. A 42, 2995–3005 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Craig, R.

Edwards, P. J.

Y. Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, P. J. Edwards, “Sub-shot-noise laser Doppler anemometry with amplitude-squeezed light,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, P. J. Edwards, P. Lynam, W. N. Cheung, “Quantum-correlated light from transverse junction stripe laser diodes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 10, 417–421 (1995).

Erland, J.

D. C. Kilper, A. C. Schaefer, J. Erland, D. G. Steel, “Coherent nonlinear optical spectroscopy using photon-number squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1785–R1788 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fayolle, P.

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, M. J.

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, “Squeezing light from injection-locked quantum well lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951–3954 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garreau, J. C.

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giacobino, E.

F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, E. Giacobino, “Demonstration of high sensitivity spectroscopy with squeezed semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Commun. 140, 146–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goobar, E.

E. Goobar, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, “Experimental realization of a semiconductor photon number amplifier and a quantum optical tap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2002–2005 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grangier, P.

J. P. Poizat, J. F. Roch, P. Grangier, “Characterization of quantum non-demolition measurements in optics,” Ann. Phys. Fr. (Paris) 19, 265–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Ph. Poizat, P. Grangier, “Experimental realization of a quantum optical tap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 271–274 (1993).

J. F. Roch, J. P. Poizat, P. Grangier, “Sub-shot noise manipulation of light using semiconductor emitters and receivers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2006–2009 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, H.

R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Realization of a paradigm for quantum measurements: the squeezed light beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 43–46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Continuous-wave quantum nondemolition measurements with vacuum and nonclassical meter input,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 203–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holland, M. J.

M. J. Holland, M. J. Collett, D. F. Walls, M. D. Levenson, “Nonideal quantum nondemolition measurements,” Phy. Rev. A 42, 2995–3005 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jost, V.

F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, E. Giacobino, “Demonstration of high sensitivity spectroscopy with squeezed semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Commun. 140, 146–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, A.

E. Goobar, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, “Experimental realization of a semiconductor photon number amplifier and a quantum optical tap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2002–2005 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasapi, S.

Kilper, D. C.

D. C. Kilper, A. C. Schaefer, J. Erland, D. G. Steel, “Coherent nonlinear optical spectroscopy using photon-number squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1785–R1788 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Kilper, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, D. R. Scifres, “Polarization-dependent noise in photon-number squeezed light generated by quantum-well lasers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1283–1285 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

S. F. Pereira, Z. Y. Ou, H. J. Kimble, “Back-action evading measurements for quantum nondemolition detection and quantum optical tapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 214–217 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

La Porta, A.

A. La Porta, R. E. Slusger, B. Yurke, “Back-action evading measurement of an optical field parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 28–31 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lathi, S.

Levenson, J. A.

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levenson, M. D.

M. J. Holland, M. J. Collett, D. F. Walls, M. D. Levenson, “Nonideal quantum nondemolition measurements,” Phy. Rev. A 42, 2995–3005 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, M. Reid, D. F. Wall, “Quantum nondemolition detection of optical quadrature amplitudes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2473–2476 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, P. J. Edwards, “Sub-shot-noise laser Doppler anemometry with amplitude-squeezed light,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, P. J. Edwards, P. Lynam, W. N. Cheung, “Quantum-correlated light from transverse junction stripe laser diodes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 10, 417–421 (1995).

Lynam, P.

Y. Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, P. J. Edwards, “Sub-shot-noise laser Doppler anemometry with amplitude-squeezed light,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, P. J. Edwards, P. Lynam, W. N. Cheung, “Quantum-correlated light from transverse junction stripe laser diodes,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 10, 417–421 (1995).

Marin, F.

F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, E. Giacobino, “Demonstration of high sensitivity spectroscopy with squeezed semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Commun. 140, 146–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, S. P. Vyatchanin, “A ponderomotive scheme for QND measurement of quadrature component,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 167–171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Quantum nondemolition measurements improved by a squeezed meter input,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1243–1246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Continuous-wave quantum nondemolition measurements with vacuum and nonclassical meter input,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 203–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Realization of a paradigm for quantum measurements: the squeezed light beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 43–46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ou, Z. Y.

S. F. Pereira, Z. Y. Ou, H. J. Kimble, “Back-action evading measurements for quantum nondemolition detection and quantum optical tapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 214–217 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Q.

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. Xie, K. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peng, K.

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. Xie, K. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S. F.

S. F. Pereira, Z. Y. Ou, H. J. Kimble, “Back-action evading measurements for quantum nondemolition detection and quantum optical tapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 214–217 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poizat, J. P.

