Abstract

A high-spectral-resolution lidar can measure vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature, pressure, the aerosol backscatter ratio, and the aerosol extinction coefficient simultaneously. We describe a system with these characteristics. The transmitter is a narrow-band (FWHM of the order of 74 MHz), injection-seeded, pulsed, double YAG laser at 532 nm. Iodine-vapor filters in the detection system spectrally separate the molecular and aerosol scattering and greatly reduce the latter (−41 dB). Operating at a selected frequency to take advantage of two neighboring lines in vapor filters, one can obtain a sensitivity of the measured signal-to-air temperature ratio equal to 0.42%/K. Using a relatively modest size transmitter and receiver system (laser power times telescope aperture equals 0.19 Wm<sup>2</sup>), our measured temperature profiles (0.5–15 km) over 11 nights are in agreement with balloon soundings to within 2.0 K over an altitude range of 2–5 km. There is good agreement in the lapse rates, tropopause altitudes, and inversions. In principle, to invert the signal requires a known density at one altitude, but in practice it is convenient to also use a known temperature at that altitude. This is a scalable system for high spatial resolution of vertical temperature profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, even in the presence of aerosols.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2000

1999

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, and N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).

1997

Z. S. Liu, W. B. Chen, T. L. Zhang, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “An incoherent Doppler lidar for ground-based atmospheric wind profiling,” Appl. Phys. B 46, 561–566 (1997).

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, P. A. Castleberg, and H. Roe, “Middle-atmosphere Doppler lidar using an iodine-vapor edge filter,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1648–1650 (1997).

1996

M. A. White, D. A. Golias, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “Frequency-agile lidar for simultaneous measurement of temperature and radial wind in the mesopause region without sodium density contamination,” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics, A. J. Sedlacek, ed., Proc. SPIE 2833, 136–140 (1996).

1994

1993

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, P. G. Wolyn, D. A. Krueger, T. B. McKee, and C. Y. She, “Profiling temperature, pressure, and aerosol properties using a high spectral resolution lidar employing atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 546–556 (1993).

N. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchecorne, and M.-L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from the ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).

D. A. Krueger, L. M. Caldwell, R. J. Alvarez II, and C. Y. She, “Self-consistent method for determining vertical profiles of aerosol and atmospheric properties using a high spectral resolution Rayleigh-Mie lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 534–545 (1993).

1992

1990

P. Keckhut, M. L. Chanin, and A. Hauchecorne, “Stratosphere temperature measurement using Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5182–5185 (1990).

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “High-spectral-resolution lidar measurement of tropospheric backscatter-ratio with barium atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876–881 (1990).

1984

1983

1982

A. T. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Today 35, 42–48 (1982).

J. Tellinghuisen, “Transition strengths in the visible-infared absorption spectrum of I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2821–2834 (1982).

1981

1980

A. Hauchecorne and M. L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).

1974

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, and R. C. Desai, “On the kinetic model description of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering from molecular gases,” Can. J. Phys. 52, 285–290 (1974).

1972

J. Cooney, “Measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles by Raman backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 108–112 (1972).

M. D. Levenson and A. L. Schawlow, “Hyperfine interactions in molecular iodine,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 946–951 (1972).

1971

G. Fiocco, G. Beneditti-Michelangeli, K. Maischberger, and E. Madonna, “Measurement of temperature and aerosol to molecule ratio in the troposphere by optical radar,” Nature (London) Phys. Sci. 229, 78–79 (1971).

1970

G. S. Kent and R. W. H. Wright, “A review of laser radar measurements of atmospheric properties,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 32, 917–943 (1970).

1954

L. Elterman, “Seasonal trends of temperature, density, and pressure to 67.6 km obtained with the searchlight probing technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 59, 351–358 (1954).

1953

L. Elterman, “Stratospheric temperature profiles obtained from searchlight measurements,” Phys. Rev. 92, 1080 (1953).

Alvarez II, R. J.

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, P. G. Wolyn, D. A. Krueger, T. B. McKee, and C. Y. She, “Profiling temperature, pressure, and aerosol properties using a high spectral resolution lidar employing atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 546–556 (1993).

D. A. Krueger, L. M. Caldwell, R. J. Alvarez II, and C. Y. She, “Self-consistent method for determining vertical profiles of aerosol and atmospheric properties using a high spectral resolution Rayleigh-Mie lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 534–545 (1993).

C. Y. She, R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, and D. A. Krueger, “High-spectral-resolution Rayleigh–Mie lidar measurement of aerosol and atmospheric profiles,” Opt. Lett. 17, 541–543 (1992).

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “High-spectral-resolution lidar measurement of tropospheric backscatter-ratio with barium atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876–881 (1990).

Arie, A.

Behrendt, A.

Beneditti-Michelangeli, G.

G. Fiocco, G. Beneditti-Michelangeli, K. Maischberger, and E. Madonna, “Measurement of temperature and aerosol to molecule ratio in the troposphere by optical radar,” Nature (London) Phys. Sci. 229, 78–79 (1971).

Boley, C. D.

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, and R. C. Desai, “On the kinetic model description of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering from molecular gases,” Can. J. Phys. 52, 285–290 (1974).

