Abstract

Two-dimensional binary diffraction gratings can be used in wearable display applications as exit-pupil expanders (EPEs) (or numerical-aperture expanders) to increase the size of the display exit pupil. In retinal scanning displays the EPE is placed at an intermediate image plane between the scanners and the display exit pupil. A focused spot scans across the diffractive EPE and produces multiple diffraction orders at the exit pupil. The overall luminance uniformity across the exit pupil as perceived by the viewer is a function of the uniformity of the diffraction-order intensities, focused-spot size, grating period, scanning-beam profile, and the viewer’s eye-pupil size. The design, the diffraction-order uniformity, and the effects of the grating phase angle on the uniformity for binary diffraction gratings are discussed. Also discussed are the display exit-pupil uniformity and the impact of the diffractive EPE on the point-spread function and the modulation transfer function of the display. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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