Abstract

We suggest what we believe is a new three-dimensional (3-D) camera system for integral photography. Our method enables high-resolution 3-D imaging. In contrast to conventional integral photography, a moving microlens array (MLA) and a low-resolution camera are used. The intensity distribution in the MLA image plane is sampled sequentially by use of a pinhole array. The inversion problem from pseudoscopic to orthoscopic images is dealt with by electronic means. The new method is suitable for real-time 3-D imaging. We verified the new method experimentally. Integral photographs with a resolution of 3760 pixels × 2560 pixels (188 × 128 element images) are presented.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. B. Burckhardt, R. J. Collier, E. T. Doherty, “Formation and inversion of pseudoscopic images,” Appl. Opt. 7, 627–631 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversible donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821–825 (1908).
  3. J. Arai, F. Okano, H. Hoshino, I. Yuyama, “Gradient-index lens-array method based on real-time integral photography for three-dimensional images,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2034–2045 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. E. Ives, “Optical properties of a Lippmann lenticulated sheet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 171–176 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, I. Yuyama, “Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059–2065 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, I. Yuyama, “Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1072–1077 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. B. Burckhardt, “Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 58, 71–76 (1968).
  8. T. Okoshi, “Optimum design and depth resolution of lens-sheet and projection-type three-dimensional displays,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2284–2291 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1598–1603 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, I. Yuyama, “Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1072–1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1971 (1)

1968 (2)

C. B. Burckhardt, R. J. Collier, E. T. Doherty, “Formation and inversion of pseudoscopic images,” Appl. Opt. 7, 627–631 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Burckhardt, “Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 58, 71–76 (1968).

1931 (1)

1908 (1)

M. G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversible donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821–825 (1908).

Arai, J.

Burckhardt, C. B.

C. B. Burckhardt, R. J. Collier, E. T. Doherty, “Formation and inversion of pseudoscopic images,” Appl. Opt. 7, 627–631 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Burckhardt, “Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 58, 71–76 (1968).

Collier, R. J.

Doherty, E. T.

Hoshino, H.

Isono, H.

Ives, H. E.

Lippmann, M. G.

M. G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversible donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821–825 (1908).

Okano, F.

Okoshi, T.

Yuyama, I.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of the 3-D imaging experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Five scanning positions and the corresponding intensity distributions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic for the mapping procedure to generate the IP based on the taken image sequence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Integral photography pickup and reconstruction with the same parameters as the MLA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical (curve 1) and the experimental (curve 2) angle resolution βmax (cpr) versus the viewer–image distance z i according to Eq. (3). The following parameters were used: distance of observer from the MLA, L = 0.2 m; diameter of the microlens, w = 110 µm; MLA pitch, p = 120 µm; center wavelength, λ = 0.5 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity distribution in the plane of the pinhole array. The single pinholes can be distinguished. (The bright spots are due to defects in the pinhole array.)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Element images in comparison with a digital photograph of the object. The number of scanning steps increases from left to right. The resolution in the element images for the 2.5-µm pinhole is lower than for the 1.5-µm pinhole.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured PSF of one microlens–pinhole channel. The measurement was sampled with 200 × 200 scanning steps in an 80 µm × 80 µm range. Measurement wavelength, λ = 0.633 µm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Cross section of the PSF given in Fig. 7. Measured PSF, curve 2; diffraction-limited PSF, curve 1.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

MTF calculated by 2-D Fourier transformation using the measured PSF given in Fig. 7.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Digital IP with an image resolution of 3760 pixels × 2560 pixels with 188 × 128 element images.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Closeup of the IP shown in Fig. 9.

Equations (4)

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βnyq=L2p.
αcd=wλ,
βmax = βnyq minD zi|L-zi|, 1,
D=αcβnyq.

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