J. P. Poizat, J. F. Roch, P. Grangier, “Characterization of quantum non-demolition measurements in optics,” Ann. Phys. Fr. (Paris) 19, 265–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Roch, J. P. Poizat, P. Grangier, “Sub-shot noise manipulation of light using semiconductor emitters and receivers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2006–2009 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poizat, J. Ph.

J. Ph. Poizat, P. Grangier, “Experimental realization of a quantum optical tap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 271–274 (1993).

Porzio, A.

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. Xie, K. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reid, M.

M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, M. Reid, D. F. Wall, “Quantum nondemolition detection of optical quadrature amplitudes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2473–2476 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivera, T.

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roch, J. F.

J. P. Poizat, J. F. Roch, P. Grangier, “Characterization of quantum non-demolition measurements in optics,” Ann. Phys. Fr. (Paris) 19, 265–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Roch, J. P. Poizat, P. Grangier, “Sub-shot noise manipulation of light using semiconductor emitters and receivers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2006–2009 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaefer, A. C.

D. C. Kilper, A. C. Schaefer, J. Erland, D. G. Steel, “Coherent nonlinear optical spectroscopy using photon-number squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1785–R1788 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schalke, M.

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Continuous-wave quantum nondemolition measurements with vacuum and nonclassical meter input,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 203–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Continuous-wave quantum nondemolition measurements with vacuum and nonclassical meter input,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 203–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Quantum nondemolition measurements improved by a squeezed meter input,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1243–1246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Realization of a paradigm for quantum measurements: the squeezed light beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 43–46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, K.

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Continuous-wave quantum nondemolition measurements with vacuum and nonclassical meter input,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 203–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Quantum nondemolition measurements improved by a squeezed meter input,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1243–1246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D. R.

Shapiro, J. H.

Shelby, R. M.

M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, M. Reid, D. F. Wall, “Quantum nondemolition detection of optical quadrature amplitudes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2473–2476 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusger, R. E.

A. La Porta, R. E. Slusger, B. Yurke, “Back-action evading measurement of an optical field parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 28–31 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Steel, D. G.

D. C. Kilper, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, D. R. Scifres, “Polarization-dependent noise in photon-number squeezed light generated by quantum-well lasers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1283–1285 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Kilper, A. C. Schaefer, J. Erland, D. G. Steel, “Coherent nonlinear optical spectroscopy using photon-number squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1785–R1788 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, “Squeezing light from injection-locked quantum well lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951–3954 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, H.

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. Xie, K. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thorne, K. S.

V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, K. S. Thorne, “Quantum nondemolition mesurements,” Science 209, 547–556 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vorontsov, Y. I.

V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, K. S. Thorne, “Quantum nondemolition mesurements,” Science 209, 547–556 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vyatchanin, S. P.

A. B. Matsko, S. P. Vyatchanin, “A ponderomotive scheme for QND measurement of quadrature component,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 167–171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wall, D. F.

M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, M. Reid, D. F. Wall, “Quantum nondemolition detection of optical quadrature amplitudes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2473–2476 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walls, D. F.

M. J. Holland, M. J. Collett, D. F. Walls, M. D. Levenson, “Nonideal quantum nondemolition measurements,” Phy. Rev. A 42, 2995–3005 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. Xie, K. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, “Squeezing light from injection-locked quantum well lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951–3954 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The laser diode (LD) and collimating lens are cooled in a cryostat. M1, antireflected mirror; M2 and M3, high-reflection mirrors; PBS, polarized beam splitter; PZT, piezoelectric translator; ISO, optical isolator; AM, amplitude modulator; BS, beam splitter with R = 46%; PD1, PD2, and PD3, photodiodes with 90% quantum efficiency; SA, spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured noise power spectra for the squeezed meter source. Curve a, shot-noise limit (SNL); curve b, noise power of the diode laser with a 9.06-mA dc detector current.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantum correlation for the output signal and meter waves. Curve (1) is the SNL of the output signal wave calibrated by infrared white light with the 8.6-mA dc detector current; curve (2) is the difference noise power spectra of the output signal and meter waves.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral density of the PD1 photocurrent fluctuation. The height of the peak gives the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Noise power spectra of the output signal wave. The SNR of the output signal wave is given by the peak at 21 MHz, which is transferred from the modulation of the input signal wave.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Noise power spectra of the output meter wave. The 21-MHz modulation signal gives the SNR of output meter wave.

Equations (7)

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XsoutXmout=-RTTRXsinXmin.
T=Ts+Tm=SNRsout+SNRmout/SNRsin,
Vs/m=Vsout1-C2δXsoutδXmout,
SNR=Xω2VXω.
T=RR+TVmin+1-η/η+TT+RVmin+1-η/η,
Vs/m=1-η+ηVminT+RVminη+1-η,
SNRsin =SNRPD11-Rm/Rmη1,

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