Abstract

A spectroscopic gas sensor for nitric oxide (NO) detection based on a cavity ringdown technique was designed and evaluated. A cw quantum-cascade distributed-feedback laser operating at 5.2 µm was used as a tunable single-frequency light source. Both laser-frequency tuning and abrupt interruptions of the laser radiation were performed through manipulation of the laser current. A single ringdown event sensitivity to absorption of 2.2 × 10-8 cm-1 was achieved. Measurements of parts per billion (ppb) NO concentrations in N2 with a 0.7-ppb standard error for a data collection time of 8 s have been performed. Future improvements are discussed that would allow quantification of NO in human breath.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396–1398 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4425–4430 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (3)

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, “High-temperature operation of distributed feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 5.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 396–398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a 9.3 µm quantum cascade laser on a Peltier cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1964–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (11)

J. C. de Jongste, K. Alving, “Gas Analysis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 235–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Wilson, S. Pedersen, “Inflammatory markers in clinical practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 485–515 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, B. Orr, “Ringdown and cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous-wave tunable diode laser and a rapidly swept optical cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Willke, R. L. Byer, “A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347–353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits and Devices. 16, 10–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 666–668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Levenson, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, R. N. Zare, M. J. Lawrence, R. L. Byer, “Frequency-switched heterodyne cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 25, 920–922 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4425–4430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Mürtz, B. Frech, W. Urban, “High-resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10-µm region,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 243–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396–1398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–52 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

E. Culotta, D. E. Koshland, “No news is good news,” Science 258, 1862–1865 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Phillips, “Breath tests in medicine,” Sci. Am. 267, 74–79 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aellen, T.

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a 9.3 µm quantum cascade laser on a Peltier cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1964–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, “High-temperature operation of distributed feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 5.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 396–398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alving, K.

J. C. de Jongste, K. Alving, “Gas Analysis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 235–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4425–4430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 666–668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits and Devices. 16, 10–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396–1398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, “High-temperature operation of distributed feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 5.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 396–398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a 9.3 µm quantum cascade laser on a Peltier cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1964–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Willke, R. L. Byer, “A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347–353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Levenson, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, R. N. Zare, M. J. Lawrence, R. L. Byer, “Frequency-switched heterodyne cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 25, 920–922 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits and Devices. 16, 10–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4425–4430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 666–668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396–1398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 666–668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4425–4430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits and Devices. 16, 10–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396–1398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Culotta, E.

E. Culotta, D. E. Koshland, “No news is good news,” Science 258, 1862–1865 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curl, R. F.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Jongste, J. C.

J. C. de Jongste, K. Alving, “Gas Analysis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 235–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Engeln, R.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a 9.3 µm quantum cascade laser on a Peltier cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1964–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, “High-temperature operation of distributed feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 5.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 396–398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frech, B.

M. Mürtz, B. Frech, W. Urban, “High-resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10-µm region,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 243–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a 9.3 µm quantum cascade laser on a Peltier cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1964–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits and Devices. 16, 10–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4425–4430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 666–668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396–1398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harb, C. C.

Hartman, J. S.

He, Y.

Y. He, B. Orr, “Ringdown and cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous-wave tunable diode laser and a rapidly swept optical cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a 9.3 µm quantum cascade laser on a Peltier cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1964–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, “High-temperature operation of distributed feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 5.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 396–398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

Ilegems, M.

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a 9.3 µm quantum cascade laser on a Peltier cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1964–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kachanov, A. A.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. F.

Köhler, R.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits and Devices. 16, 10–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koshland, D. E.

E. Culotta, D. E. Koshland, “No news is good news,” Science 258, 1862–1865 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosterev, A. A.

Lawrence, M. J.

Levenson, M. D.

Liu, H. C.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a 9.3 µm quantum cascade laser on a Peltier cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1964–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, L.

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mürtz, M.

M. Mürtz, B. Frech, W. Urban, “High-resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10-µm region,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 243–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Keefe, A.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–52 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Oesterle, U.

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a 9.3 µm quantum cascade laser on a Peltier cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1964–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Orr, B.

Y. He, B. Orr, “Ringdown and cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous-wave tunable diode laser and a rapidly swept optical cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paldus, B. A.

