Abstract

The complete design and flight test of the next-generation Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL-3) is detailed. The application of new technology has allowed major reductions in weight, volume, and power requirements compared with the earlier AOL sensor. Subsystem designs for the new AOL sensor include new technology in fiber optics, spectrometer detector optical train, miniature photomultiplier modules, dual-laser wavelength excitation from a single small laser source, and new receiver optical configuration. The new design reduced telescope size and maintained the same principal fluorescence and water Raman bands but essentially retained a comparable measurement accuracy. A major advancement is the implementation of single-laser simultaneous excitation of two physically separate oceanic target areas: one stimulated by 532 nm and the other by 355 nm. Backscattered fluorescence and Raman signals from both targets are acquired simultaneously by use of the same telescope and spectrometer–detector system. Two digital oscilloscopes provide temporal- and depth-resolved data from each of seven spectral emission bands.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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1999

1998

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Airborne laser-induced oceanic chlorophyll fluorescence: solar-induced quenching corrections by use of concurrent downwelling irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3222–3226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1073–1082 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Airborne bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1083–1092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, T. M. Kana, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Spatial variability of oceanic phycoerythrin spectral types derived from airborne laser-induced fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4744–4749 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “The influence of chlorophyll pigment upon upwelling spectral radiances from the North Atlantic Ocean: an active-passive correlation spectroscopy study,” Deep-Sea Res. 40, 265–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986

1983

1981

Anderson, A.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barber, R. T.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berry, R. E.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1073–1082 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Airborne bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1083–1092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement. 1: Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bidigare, R.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blough, N. V.

Bristow, M. P. F.

Buck, K.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bundy, D.

Chavez, F.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chisholm, S. W.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coale, K. H.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coley, T. L.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Collins, C.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Elrod, V. A.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, P.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fitzwater, S. E.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Friederich, G.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Furtek, R.

Gordon, R. M.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Greene, R.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hatton, A.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Airborne laser-induced oceanic chlorophyll fluorescence: solar-induced quenching corrections by use of concurrent downwelling irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3222–3226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, T. M. Kana, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Spatial variability of oceanic phycoerythrin spectral types derived from airborne laser-induced fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4744–4749 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Airborne bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1083–1092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1073–1082 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, M. E. Williams, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in continental margins,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24847–24854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Oceanic radiance model development and validation: application of airborne active–passive ocean color spectral measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3468–3476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “The influence of chlorophyll pigment upon upwelling spectral radiances from the North Atlantic Ocean: an active-passive correlation spectroscopy study,” Deep-Sea Res. 40, 265–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement. 1: Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement. 2: Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive correlation spectroscopy: a new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571–2583 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, “Oil film thickness using airborne laser-induced oil fluorescence backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3316–3318 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, C. N.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. S.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kana, T. M.

Kolber, Z.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Latasa, M.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Law, C. S.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liddicoat, M. I.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lindley, S.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ling, R.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liss, P.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, P. E.

Martin, J. H.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Millero, F. J.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, R.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Airborne bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1083–1092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1073–1082 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, D.

Nightingale, P.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nowicki, J. L.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ondrused, M.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, C.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, T.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stockel, J.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, T. M. Kana, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Spatial variability of oceanic phycoerythrin spectral types derived from airborne laser-induced fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4744–4749 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Airborne laser-induced oceanic chlorophyll fluorescence: solar-induced quenching corrections by use of concurrent downwelling irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3222–3226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1073–1082 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Airborne bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1083–1092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, M. E. Williams, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in continental margins,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24847–24854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Oceanic radiance model development and validation: application of airborne active–passive ocean color spectral measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3468–3476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “The influence of chlorophyll pigment upon upwelling spectral radiances from the North Atlantic Ocean: an active-passive correlation spectroscopy study,” Deep-Sea Res. 40, 265–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive correlation spectroscopy: a new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571–2583 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement. 2: Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement. 1: Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanner, S. J.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tindale, N. W.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Turner, S.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Van Scoy, K.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vodacek, A.

F. E. Hoge, M. E. Williams, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in continental margins,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24847–24854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, A. J.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Williams, M. E.

