## Abstract

In fabricating a diffractive optical element the ratio of the
etching depth between the (*n* - 1)th and the
*n*th mask is usually 1/2. We found that the diffraction
efficiency of a diffractive optical element can be improved by as much
as 7.8% if the above ratio (1/2) is not kept constant. For
achieving this improvement the difference between the desired and the
actual diffraction pattern is also used as an objective function for
phase quantization.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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### Equations (3)

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(1)
$${U}_{1}\left(x,y\right)={A}_{1}\left(x,y\right)exp\left[j{\mathrm{\varphi}}_{1}\left(x,y\right)\right],$$
(2)
$${U}_{2}\left({f}_{x},{f}_{y}\right)={A}_{2}\left({f}_{x},{f}_{y}\right)exp\left[j{\mathrm{\varphi}}_{2}\left({f}_{x},{f}_{y}\right)\right].$$
(3)
$${U}_{2}\left({f}_{x},{f}_{y}\right)=\iint {U}_{1}\left(x,y\right)G\left(x,y\right)exp\left[j\frac{2\mathrm{\pi}}{\mathrm{\lambda}L}\left({\mathit{xf}}_{x}+{\mathit{yf}}_{y}\right)\right]\times \mathrm{d}x\mathrm{d}y.$$