Byer, R. L.

Caldwell, L. M.

D. A. Krueger, L. M. Caldwell, R. J. Alvarez II, and C. Y. She, “Self-consistent method for determining vertical profiles of aerosol and atmospheric properties using a high spectral resolution Rayleigh-Mie lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 534–545 (1993).

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, P. G. Wolyn, D. A. Krueger, T. B. McKee, and C. Y. She, “Profiling temperature, pressure, and aerosol properties using a high spectral resolution lidar employing atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 546–556 (1993).

C. Y. She, R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, and D. A. Krueger, “High-spectral-resolution Rayleigh–Mie lidar measurement of aerosol and atmospheric profiles,” Opt. Lett. 17, 541–543 (1992).

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “High-spectral-resolution lidar measurement of tropospheric backscatter-ratio with barium atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876–881 (1990).

Castleberg, P. A.

Chanin, M. L.

P. Keckhut, M. L. Chanin, and A. Hauchecorne, “Stratosphere temperature measurement using Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5182–5185 (1990).

A. Hauchecorne and M. L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).

Chanin, M.-L.

N. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchecorne, and M.-L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from the ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).

Chen, W. B.

Z. S. Liu, W. B. Chen, T. L. Zhang, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “An incoherent Doppler lidar for ground-based atmospheric wind profiling,” Appl. Phys. B 46, 561–566 (1997).

Cooney, J.

J. Cooney, “Atmospheric temperature measurement using a pure rotational Raman lidar: comment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 653–654 (1984).

J. Cooney, “Measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles by Raman backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 108–112 (1972).

Desai, R. C.

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, and R. C. Desai, “On the kinetic model description of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering from molecular gases,” Can. J. Phys. 52, 285–290 (1974).

Eloranta, E. W.

Elterman, L.

L. Elterman, “Seasonal trends of temperature, density, and pressure to 67.6 km obtained with the searchlight probing technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 59, 351–358 (1954).

L. Elterman, “Stratospheric temperature profiles obtained from searchlight measurements,” Phys. Rev. 92, 1080 (1953).

Fiocco, G.

G. Fiocco, G. Beneditti-Michelangeli, K. Maischberger, and E. Madonna, “Measurement of temperature and aerosol to molecule ratio in the troposphere by optical radar,” Nature (London) Phys. Sci. 229, 78–79 (1971).

Friedman, J. S.

Golias, D. A.

M. A. White, D. A. Golias, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “Frequency-agile lidar for simultaneous measurement of temperature and radial wind in the mesopause region without sodium density contamination,” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics, A. J. Sedlacek, ed., Proc. SPIE 2833, 136–140 (1996).

Gustafson, E. K.

Hair, J. W.

Z. S. Liu, W. B. Chen, T. L. Zhang, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “An incoherent Doppler lidar for ground-based atmospheric wind profiling,” Appl. Phys. B 46, 561–566 (1997).

Hauchecorne, A.

N. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchecorne, and M.-L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from the ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).

P. Keckhut, M. L. Chanin, and A. Hauchecorne, “Stratosphere temperature measurement using Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5182–5185 (1990).

A. Hauchecorne and M. L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).

Keckhut, P.

Kent, G. S.

G. S. Kent and R. W. H. Wright, “A review of laser radar measurements of atmospheric properties,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 32, 917–943 (1970).

Krueger, D. A.

M. A. White, D. A. Golias, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “Frequency-agile lidar for simultaneous measurement of temperature and radial wind in the mesopause region without sodium density contamination,” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics, A. J. Sedlacek, ed., Proc. SPIE 2833, 136–140 (1996).

D. A. Krueger, L. M. Caldwell, R. J. Alvarez II, and C. Y. She, “Self-consistent method for determining vertical profiles of aerosol and atmospheric properties using a high spectral resolution Rayleigh-Mie lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 534–545 (1993).

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, P. G. Wolyn, D. A. Krueger, T. B. McKee, and C. Y. She, “Profiling temperature, pressure, and aerosol properties using a high spectral resolution lidar employing atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 546–556 (1993).

C. Y. She, R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, and D. A. Krueger, “High-spectral-resolution Rayleigh–Mie lidar measurement of aerosol and atmospheric profiles,” Opt. Lett. 17, 541–543 (1992).

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “High-spectral-resolution lidar measurement of tropospheric backscatter-ratio with barium atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876–881 (1990).

Lading, L.

Lee, S. A.

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson and A. L. Schawlow, “Hyperfine interactions in molecular iodine,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 946–951 (1972).

Li, Y. H.

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “High-spectral-resolution lidar measurement of tropospheric backscatter-ratio with barium atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876–881 (1990).

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, and N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).

Liu, Z. S.

Z. S. Liu, W. B. Chen, T. L. Zhang, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “An incoherent Doppler lidar for ground-based atmospheric wind profiling,” Appl. Phys. B 46, 561–566 (1997).

Madonna, E.

G. Fiocco, G. Beneditti-Michelangeli, K. Maischberger, and E. Madonna, “Measurement of temperature and aerosol to molecule ratio in the troposphere by optical radar,” Nature (London) Phys. Sci. 229, 78–79 (1971).