Paul, J. B.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–52 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, S.

N. Wilson, S. Pedersen, “Inflammatory markers in clinical practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 485–515 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, R.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M.

M. Phillips, “Breath tests in medicine,” Sci. Am. 267, 74–79 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sadeghi, N.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–52 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, J. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–52 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, S. W.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits and Devices. 16, 10–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4425–4430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 666–668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396–1398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spence, T. G.

Stoeckel, F.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Tredicucci, A.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits and Devices. 16, 10–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Urban, W.

M. Mürtz, B. Frech, W. Urban, “High-resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10-µm region,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 243–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Willke, B.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Willke, R. L. Byer, “A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347–353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, N.

N. Wilson, S. Pedersen, “Inflammatory markers in clinical practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 485–515 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2)

J. C. de Jongste, K. Alving, “Gas Analysis,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 235–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Wilson, S. Pedersen, “Inflammatory markers in clinical practice,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 485–515 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Mürtz, B. Frech, W. Urban, “High-resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10-µm region,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 243–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, “High-temperature operation of distributed feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 5.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 396–398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a 9.3 µm quantum cascade laser on a Peltier cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1964–1966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, B. Orr, “Ringdown and cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous-wave tunable diode laser and a rapidly swept optical cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–52 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Circuits and Devices. (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits and Devices. 16, 10–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Willke, R. L. Byer, “A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347–353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am. (1)

M. Phillips, “Breath tests in medicine,” Sci. Am. 267, 74–79 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

E. Culotta, D. E. Koshland, “No news is good news,” Science 258, 1862–1865 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

K. W. Busch, M. A. Busch, eds., Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy: an Ultratrace-Absorption Measurement Technique, Vol. 720 of the American Chemical Society Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1999).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. r1, current monitor resistor; r2, current-limiting resistor. Two wedged ZnSe windows shown near the reference cell were used to form an etalon for fine frequency calibration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Laser-cavity resonances (spikes) observed during one period of the cavity mirror oscillations. The laser frequency is fixed. (b) A zoom-in of the highest spike from plot (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Sample of experimental data showing repetitive ringdown events. (b) Distribution of the ringdown times at a fixed laser frequency.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser intensity measured after the etalon (two uncoated ZnSe surfaces 42.1 cm apart) when the laser current was reduced to a subthreshold value for 35 µs and then restored. The intensity oscillations represent etalon fringes and show a relaxation of the laser frequency when the QC laser chip heats to a steady-state value. The vertical scale was normalized to make the oscillation amplitude equal to one.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Acquired absorption spectra of NO in N2 with unresolved lines at 1921.599 and 1921.601 cm-1. The solid curve shows a Voigt fit, which resulted in NO concentrations of (a) 622 ppb and (b) 48.4 ppb.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CO2 absorption line at 1921.641 cm-1 detected in ambient air, 60-Torr pressure. The curved baseline is caused by H2O absorption. Solid curve shows the best fit with the Lorentzian function and a quadratic baseline. The fit resulted in a CO2 concentration of 430 ppm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Acquired spectrum of an air sample exhaled through the mouth. The breath sample was initially collected into a plastic bag and tested in the ringdown cell under a reduced pressure of 60 Torr. The 0 of the X scale corresponds to a frequency of 1921.600 cm-1, where the NO absorption is expected. The two arrows indicate the CO2 absorption lines at (1) 1921.641 cm-1 and (2) 1921.575 cm-1. The upper array of dots shows 6000 original data points. Several points corresponding to higher-order transverse cavity modes can readily be distinguished. The lower trace represents averaged data, shifted down to 0.05 µs-1.

Equations (13)

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τ=lc1αl-lnR1R21/2,
τlc1αl+1-R.
α=1c1τ-1τempty
Δα=1cτΔττ,
yi=Agνi,
 gνdν=1.
A=i=1n xiyii=1n xi2,
δA2=1n-1i=1nyi-Axi2i=1n xi2.
1n-1i=1nyi-Axi2=nn-1 σ2σ2,
i=1n xi2=i=1n g2νi1Δν  g2νdν,
δAσΔν g2νdν1/2.
 g2νdν=2π2  w24ν2+w22dν=1πw,
δAL=σπΔνw1/2,

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