F. E. Hoge, M. E. Williams, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in continental margins,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24847–24854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wright, C. W.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Airborne laser-induced oceanic chlorophyll fluorescence: solar-induced quenching corrections by use of concurrent downwelling irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3222–3226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, T. M. Kana, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Spatial variability of oceanic phycoerythrin spectral types derived from airborne laser-induced fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4744–4749 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1073–1082 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Airborne bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1083–1092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yao, W.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yungel, J.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yungel, J. K.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Airborne laser-induced oceanic chlorophyll fluorescence: solar-induced quenching corrections by use of concurrent downwelling irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3222–3226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, T. M. Kana, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Spatial variability of oceanic phycoerythrin spectral types derived from airborne laser-induced fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4744–4749 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1073–1082 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Airborne bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1083–1092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, M. E. Williams, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in continental margins,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24847–24854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Oceanic radiance model development and validation: application of airborne active–passive ocean color spectral measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3468–3476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement. 2: Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Z.

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

M. P. F. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of water Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement. 1: Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active–passive airborne ocean color measurement. 2: Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active–passive correlation spectroscopy: a new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571–2583 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Airborne laser-induced oceanic chlorophyll fluorescence: solar-induced quenching corrections by use of concurrent downwelling irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3222–3226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Oceanic radiance model development and validation: application of airborne active–passive ocean color spectral measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3468–3476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, T. M. Kana, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Spatial variability of oceanic phycoerythrin spectral types derived from airborne laser-induced fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4744–4749 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, “Oil film thickness using airborne laser-induced oil fluorescence backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3316–3318 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deep-Sea Res.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “The influence of chlorophyll pigment upon upwelling spectral radiances from the North Atlantic Ocean: an active-passive correlation spectroscopy study,” Deep-Sea Res. 40, 265–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. II

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1073–1082 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, R. E. Berry, R. Mitchell, “Airborne bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1083–1092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, M. E. Williams, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in continental margins,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24847–24854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

J. H. Martin, K. H. Coale, K. S. Johnson, S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. J. Tanner, C. N. Hunter, V. A. Elrod, J. L. Nowicki, T. L. Coley, R. T. Barber, S. Lindley, A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. I. Liddicoat, R. Ling, T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidigare, M. Ondrused, M. Latasa, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J. Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S. W. Chisholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightingale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, N. W. Tindale, “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration showing the basic concept of the AOL-3 sensor. The transmitter portion features a dichroic for spatial separation of the temporally concurrent 355- and 532-nm laser output followed by individual steering mirrors (details not shown) to direct the separated beams to respective oceanic targets separated by ∼1 m from the 150-m altitude where the AOL is generally flown. The receiver focal plane containing both laser-illuminated targets is focused onto the input slit of the monochromator. The monochromator output is viewed by custom-made optical fibers that terminate at the face of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) modules. The analog output from the PMT modules is coupled directly to two four-channel digital LeCroy 9354C digital oscilloscopes. The ancillary passive sensors (ADAS, CDAS, and IR radiometer) support both the application of the laser data and the interpretation of the oceanographic findings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the AOL-3 sensor showing the sensor transceiver installed onboard the Twin Otter aircraft.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Flight track of the NASA C-130 aircraft with the AOL-2 and AOL-3 sensors onboard during a sensor evaluation flight from Bermuda to the Delaware Bay (thick curve) and the cruise track of the University of Delaware’s R/V Cape Henlopen (thin curve) showing the locations where samples for chlorophyll extraction were acquired (triangles).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Panels showing profiles of chlorophyll, PE, CDOM, and SST acquired with the AOL-2 system. The profiles are plotted as a function of longitude along the flight track shown in Fig. 3. (a) Chlorophyll is plotted in units of micrograms per liter, (b) PE is ratioed to the water Raman backscattering from the 650-nm channel, and (c) CDOM is ratioed to the water Raman backscattering signal at 650 nm. The smaller panels provide a scale change to accommodate the wide dynamic range in the data between pelagic and coastal waters. Extracted chlorophyll values are shown as small triangles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 except for the AOL-3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scatter diagram showing the general agreement between the older AOL-2 sensor and it replacement AOL-3 sensor. (a) Chlorophyll F/R from AOL-3 (y axis) plotted versus chlorophyll F/R from the AOL-2 sensor (x axis). (b) and (c) Similar presentations are shown for CDOM F/R and PE F/R, respectively.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Receiver Spectral Bands in the AOL-3 Sensora

Tables Icon

Table 2 Laser Transmitter Specifications for the AOL-3

Tables Icon

Table 3 Fluorosensor Receiver Specifications for the AOL-3

Tables Icon

Table 4 Data System Specifications for AOL-3

Tables Icon

Table 5 System Operating Parameters for the AOL-3 Sensor

Metrics