Maischberger, K.

G. Fiocco, G. Beneditti-Michelangeli, K. Maischberger, and E. Madonna, “Measurement of temperature and aerosol to molecule ratio in the troposphere by optical radar,” Nature (London) Phys. Sci. 229, 78–79 (1971).

Matsui, I.

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, and N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).

McKee, T. B.

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, P. G. Wolyn, D. A. Krueger, T. B. McKee, and C. Y. She, “Profiling temperature, pressure, and aerosol properties using a high spectral resolution lidar employing atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 546–556 (1993).

Michaelis, W.

Nedeljkovic, N.

N. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchecorne, and M.-L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from the ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).

Piironen, P.

Reichardt, J.

Roe, H.

Roesler, F. L.

Schawlow, A. L.

M. D. Levenson and A. L. Schawlow, “Hyperfine interactions in molecular iodine,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 946–951 (1972).

Schiller, S.

Schwiesow, R. L.

She, C. Y.

Z. S. Liu, W. B. Chen, T. L. Zhang, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “An incoherent Doppler lidar for ground-based atmospheric wind profiling,” Appl. Phys. B 46, 561–566 (1997).

M. A. White, D. A. Golias, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “Frequency-agile lidar for simultaneous measurement of temperature and radial wind in the mesopause region without sodium density contamination,” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics, A. J. Sedlacek, ed., Proc. SPIE 2833, 136–140 (1996).

C. Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous 3-frequency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1771–1774 (1994).

D. A. Krueger, L. M. Caldwell, R. J. Alvarez II, and C. Y. She, “Self-consistent method for determining vertical profiles of aerosol and atmospheric properties using a high spectral resolution Rayleigh-Mie lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 534–545 (1993).

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, P. G. Wolyn, D. A. Krueger, T. B. McKee, and C. Y. She, “Profiling temperature, pressure, and aerosol properties using a high spectral resolution lidar employing atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 546–556 (1993).

C. Y. She, R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, and D. A. Krueger, “High-spectral-resolution Rayleigh–Mie lidar measurement of aerosol and atmospheric profiles,” Opt. Lett. 17, 541–543 (1992).

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “High-spectral-resolution lidar measurement of tropospheric backscatter-ratio with barium atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876–881 (1990).

H. Shimizu, S. A. Lee, and C. Y. She, “High spectral resolution lidar system with atomic blocking filters for measuring atmospheric parameters,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1373–1381 (1983).

Shimizu, H.

Shipley, S. T.

Sroga, J. T.

Sugimoto, N.

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, and N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).

Tauger, J. T.

Tellinghuisen, J.

J. Tellinghuisen, “Transition strengths in the visible-infared absorption spectrum of I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2821–2834 (1982).

Tenti, G.

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, and R. C. Desai, “On the kinetic model description of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering from molecular gases,” Can. J. Phys. 52, 285–290 (1974).

Tepley, C. A.

Tracy, D. H.

Voss, E.

Weinman, J. A.

Weitkamp, C.

White, M. A.

M. A. White, D. A. Golias, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “Frequency-agile lidar for simultaneous measurement of temperature and radial wind in the mesopause region without sodium density contamination,” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics, A. J. Sedlacek, ed., Proc. SPIE 2833, 136–140 (1996).

Wolyn, P. G.

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, P. G. Wolyn, D. A. Krueger, T. B. McKee, and C. Y. She, “Profiling temperature, pressure, and aerosol properties using a high spectral resolution lidar employing atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 546–556 (1993).

Wright, R. W. H.

G. S. Kent and R. W. H. Wright, “A review of laser radar measurements of atmospheric properties,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 32, 917–943 (1970).

Young, A. T.

A. T. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Today 35, 42–48 (1982).

Yu, J. R.

C. Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous 3-frequency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1771–1774 (1994).

Zhang, T. L.

Z. S. Liu, W. B. Chen, T. L. Zhang, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “An incoherent Doppler lidar for ground-based atmospheric wind profiling,” Appl. Phys. B 46, 561–566 (1997).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

Z. S. Liu, W. B. Chen, T. L. Zhang, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “An incoherent Doppler lidar for ground-based atmospheric wind profiling,” Appl. Phys. B 46, 561–566 (1997).

Can. J. Phys.

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, and R. C. Desai, “On the kinetic model description of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering from molecular gases,” Can. J. Phys. 52, 285–290 (1974).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

C. Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous 3-frequency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1771–1774 (1994).

A. Hauchecorne and M. L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

N. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchecorne, and M.-L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from the ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).

J. Appl. Meteorol.

J. Cooney, “Measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles by Raman backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 108–112 (1972).

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, and C. Y. She, “High-spectral-resolution lidar measurement of tropospheric backscatter-ratio with barium atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876–881 (1990).

R. J. Alvarez II, L. M. Caldwell, P. G. Wolyn, D. A. Krueger, T. B. McKee, and C. Y. She, “Profiling temperature, pressure, and aerosol properties using a high spectral resolution lidar employing atomic blocking filters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 546–556 (1993).

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